Publications by authors named "Robert A Burnett"

15 Publications

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Short stay after shoulder arthroplasty does not increase 90-day readmissions in Medicare patients compared with privately insured patients.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: As of January 1, 2021, total shoulder arthroplasty was removed from the Medicare inpatient-only list, reflecting a growing belief in the potential merits of same-day discharge regardless of insurance type. It is yet unknown whether Medicare populations, which frequently have more severe comorbidity burdens, would experience higher complication rates relative to privately insured patients, who are often younger with fewer comorbidities. Given the limited number of true outpatient cohorts available to study, discharge at least by postoperative day 1 may serve as a useful proxy for true same-day discharge, and we hypothesized that these Medicare patients would have increased 90-day readmission rates compared with their privately insured counterparts.

Methods: Data on 4723 total shoulder arthroplasties (anatomic in 2459 and reverse in 2264) from 2 large, geographically diverse health systems in patients having either Medicare or private insurance were collected. The unplanned 90-day readmission rate was the primary outcome, and patients were stratified into those who were discharged at least by postoperative day 1 (short inpatient stay) and those who were not. Patients with private insurance (n = 1845) were directly compared with those with Medicare (n = 2878), whereas cohorts of workers' compensation (n = 198) and Medicaid (n = 58) patients were analyzed separately. Forty preoperative variables were examined to compare overall health burden, with the χ and Wilcoxon rank sum tests used to test for statistical significance.

Results: Medicare patients undergoing short-stay shoulder arthroplasty were not significantly more likely than those with private insurance to experience an unplanned 90-day readmission (3.6% vs. 2.5%, P = .14). This similarity existed despite a substantially worse comorbidity burden in the Medicare population (P < .05 for 26 of 40 factors). Furthermore, a short inpatient stay did not result in an increased 90-day readmission rate in either Medicare patients (3.6% vs. 3.4%, P = .77) or their privately insured counterparts (2.5% vs. 2.4%, P = .92). Notably, when the analysis was restricted to a single insurance type, readmission rates were significantly higher for reverse shoulder arthroplasty compared with total shoulder arthroplasty (P < .001 for both), but when the analysis was restricted to a single procedure (anatomic or reverse), readmission rates were similar between Medicare and privately insured patients, whether undergoing a short or extended length of stay.

Conclusions: Despite a substantially more severe comorbidity profile, Medicare patients undergoing short-stay shoulder arthroplasty did not experience a significantly higher rate of unplanned 90-day readmission relative to privately insured patients. A higher incidence of reverse shoulder arthroplasty in Medicare patients does increase their overall readmission rate, but a similar increase also appears in privately-insured patients undergoing a reverse indicating that Medicare populations may be similarly appropriate for accelerated-care pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.05.013DOI Listing
June 2021

Malnutrition in elective shoulder arthroplasty: a multi-institutional retrospective study of preoperative albumin and adverse outcomes.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Malnutrition is associated with poor postoperative outcomes after knee, hip, and spine surgery. However, whether albumin labs should be part of the routine preoperative workup for shoulder arthroplasty remains understudied. This study investigated the role of preoperative albumin levels in predicting common postoperative adverse outcomes in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty.

Methods: All shoulder arthroplasty cases performed at 2 tertiary referral centers between July 2013 and May 2019 (institution 1) and between June 2007 and Feb 2020 (institution 2) were reviewed. A total of 421 primary and 71 revision elective shoulder arthroplasty cases had preoperative albumin levels recorded. Common demographic variables and relevant Elixhauser comorbidities were pulled. Outcomes gathered included extended (>3 days) postoperative inpatient length of stay (eLOS), 90-day readmission, and discharge to rehab or skilled nursing facility (SNF).

Results: The prevalence of malnutrition (albumin <3.5 g/dL) was higher in the revision group compared with the primary group (36.6% vs. 19.5%, P = .001). Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (P = .013) and increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists score (P = .016) were identified as independent risk factors for malnutrition in the primary group. In the revision group, liver disease was associated with malnutrition (P = .046). Malnourished primary shoulder arthroplasty patients had an increased incidence of eLOS (26.8% vs. 13.6%, P = .003) and discharge to rehab/SNF (18.3% vs. 10.3%, P = .045). On univariable analysis, low albumin had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.34 for eLOS (P = .004), which retained significance in a multivariable model including age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, sex, and body mass index (OR 2.11, P = .03). On univariable analysis, low albumin had an OR of 1.94 for discharge to SNF/rehab (P = .048), but this did not reach significance in the multivariable model. Among revisions, malnourished patients had an increased incidence of eLOS (30.8% vs. 6.7%, P = .014) and discharge to rehab/SNF (26.9% vs. 4.4%, P = .010). In both the primary and revision groups, there was no difference in 90-day readmission rate between patients with low or normal albumin.

Conclusion: Malnutrition is more prevalent among revision shoulder arthroplasty patients compared with those undergoing a primary procedure. Primary shoulder arthroplasty patients with low preoperative albumin levels have an increased risk of eLOS and may have an increased need for postacute care. Low albumin was not associated with a risk of 90-day readmissions. Albumin level merits further investigation in large, prospective cohorts to clearly define its role in preoperative risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.03.143DOI Listing
April 2021

Preoperative Corticosteroid Injections Demonstrate a Temporal and Dose-Dependent Relationship with the Rate of Postoperative Infection Following Total Hip Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2021 06 2;36(6):2033-2037.e1. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL.

Background: Corticosteroid injections (CSI) are commonly used for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip. There is concern, however, that these injections may increase the risk of postoperative infection if a subsequent total hip arthroplasty (THA) is performed. The purpose of the present investigation is to determine the relationship between CSI and the risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and surgical site infections (SSIs) following THA.

Methods: The PearlDiver database was reviewed for patients undergoing THA from 2011 to 2018. Patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis who received an intra-articular hip CSI prior to ipsilateral THA were matched in a sequential 1:1 fashion based on age, gender, and Charlson Comorbidity Index with THA patients who did not receive an injection in the preoperative period. PJI and SSI within 6 months of the surgical procedure were recorded. Statistical analysis included chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression. Results were considered significant at P < .05.

Results: In total, 29,058 patients underwent a hip CSI within 6 months prior to THA. CSI within 4 months of surgery was associated with a higher incidence of PJI at 6-month follow up (1.6% vs 1.1%, P = .040). An injection within 1 month of surgery corresponded to a higher odds of PJI (odds ratio [OR] 1.97) than an injection 4 months prior to surgery (OR 1.24). Furthermore, the quantity of CSI administered within the 3 months prior to THA demonstrated a dose-dependent relationship, with each subsequent injection increasing odds of PJI (OR 1.45-3.59). A similar relationship was observed for SSI.

Conclusion: There appears to be both a time and dose-dependent association of hip CSI and PJI following THA. Surgeons should consider delaying elective THA if a CSI has been administered within the 4 months prior to the planned procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.01.076DOI Listing
June 2021

National Trends in Post-Acute Care Costs Following Total Knee Arthroplasty From 2007 to 2016.

J Arthroplasty 2021 07 15;36(7):2268-2275. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Rothman Orthopaedic Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Post-acute care continues to represent a target for cost savings with increasing popularity of value-based payment models in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Rapid recovery and accelerated rehabilitation protocols have been successful in reducing costs at the institutional level, but national trends are less clear. This study aimed to determine if advancements in perioperative care led to a reduction in post-acute care costs and resource utilization following TKA.

Methods: We reviewed a consecutive series of 79,843 primary TKA patients from the Humana claims dataset from 2007 to 2016. Post-acute care costs included any claims within 90 days of surgery for subacute or inpatient rehabilitation, home health, outpatient or emergency visits, prescription medications, physical therapy, and readmissions. Demographics, episode-of-care and post-acute care costs, readmissions, and discharge disposition were compared. Controlling for demographics and comorbidities, multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare trends in discharge disposition and post-acute care costs.

Results: From 2007 to 2016, the average episode-of-care costs ($46,754 vs $31,856) and post-acute care costs per patient decreased ($20,224 vs $13,498). Rates of discharge to skilled nursing facilities (25.0% vs 22.5%) and inpatient rehabilitation also declined (12.4% vs 2.1%). Readmissions also decreased (8.1% vs 7.1%) saving an average of $324 per patient. When compared to 2007-2012, total costs declined most rapidly after 2013 primarily due to a $3516 (21%) decrease in post-acute spending.

Conclusion: There has been a substantial decline in post-acute care costs and resource utilization following TKA, with the largest decrease occurring following the introduction of Medicare bundled payment models in 2013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.01.021DOI Listing
July 2021

Daily Dose of Preoperative Opioid Prescriptions Affects Outcomes After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2021 07 12;36(7):2302-2306. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL.

Background: The use of preoperative opioids is associated with complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but the dosing threshold that constitutes this risk is not known. The purpose of this study was to identify the preoperative daily opioid dose associated with increased complications after primary TKA.

Methods: Patients who underwent primary TKA in the Humana claims database (2007-2016) with an opioid prescription within 3 months before surgery were identified. All opioids prescribed within 3 months before TKA were converted to milligram morphine equivalents. Patients were stratified based on daily opioid dose: tier 1) <10, tier 2) 10-25, tier 3) 25-50, tier 4) >50 milligram morphine equivalents. Patients were matched to opioid-naïve patients by comorbidities, age, and gender. Emergency department (ED) visits, readmissions, and surgical complications were compared.

Results: A total of 20,019 patients using preoperative opioids were identified and matched. ED visits and readmissions within 90 days were significantly higher in opioid users in all tiers (relative risk (RR) of ED visit: 1.25, 1.28, 1.34, and 1.25, respectively; readmission: 1.13, 1.17, 1.22, and 1.19, respectively). Rates of prosthetic joint infection were increased in opioid users in tiers 2, 3, and 4, and the risk increased in a dose-dependent manner (RR 1.37, 1.39, and 1.50, respectively). Patients in tier 4 had an increased risk of revision surgery (RR 1.44) at 2 years.

Conclusion: Preoperative opioid use is associated with a dose-dependent increase in postoperative complications after TKA. Just two 5mg hydrocodone tablets daily lead to increased ED visits and readmission. Higher doses are associated with an increased risk of prosthetic joint infection and revision surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.01.016DOI Listing
July 2021

Development of Machine Learning Algorithms to Predict Being Lost to Follow-up After Hip Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2020 Oct 22;2(5):e591-e598. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Purpose: To determine factors predictive of patients who are at risk for being lost to follow-up after hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS).

Methods: A prospective clinical repository was queried between January 2012 and October 2017 and all patients who underwent hip arthroscopy for primary or revision FAIS with minimum 2-year follow-up were included. A total of 27 potential risk factors for loss to follow-up were available and tested for predictive value. An 80:20 random sample split of all patients was performed to create training and testing sets. Cross-validation, minimum Bayes information criteria, and adaptive machine-learning algorithms were used to develop the predictive model. The model with the best predictive performance was selected based off of the lowest postestimation deviance between the training and testing samples. The c-statistic is a measure of discrimination. It ranges from 0.5 to 1.0, with 1.0 being perfect discrimination and 0.5 indicating the model is no better than chance. A log-likelihood χ test was used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the logistic regression model.

Results: A total of 2113 patients were included. Inference of minimum Bayes information criteria model indicated that male sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.82,  = .028), non-white race (African American OR 2.41,  = .013; other non-white OR 1.42,  = .042), smoking (OR 1.07,  = .021), and failure to provide a phone number (OR 1.78,  = .032) increased the risk for being lost to follow-up. Furthermore, greater preoperative International Hip Outcome Tool 12-item component questionnaire (OR 1.03,  = .004), and modified Harris Hip Score (OR 1.05,  = .014) scores increased the risk of being lost to follow-up. The c-statistic was 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.701-0.848). The log-likelihood indicated that the regression model as a whole was statistically significant ( = .002).

Conclusions: Patients who are male, non-white, smokers, fail to provide a telephone number, and have greater preoperative modified Harris Hip Score and International Hip Outcome Tool 12-item component questionnaire scores are at an increased risk for being lost to follow-up 2 years after hip arthroscopy for FAIS.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, case control study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asmr.2020.07.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7588627PMC
October 2020

Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatments and Available Formulations.

Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 2020 Jun;13(3):264-280

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Sports Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The use of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) has gained attention due to its potential to expedite healing and the ease of harvesting; however, clinical evidence is limited, and questions concerning optimal method of delivery and long-term outcomes remain unanswered.

Recent Findings: Administration of ADSCs in animal models has been reported to aid in improved healing benefits with enhanced repair biomechanics, superior gross histological appearance of injury sites, and higher concentrations of growth factors associated with healing compared to controls. Recently, an increasing body of research has sought to examine the effects of ADSCs in humans. Several available processing techniques and formulations for ADSCs exist with evidence to suggest benefits with the use of ADSCs, but the superiority of any one method is not clear. Evidence from the most recent clinical studies available demonstrates promising outcomes following treatment of select musculoskeletal pathologies with ADSCs despite reporting variability among ADSCs harvesting and processing; these include (1) healing benefits and pain improvement for rotator cuff and Achilles tendinopathies, (2) improvements in pain and function in those with knee and hip osteoarthritis, and (3) improved cartilage regeneration for osteochondral focal defects of the knee and talus. The limitation to most of this literature is the use of other therapeutic biologics in combination with ADSCs. Additionally, many studies lack control groups, making establishment of causation inappropriate. It is imperative to perform higher-quality studies using consistent, predictable control populations and to standardize formulations of ADSCs in these trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12178-020-09624-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250999PMC
June 2020

Trapezoidal Achilles Tendon Allograft Plug for Revision Quadriceps Tendon Repair With a Large Tendon Defect.

Arthrosc Tech 2019 Sep 11;8(9):e1031-e1036. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, U.S.A.

Revision quadriceps tendon repair presents a challenging problem for the treating surgeon because of associated anatomic defects such as large tendon-gap deficits and preexistent poor tissue quality. Current methods for revision quadriceps tendon repair use tendon autograft, which may predispose to additional morbidity because the repair relies only on soft tissue fixation. In this Technical Note, we describe a technique for revision of a failed quadriceps tendon repair with a large tendon gap using a trapezoidal plug Achilles tendon allograft. This technique constitutes a safe and effective approach to revising failed primary quadriceps tendon repairs, is suitable for large-gap defects, and has the ability to withstand large force transmissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eats.2019.05.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6848963PMC
September 2019

Intra-Articular Pathology Associated with Acute and Chronic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

Iowa Orthop J 2019 ;39(1):101-106

University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Iowa City, IA USA.

Background: Concomitant meniscal and chondral pathology is common at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). The purpose of the present study was to report the prevalence of concomitant intra-articular pathology for patients undergoing acute or chronic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Methods: This study represents a prospective, consecutively collected cohort of 255 patients undergoing both primary and revision ACL-R between January 2012 and December 2014 at a single institution. The cohort was divided into an acute surgical group, defined as surgery within six weeks of injury, and a chronic surgical group, greater than six weeks removed from injury. The median time from injury to surgery for the entire cohort was 37 days (range: 4 days to 855 days). Variables of interest included patient demographic characteristics, concomitant meniscal and chondral pathology, and meniscus treatment.

Results: Patients treated in the chronic setting were slightly older (28.7 ± 11.6 years vs. 23.1 ± 8.6 years, P=0.001), had a higher prevalence of complex tears of the medial meniscus (37.2% vs. 7.7%, P=0.012) and cartilage injury (16.5% vs. 7.8%, P=0.03). After excluding revision ACL-R procedures, complex medial meniscus tears in chronic ACL-R were higher than in acute ACL-R (medial= 27.3% vs. 3.0%, P=0.022), however when age was considered, these tears were no longer more frequent than in the acute setting (P=0.056). Similarly, the prevalence of cartilage injury was equivalent between groups after correcting for age (P=0.167). Among primary ACL-R, there were more medial meniscus repairs in the acute surgical group compared to the chronic group (60.6% vs. 24.2%, P=0.003). After excluding complex tears, medial meniscus repair rates were no longer performed more frequently in patients undergoing acute ACL-R (59.4% vs. 33.3%, P=0.054).

Conclusions: Data from this prospective cohort suggest that with increasing time from ACL injury to ACL-R, medial meniscus pathology increases, with a lower likelihood of meniscal repair in all patients undergoing ACL-R. However, this finding is no longer statistically significant when considering only patients undergoing primary ACL-R. Age appears to play an important role in whether concomitant pathology develops following ACL rupture. Given these findings, early intervention may increase the ability to repair medial meniscus tears in the setting of ACL-R, but this conclusion is less supported in primary ACL-R. II.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6604549PMC
February 2020

Ganglion Cyst as a Rare Complication of Hip Arthroscopy Resolved With THA: A Case Report.

Iowa Orthop J 2018 ;38:87-91

University Iowa, 200 Hawkins Dr, Iowa City, IA 52246, United States.

Background: A rare complication of hip arthroscopy is the development of a ganglion cyst. These cysts can affect structures surrounding the hip joint. In some cases, the femoral artery may be involved, leading to claudication or a pulsatile mass that can resemble an aneurysm.

Case Description: We present the case of a 62 year-old male who complains of 3 months of right hip pain. Workup reveals a degenerative labrum with cam impingement. After a discussion of various treatment options, the patient elected for arthroscopy to correct the impingement. An anterior capsulotomy was created to establish access to the joint. Cam decompression was indicated to address the impingement. The patient developed a recurring ganglion cyst following the procedure that was not permanently prevented with cyst aspiration. Total hip arthroplasty with ganglion cyst decompression resolved the ganglion cyst and resolved the hip pain.

Conclusions: This is the first case report that describes the development of a ganglion cyst following hip arthroscopy. Arthroplasty and ganglion cyst decompression in the presence of degenerative joint disease presents a viable treatment option for these cysts. Additionally, this case suggests interportal capsulotomy closure may prevent ganglion cyst development and should be considered when performing hip arthroscopy.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047384PMC
December 2018

Impact of Clinical Practice Guidelines on Use of Intra-Articular Hyaluronic Acid and Corticosteroid Injections for Knee Osteoarthritis.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2018 May;100(10):827-834

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa.

Background: The efficacy of corticosteroid and hyaluronic acid injections for knee osteoarthritis has been questioned. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) clinical practice guidelines on the use of these injections in the United States and determine if utilization differed by provider specialty.

Methods: Patients with knee osteoarthritis were identified within the Humana database from 2007 to 2015, and the percentage of patients receiving a knee injection relative to the number of patients having an encounter for knee osteoarthritis was calculated and was trended for the study period. The impact of each edition of the AAOS clinical practice guidelines on injection use was evaluated with segmented regression analysis. Injection trends were also analyzed relative to the specialty of the provider performing the injection.

Results: Of 1,065,175 patients with knee osteoarthritis, 405,101 (38.0%) received a corticosteroid injection and 137,005 (12.9%) received a hyaluronic acid injection. The rate of increase in hyaluronic acid use, per 100 patients with knee osteoarthritis, decreased from 0.15 to 0.07 injection per quarter year (p = 0.02) after the first clinical practice guideline, and the increase changed to a decrease at a rate of -0.12 injection per quarter (p < 0.001) after the second clinical practice guideline. After the first clinical practice guideline, the rate of increase in utilization of corticosteroids, per 100 patients with knee osteoarthritis, significantly lessened to 0.12 injection per quarter (p < 0.001), and after the second clinical practice guideline, corticosteroid injection use plateaued (p = 0.72). The trend in use of hyaluronic acid injections by orthopaedic surgeons and pain specialists decreased with time following the second-edition clinical practice guideline but did not change for primary care physicians or nonoperative musculoskeletal providers.

Conclusions: Subtle but significant changes in hyaluronic acid and corticosteroid injections occurred following the publication of both clinical practice guidelines. Although the clinical practice guidelines did impact injection use, given the high costs of these injections and their questionable clinical efficacy, further interventions beyond publishing clinical practice guidelines are needed to encourage higher-value care for patients with knee osteoarthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.17.01045DOI Listing
May 2018

Recent Trends in Blood Utilization After Revision Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2017 12 5;32(12):3693-3697. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Background: Blood transfusion guidelines in elective surgery have been implemented over the last decade to minimize risk and cost related to transfusion without sacrificing patient outcomes. Blood utilization in primary total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been extensively studied but there is a paucity of studies evaluating utilization in revision THA and TKA. The purpose of this study is to evaluate current trends in transfusion following revision THA and TKA.

Methods: The Humana dataset was reviewed for transfusion trends from 2007 to 2015 for patients undergoing revision THA and TKA. Subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of age, gender, geographic location, and obesity.

Results: In total, 9176 and 12,493 revision THA and TKA patients were analyzed with transfusion rates of 19.2% and 11.9%, respectively. Allogeneic packed red blood cells were most commonly transfused (90% and 92%, respectively). Transfusion rates decreased significantly from 24.7% to 10.3% and 15.9% to 4.5%, respectively, over the years 2007-2015. Women had higher transfusion rates (odds ratio [OR] THA:TKA 1.24:1.23), while obesity was associated with lower transfusion rates after revision THA (OR 0.88). Transfusion rates were higher in 2-component revisions compared to primary (OR THA:TKA 1.24:1.24), while 1-component revisions had lower transfusion rates than primary procedures (OR THA:TKA 0.79:0.25).

Conclusion: Transfusion rates after revision THA and TKA have fallen substantially since 2007. In 2016, only 10% and 4% of revision THA and TKA, respectively, required transfusion. The study should provide benchmark data for surgeons to use as comparison to the blood utilization following revision joint replacement at their institutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2017.08.038DOI Listing
December 2017

Are Trends in Total Hip Arthroplasty Bearing Surface Continuing to Change? 2007-2015 Usage in a Large Database Cohort.

J Arthroplasty 2017 12 3;32(12):3777-3781. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Background: Bearing surface issues related to trunnionosis or metal-on-metal (MoM) articulations have likely impacted recent trends in bearing surface choice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate trends in total hip arthroplasty (THA) bearing surface use, including 2015 data, with respect to the date of operation and patient demographics.

Methods: The Humana dataset was reviewed from 2007 through 2015 to analyze bearing surface usage in primary THA. Four bearing surface types were identified by International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision codes and trended throughout the years: metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC), ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP), and MoM. Prevalence was analyzed as a function of age and sex.

Results: Of the 28,504 primary THA procedures, the most commonly used bearing was MoP (46.1%), followed by CoP (33.2%), MoM (17.1%), and ceramic-on-ceramic (3.6%). The use of CoP bearings significantly increased from 6.4% in 2007 to 52.0% in 2015, while MoM bearings decreased during this period. MoP bearings decreased over 2012-2015 (P < .001). CoP usage decreased with age, while MoP bearings increased with a transition occurring at 65-69 years of age. Women were more likely to receive MoP bearings (odds ratio [OR] 1.2), while men were more likely to receive MoM and CoP bearings (OR 1.1). Multivariate logistic regression showed age to be an independent predictor of bearing surface choice with patients 65 and older more likely to receive MoP bearings (OR 3.2).

Conclusion: Bearing surface choice in primary THA has changed tremendously from 2007 to 2015. MoM bearing use has decreased as a result of adverse effects. Age continues to remain a significant factor in bearing surface choice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2017.07.044DOI Listing
December 2017

Are We Still Prescribing Opioids for Osteoarthritis?

J Arthroplasty 2017 12 25;32(12):3578-3582.e1. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Background: The United States is in the midst of an opioid epidemic. These medications continue to be used to manage pain associated with osteoarthritis, despite mounting evidence questioning the benefits. The rate at which opioids are prescribed for osteoarthritis is largely unknown. We sought to identify rates of opioid prescriptions for osteoarthritis and identify factors associated with higher rates of prescribing.

Methods: We queried the Humana, Inc. administrative claims database from 2007 to 2014. Patients with osteoarthritis were identified using International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision codes and classified as having hip, knee, or any joint osteoarthritis. Claims data were reviewed to identify opioid prescriptions associated with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis. Rates of prescribing were trended over time and stratified by sex, age, and geographic region.

Results: From 2007 to 2014, 17.0% of patients with any joint osteoarthritis, 13.4% of patients with hip osteoarthritis, and 15.9% with knee osteoarthritis were prescribed an opioid for their condition. Yearly rates of prescription were fairly stable over this period. Patients in the South had the highest odds of opioid prescription, while those in the Northeast had the lowest. Patients ≤49 years old were more likely to receive a prescription than those ≥50 years old.

Conclusion: This study provides important epidemiologic data about the use of opioids for osteoarthritis. Despite increasing evidence calling proposed benefits into question and increasing awareness of risks of opioids, prescribing rates remained stable between 2007 and 2014. This provides important baseline data as we work to combat excessive and inappropriate opioid use within the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2017.07.030DOI Listing
December 2017

A new glucocerebrosidase-deficient neuronal cell model provides a tool to probe pathophysiology and therapeutics for Gaucher disease.

Dis Model Mech 2016 07 19;9(7):769-78. Epub 2016 May 19.

Section on Molecular Neurogenetics, Medical Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

Glucocerebrosidase is a lysosomal hydrolase involved in the breakdown of glucosylceramide. Gaucher disease, a recessive lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by mutations in the gene GBA1 Dysfunctional glucocerebrosidase leads to accumulation of glucosylceramide and glycosylsphingosine in various cell types and organs. Mutations in GBA1 are also a common genetic risk factor for Parkinson disease and related synucleinopathies. In recent years, research on the pathophysiology of Gaucher disease, the molecular link between Gaucher and Parkinson disease, and novel therapeutics, have accelerated the need for relevant cell models with GBA1 mutations. Although induced pluripotent stem cells, primary rodent neurons, and transfected neuroblastoma cell lines have been used to study the effect of glucocerebrosidase deficiency on neuronal function, these models have limitations because of challenges in culturing and propagating the cells, low yield, and the introduction of exogenous mutant GBA1 To address some of these difficulties, we established a high yield, easy-to-culture mouse neuronal cell model with nearly complete glucocerebrosidase deficiency representative of Gaucher disease. We successfully immortalized cortical neurons from embryonic null allele gba(-/-) mice and the control littermate (gba(+/+)) by infecting differentiated primary cortical neurons in culture with an EF1α-SV40T lentivirus. Immortalized gba(-/-) neurons lack glucocerebrosidase protein and enzyme activity, and exhibit a dramatic increase in glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine accumulation, enlarged lysosomes, and an impaired ATP-dependent calcium-influx response; these phenotypical characteristics were absent in gba(+/+) neurons. This null allele gba(-/-) mouse neuronal model provides a much-needed tool to study the pathophysiology of Gaucher disease and to evaluate new therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dmm.024588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4958308PMC
July 2016
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