Publications by authors named "Robert D Legare"

15 Publications

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TBCRC 031: Randomized Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Cisplatin Versus Doxorubicin-Cyclophosphamide in Germline Carriers With HER2-Negative Breast Cancer (the INFORM trial).

J Clin Oncol 2020 05 25;38(14):1539-1548. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Purpose: Platinum compounds have activity in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in germline mutation carriers ( carriers). Limited data exist for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (+) breast cancer among carriers. INFORM is a randomized, multicenter, phase II trial comparing pathologic complete response (pCR) rates (ypT0/is, N0) after neoadjuvant single-agent cisplatin (CDDP) versus doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide (AC) in carriers with stage I-III human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. Secondary objectives included residual cancer burden scores (RCB) of 0 or 1 (combined) and toxicity. The goal was to determine whether pCR was ≥ 20% higher with CDDP than AC.

Patients And Methods: carriers with cT1-3 (≥ 1.5 cm), cN0-3 HER2-negative breast cancer were randomly assigned to preoperative CDDP (75 mg/m every 3 weeks × 4 doses) or AC (doxorubicin 60 mg/m; cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m every 2-3 weeks × 4 doses) followed by surgery. Pathologic responses were confirmed by central review.

Results: A total of 118 patients were randomly assigned; 117 were included in outcome analyses. Mean age was 42 years (range, 24-73 years); 69% were +, 30% were +, and 2% had both mutations. Clinical stage was I for 19%, II for 63%, and III for 18%; 45% had nodal involvement at baseline. Seventy percent had TNBC. Clinical and tumor characteristics were well matched between treatment arms. The pCR rate was 18% with CDDP and 26% with AC, yielding a risk ratio (RR) of 0.70 (90% CI, 0.39 to 1.2). The risk of RCB 0 or 1 (RCB 0/1) was 33% with CDDP and 46% with AC (RR, 0.73; 90% CI, 0.50 to 1.1). Both regimens were generally well tolerated without unexpected toxicities.

Conclusion: pCR or RCB 0/1 is not significantly higher with CDDP than with AC in carriers with stage I-III HER2-negative breast cancer for both TNBC and ER+/HER2-negative disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.03292DOI Listing
May 2020

Advances in Medical Management of Early Stage and Advanced Breast Cancer: 2015.

Semin Radiat Oncol 2016 Jan 4;26(1):59-70. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

Program in Women׳s Oncology, Breast Health Center, Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island and Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI. Electronic address:

Standard management of early stage and advanced breast cancer has been improved over the past few years by knowledge gained about the biology of the disease, results from a number of eagerly anticipated clinical trials and the development of novel agents that offer our patients options for improved outcomes or reduced toxicity or both. This review highlights recent major developments affecting the systemic therapy of breast cancer, broken down by clinically relevant patient subgroups and disease stage, and briefly discusses some of the ongoing controversies in the treatment of breast cancer and promising therapies on the horizon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semradonc.2015.09.005DOI Listing
January 2016

Targeted T-cell Therapy in Stage IV Breast Cancer: A Phase I Clinical Trial.

Clin Cancer Res 2015 May 16;21(10):2305-14. Epub 2015 Feb 16.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Roger Williams Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island.

Purpose: This study reports a phase I immunotherapy trial in 23 women with metastatic breast cancer consisting of eight infusions of anti-CD3 × anti-HER2 bispecific antibody (HER2Bi) armed anti-CD3-activated T cells (ATC) in combination with low-dose IL-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to determine safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), technical feasibility, T-cell trafficking, immune responses, time to progression, and overall survival (OS).

Experimental Design: ATC were expanded from leukapheresis product using IL2 and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody and armed with HER2Bi. In 3+3 dose escalation design, groups of 3 patients received 5, 10, 20, or 40 × 10(9) armed ATC (aATC) per infusion.

Results: There were no dose-limiting toxicities and the MTD was not defined. It was technically feasible to grow 160 × 10(9) ATC from a single leukapheresis. aATC persisted in the blood for weeks and trafficked to tumors. Infusions of aATC induced anti-breast cancer responses and increases in immunokines. At 14.5 weeks after enrollment, 13 of 22 (59.1%) evaluable patients had stable disease and 9 of 22 (40.9%) had progressive disease. The median OS was 36.2 months for all patients, 57.4 months for HER2 3+ patients, and 27.4 months for HER2 0-2+ patients.

Conclusions: Targeting HER2(+) and HER2(-) tumors with aATC infusions induced antitumor responses, increases in Th1 cytokines, and IL12 serum levels that suggest that aATC infusions vaccinated patients against their own tumors. These results provide a strong rationale for conducting phase II trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4433762PMC
May 2015

Is tumor board relevant?

Breast J 2013 May-Jun;19(3):351-3. Epub 2013 Apr 12.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbj.12118DOI Listing
November 2013

Genetics: predisposition and management.

Authors:
Robert D Legare

Clin Obstet Gynecol 2011 Mar;54(1):180-90

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Medicine, Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GRF.0b013e31820940d1DOI Listing
March 2011

Prevalence and predictors of loss of wild type BRCA1 in estrogen receptor positive and negative BRCA1-associated breast cancers.

Breast Cancer Res 2010 16;12(6):R95. Epub 2010 Nov 16.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Introduction: The majority of breast cancers that occur in BRCA1 mutation carriers (BRCA1 carriers) are estrogen receptor-negative (ER-). Therefore, it has been suggested that ER negativity is intrinsic to BRCA1 cancers and reflects the cell of origin of these tumors. However, approximately 20% of breast cancers that develop in BRCA1 carriers are ER-positive (ER+); these cancers are more likely to develop as BRCA1 carriers age, suggesting that they may be incidental and unrelated to BRCA1 deficiency. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of loss of heterozygosity due to loss of wild type (wt) BRCA1 in ER+ and ER- breast cancers that have occurred in BRCA1 carriers and to determine whether age at diagnosis or any pathologic features or biomarkers predict for loss of wt BRCA1 in these breast cancers.

Methods: Relative amounts of mutated and wt BRCA1 DNA were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction performed on laser capture microdissected cancer cells from 42 ER+ and 35 ER- invasive breast cancers that developed in BRCA1 carriers. BRCA1 gene methylation was determined on all cancers in which sufficient DNA was available. Immunostains for cytokeratins (CK) 5/6, 14, 8 and 18, epidermal growth factor receptor and p53 were performed on paraffin sections from tissue microarrays containing these cancers.

Results: Loss of wt BRCA1 was equally frequent in ER+ and ER- BRCA1-associated cancers (81.0% vs 88.6%, respectively; P = 0.53). One of nine cancers tested that retained wt BRCA1 demonstrated BRCA1 gene methylation. Age at diagnosis was not significantly different between first invasive ER+ BRCA1 breast cancers with and without loss of wt BRCA1 (mean age 45.2 years vs 50.1 years, respectively; P = 0.51). ER+ BRCA1 cancers that retained wt BRCA1 were significantly more likely than those that lost wt BRCA1 to have a low mitotic rate (odds ratio (OR), 5.16; 95% CI, 1.91 to ∞). BRCA1 cancers with loss of wt BRCA1 were more likely to express basal cytokeratins CK 5/6 or 14 (OR 4.7; 95% CI, 1.85 to ∞).

Conclusions: We found no difference in the prevalence of loss of wt BRCA1 between ER+ and ER- invasive BRCA1-associated breast cancers. Our findings suggest that many of the newer therapies for BRCA1 breast cancers designed to exploit the BRCA1 deficiency in these cancers may also be effective in ER+ cancers that develop in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/bcr2776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3046438PMC
September 2011

Estrogen receptor positive breast cancers in BRCA1 mutation carriers: clinical risk factors and pathologic features.

Breast Cancer Res 2010 11;12(1):R12. Epub 2010 Feb 11.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Introduction: Most breast cancers that occur in women with germline BRCA1 mutations are estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) and also typically lack expression of progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 overexpression. We undertook a study to assess the clinical factors that predict for an estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers and to characterize the pathologic features of these tumors.

Methods: Clinical characteristics of BRCA1 carriers with 58 ER+ and 114 ER- first invasive breast cancers were compared. Pathologic features of BRCA1 ER+ cancers were compared to those of BRCA1 ER- cancers and to age-matched ER+ sporadic cancers.

Results: BRCA1 carriers aged > or = 50 at diagnosis of first invasive breast cancer were more likely to have an ER+ cancer compared to those aged < 50 (57% vs 29%, P = 0.005). ER+ BRCA1 cancers were less likely than ER- BRCA1 cancers to have "BRCA-associated" features such as high mitotic activity, geographic necrosis/fibrotic focus, and pushing margins (RR 0.06, 0.22, 0.24; P < 0.001, 0.02, 0.03 respectively). When compared to sporadic ER+ cancers, ER+ BRCA1 cancers were more often of invasive ductal type (RR 2.4, P = 0.03), with a high mitotic rate (RR 5.0, P = 0.006) and absent or mild lymphocytic infiltrate (RR 10.2, P = 0.04).

Conclusions: BRCA1 carriers who are older at first breast cancer diagnosis are more likely to have ER+ tumors than younger BRCA1 carriers. These ER+ cancers appear pathologically "intermediate" between ER- BRCA1 cancers and ER+ sporadic breast cancers raising the possibility that either some ER+ BRCA1 cancers are incidental or that there is a unique mechanism by which these cancers develop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/bcr2478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2880433PMC
August 2010

Addressing clinical trials: can the multidisciplinary Tumor Board improve participation? A study from an academic women's cancer program.

Gynecol Oncol 2010 Mar 29;116(3):295-300. Epub 2009 Dec 29.

Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Objective: The Tumor Board (TB) allows for an interdisciplinary approach to cancer treatment designed to encourage evidence-based treatment. However, its role in facilitating clinical trial participation has not been reported. We aimed to determine whether a prospective TB is an effective strategy for trial recruitment and to identify steps within the TB process that facilitate discussion of trial eligibility and optimize accrual.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of women presented to Gynecologic Oncology TB between March and December 2008. Patient demographics, TB recommendations, and post-TB patient discussions were abstracted. These were compared to data derived from the Department of Oncology Research to determine research team awareness of eligible patients and confirm trial enrollment(s). Data analysis was completed with Chi-square test; risk ratios and confidence intervals were calculated as summary measures.

Results: We reviewed 1213 case presentations involving 916 women. Overall, 358 TB recommendations (30%) identified eligible patients, of which enrollment consisted of 87 (24%) trials (6% therapeutic trials and 18% non-therapeutic trials). Compared to other types of TB recommendations, those involving trials were discussed less frequently at post-TB patient visits (79% vs. 44%). Documentation of trial discussion at the post-TB visit was more likely to result in trial participation, versus solely relying on the research staff to communicate enrollment eligibility with the treating team (RR 2.5, p=0.006).

Conclusions: Patients identified by the TB were 2.5-times as likely to enroll in a clinical trial, but trials were mentioned only 44% of the time. Interventions that facilitate trial discussions during post-TB meetings are needed to improve trial participation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2009.12.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5550766PMC
March 2010

Frequent pathologic complete responses in aggressive stages II to III breast cancers with every-4-week carboplatin and weekly paclitaxel with or without trastuzumab: a Brown University Oncology Group Study.

J Clin Oncol 2009 Oct 31;27(28):4693-700. Epub 2009 Aug 31.

Department of Medicine, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02906, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant carboplatin and weekly paclitaxel +/- weekly trastuzumab in resectable and locally advanced breast cancer.

Patients And Methods: Women with stages IIA to IIIB disease received carboplatin dosed by six times the area under the curve every 4 weeks and paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) weekly for 16 weeks, and weekly trastuzumab was added for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive status. The primary end point was the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate, defined as the absence of invasive disease in the breast and axillary nodes. Postoperative therapies were at the discretion of the treating physicians.

Results: Fifty-five patients were enrolled, and of these 43 had resectable disease. The median age was 54 years (range, 31 to 74 years). Treatment was well tolerated; there were no episodes of febrile neutropenia or grade 4 thrombocytopenia, and there were only two instances of grade 3 peripheral neuropathy. Overall, the pCR rate was 45%. The pCR rate was 43% (95% CI, 28% to 58%) in patients with resectable disease. Higher pCR rates occurred in patients with HER2-positive tumors (76% v 31% for HER2-negative tumors; P = .003), with estrogen receptor (ER) -negative tumors (75% v 27% for ER-positive tumors; P = .001), or with triple-negative tumors (67% v 12% ER-positive and HER2-negative tumors; P = .002). At a median of 28 months postoperation, recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 88.7%. If patients with ER-positive and HER2-negative tumors are excluded from analysis, patients who achieved a pCR were less likely to experience disease recurrence (RFS, 86%) than those who did not achieve a pCR (RFS, 75%).

Conclusion: Neoadjuvant carboplatin and weekly paclitaxel +/- trastuzumab achieve high pCR rates in patients with HER2-positive and triple-negative disease without exposure to an anthracycline. Preliminary RFS results are encouraging but are likely influenced by adjuvant therapy received. Additional study of this regimen in high-risk patients is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.21.4163DOI Listing
October 2009

Cross-sensitivity between paclitaxel and docetaxel in a women's cancers program.

Gynecol Oncol 2006 Jan 28;100(1):149-51. Epub 2005 Sep 28.

Program in Women's Oncology and the Department of Pharmacy, Women and Infants' Hospital, 101 Dudley Street, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

Purpose: With the use of steroid premedication, the incidence of severe hypersensitivity reactions (S-HSR) to paclitaxel is estimated to be 2%. For those who develop a S-HSR to paclitaxel, docetaxel has been employed as an alternative agent though the presence of cross-sensitivity has not been established. We sought to define the incidence of S-HSR to docetaxel following a paclitaxel S-HSR in an academic women's cancer program.

Methods: Patients treated with either paclitaxel (P) or docetaxel (D) between 11/1999 and 8/2004 were identified through our pharmacy database. Records were reviewed and data collected on those patients who had a S-HSR, defined as symptoms for which drug was discontinued, to P, D, or both.

Results: 718 patients received P and 93 received D. 59 received D following treatment with P. The presence of S-HSR for P was 2.2% (16/718 patients) and for D was 9.7% (9/93 patients). 10 patients with S-HSR to P crossed over to D and all nine patients reacting to D had a prior reaction to T for a cross-sensitivity rate of 90% (9/10 patients).

Conclusions: Cross-sensitivity of D after P was 90% at our institution. Given the different vehicles used in P and D, it is likely attributed to the taxane moiety. Caution is required with re-challenge of patients with docetaxel if they have previously reacted to paclitaxel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2005.08.004DOI Listing
January 2006

PKC412 overcomes resistance to imatinib in a murine model of FIP1L1-PDGFRα-induced myeloproliferative disease.

Cancer Cell 2003 May;3(5):459-69

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha causes hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) and is inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib (Gleevec). Imatinib is a potent inhibitor of ABL, ARG, PDGFRalpha, PDGFRbeta, and KIT and induces durable hematologic responses in HES patients. However, we observed relapse with resistance to imatinib as consequence of a T674I mutation in FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha, analogous to the imatinib-resistant T315I mutation in BCR-ABL. We developed a murine bone marrow transplant model of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha-induced myeloproliferative disease to evaluate the efficacy of PKC412, an alternative inhibitor of PDGFRalpha, for the treatment of HES. PKC412 is effective for treatment of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha-induced disease and of imatinib-induced resistance due to the T674I mutation. Our data establish PKC412 as molecularly targeted therapy for HES and other diseases expressing activated PDGFRalpha and demonstrate the potential of alternative kinase inhibitors to overcome resistance in target tyrosine kinases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1535-6108(03)00108-9DOI Listing
May 2003

The identification and management of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.

Med Health R I 2003 Feb;86(2):48-51

Cancer Risk Assessment and Prevention Program, Women & Infants' Hospital, 101 Dudley St., Providence, RI 02905, USA.

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February 2003

A tyrosine kinase created by fusion of the PDGFRA and FIP1L1 genes as a therapeutic target of imatinib in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome.

N Engl J Med 2003 Mar;348(13):1201-14

Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA

Background: Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome involves a prolonged state of eosinophilia associated with organ dysfunction. It is of unknown cause. Recent reports of responses to imatinib in patients with the syndrome suggested that an activated kinase such as ABL, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), or KIT, all of which are inhibited by imatinib, might be the cause.

Methods: We treated 11 patients with the hypereosinophilic syndrome with imatinib and identified the molecular basis for the response.

Results: Nine of the 11 patients treated with imatinib had responses lasting more than three months in which the eosinophil count returned to normal. One such patient had a complex chromosomal abnormality, leading to the identification of a fusion of the Fip1-like 1 (FIP1L1) gene to the PDGFRalpha (PDGFRA) gene generated by an interstitial deletion on chromosome 4q12. FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha is a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase that transforms hematopoietic cells and is inhibited by imatinib (50 percent inhibitory concentration, 3.2 nM). The FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene was subsequently detected in 9 of 16 patients with the syndrome and in 5 of the 9 patients with responses to imatinib that lasted more than three months. Relapse in one patient correlated with the appearance of a T674I mutation in PDGFRA that confers resistance to imatinib.

Conclusions: The hypereosinophilic syndrome may result from a novel fusion tyrosine kinase - FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha - that is a consequence of an interstitial chromosomal deletion. The acquisition of a T674I resistance mutation at the time of relapse demonstrates that FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha is the target of imatinib. Our data indicate that the deletion of genetic material may result in gain-of-function fusion proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa025217DOI Listing
March 2003

Adjuvant therapy in breast cancer.

Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2002 Mar;29(1):201-8, ix

Department of Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

The new millennium ushers in an exciting time in the treatment of early stage breast cancer. Although worldwide incidence statistics have not changed significantly in the past decade, mortality rates have declined. This change seems to be related to public health initiatives that increase early detection and awareness and to an increase in the efficacy of adjuvant treatments, including advances in chemotherapy and the emergence of biologic treatments. Physicians from many specialties participate in multidisciplinary tumor boards. Moreover, patients, families, and advocacy groups have taken on new responsibilities, offering encouragement and support for clinical and basic research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0889-8545(03)00062-7DOI Listing
March 2002

Risk factors for breast cancer.

Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2002 Mar;29(1):159-72

Brown University and the Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island 02905, USA.

Breast cancer is multifaceted, and multiple risk factors most likely contribute to each case of the disease. Through further elucidation of highly penetrant autosomal dominant mutations and, perhaps more importantly, weaker polygenic influences, rational therapies to treat or prevent malignancy may develop. Determining the nature and sequence of genetic changes in premalignant breast tissue may offer the greatest opportunity to alter the process of breast cancer development. Perhaps the most difficult challenge is to understand the environmental risk factors that predispose to breast cancer. Although endogenous factors such as hormonal influence on breast cancer risk have been established, this information has not greatly affected our ability to prevent or significantly reduce the risk of disease. National and regional collaborative efforts are needed to fund research directed at defining how the environment and lifestyle factors affect the risk of cancer development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0889-8545(03)00059-7DOI Listing
March 2002