Publications by authors named "Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Traumatic spinal injuries in Saudi Arabia: a retrospective single-centre medical record review.

BMJ Open 2020 11 14;10(11):e039768. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: To describe the patterns and outcomes of traumatic spinal injuries (TSIs) in a tertiary care trauma centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Design: Retrospective medical record review.

Setting: Level 1 trauma centre for all patients presented from 1 February 2016 to 31 December 2018.

Participants And Data: Records of patients presenting with any spinal trauma were reviewed, and the data obtained included age, gender, nationality (as Saudi and non-Saudi), date of presentation, site of fracture/injury, associated injuries, mechanism of injury, presence of neurological involvement and hospital mortality.

Main Outcomes: Frequencies of different types of TSI across various subgroups.

Results: We identified 692 patients who presented with TSI throughout the study period. The mean age was 36.9 years. Males represented 83.2% (n=576) of the sample size, and the most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle collision (MVC), accounting for 66.8% of cases (n=462), while fall-related injuries were seen in 31.6% of cases (n=219). A total of 454 (65.6%) of all patients were Saudi, and 332 (73.1%) of the TSIs in Saudis were due to MVC. Non-Saudi cases accounted for 238 (34.4%) of all patients, and 89 (37.4%) of the non-Saudi injuries were due to falls from height, and this association was statistically significant (p<0.001).

Conclusion: TSI was not thoroughly examined in Saudi Arabia; therefore, this study is considered the first to be done in the Kingdom using a representative sample. The fact that non-Saudi patients had a higher proportion of falls as a mechanism of injury should be taken into consideration in terms of raising awareness and taking more safety precautions, as most construction workers tend to be expatriates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7668378PMC
November 2020

Estimating global injuries morbidity and mortality: methods and data used in the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study.

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i125-i153. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Pharmacy, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Ethiopia.

Background: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria.

Methods: In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced.

Results: GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms of incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, cause-specific mortality, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life-years for a 28-year period for 22 age groups, 195 countries and both sexes.

Conclusions: GBD 2017 demonstrated a complex and sophisticated series of analytical steps using the largest known database of morbidity and mortality data on injuries. GBD 2017 results should be used to help inform injury prevention policy making and resource allocation. We also identify important avenues for improving injury burden estimation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571362PMC
October 2020

Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i96-i114. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Faculty of Health Sciences - Health Management and Policy, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries.

Methods: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

Findings: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505).

Interpretation: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571366PMC
October 2020

Prevalence and patterns of drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in India-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2020 09 1;22:308-316. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Pulmonary Medicine, Medipulse Hospital, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

Objective: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a major global public health threat. India, as it shares a large fraction of the world's TB burden, is currently at a critical phase due to the rise of drug resistance. Monitoring the prevalence and patterns of drug resistance is essential to measure the progress of TB control programmes. We aimed to systematically review Indian studies on the prevalence and patterns of DR-TB among various treatment types and risk groups.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted on PubMed, Google Scholar, IndMed, major TB journals and other databases for English language articles published till March 2018 that estimated the prevalence of DR TB in new, previously treated, presumptive multidrug resistance (MDR), paediatric and HIV co-infected pulmonary TB patients. Two authors independently conducted the search, assessed study quality, and extracted the relevant data. Pooled prevalence of DR-TB and its types were calculated by DerSimonian-Laird random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was investigated by sub-group and sensitivity analyses.

Results: Ninety non-duplicate studies were included. The prevalence of MDR, any drug resistance and extensive drug resistance was 3.5%, 24.9% and 0.06% (among new) and 26.7%, 58.4% and 1.3% (among previously treated), respectively. MDR prevalence among presumptive MDR, paediatric and HIV co-infected TB patients was 23.3%, 5.1% and 18.8%, respectively. MDR prevalence among new TB patients was highest in Maharashtra and lowest in Telangana. There was high heterogeneity between the studies. Study period, place of study and zone were significantly associated with MDR prevalence.

Conclusions: India suffers from a significant burden of DR-TB. Its patterns and prevalence are very heterogeneous across time, region and setting. Implementation of universal drug susceptibility testing in all districts and continuous DR-TB surveillance is crucial to ensure programmatic success.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2020.03.008DOI Listing
September 2020

Preparedness against self-infection and importation of Malaria - An airport survey among Saudis traveling to endemic countries.

J Family Med Prim Care 2019 Oct 31;8(10):3318-3324. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Family Medicine Academy, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Infected travelers returning from malaria endemic countries pose the threat of local outbreaks in nonendemic countries. Such outbreaks are becoming potential public health threats with increasing volume of international travels.

Aims: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices toward malaria, its prevention and treatment among Saudi air travelers visiting malaria-endemic countries.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Saudi passengers who were waiting at the departure gates of the King Khalid International Airport, Riyadh to travel to five chosen malaria-endemic countries. Knowledge, attitude, practice, and health-seeking behavior for malaria were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Factors associated with favorable responses were identified by statistical tests.

Results: Among 531 travelers, adequate knowledge, favorable attitude, and healthy practices pertaining to malaria were present in 42.7%, 80.2%, and 55.7%, respectively. Traveling to India, age >=30 years, tourists and traveling businessmen, previous visit to same country or region, seeking malaria-specific advice were significantly associated with adequate knowledge. Only 11.3% had sought pretravel health advice on malaria. Lack of knowledge about the existence and importance of pretravel consultation was the common reason for not seeking advice.

Conclusion: Knowledge about malaria and practice of preventive measures were suboptimal among Saudi travelers. Public awareness about travel consultation and chemoprophylaxis should be a part of malaria elimination and prevention efforts. Primary care physicians should take into account the level of knowledge among prospective travelers and provide opportunistic travel health services or refer them appropriately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_649_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6857410PMC
October 2019

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

School of Health Sciences, Madda Walabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

Trends in tobacco consumption in India 1987-2016: impact of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

Int J Public Health 2019 Jul 28;64(6):841-851. Epub 2019 May 28.

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abishekapatti, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, 627012, India.

Objectives: We describe national and subnational trends in tobacco use over three decades in India, assess the impact of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) on them and draw inferences for regional tobacco control policy.

Methods: Data from nine cross-sectional surveys conducted between 1987 and 2016 were analysed. Time trends in gender- and state-wise prevalence were derived for different forms of tobacco. To assess Framework Convention's impact, relative changes in tobacco prevalence before and after its implementation were estimated. Progress towards global noncommunicable diseases target was also measured.

Results: Post-implementation of the FCTC, smoking and smokeless tobacco use declined by 52.9% and 17.6%, respectively. The tobacco product mix (exclusive smokeless/exclusive smoked/dual) underwent a reversal from 37:52:11 in 1987 to 65:22:13 in 2016. Having achieved 20.5% relative reduction since 2009, India is en route to achieving the global noncommunicable diseases target.

Conclusions: Steep declines in tobacco use have followed the implementation of FCTC in India. However, the impact has been unequal on smokeless and smoked forms. Tobacco-control policies in high smokeless burden countries should take cognizance of this pattern and design comprehensive and flexible policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00038-019-01252-xDOI Listing
July 2019

Will I, Wont I? Factors associated with self-reported prediction of future indulgence in intimate partner violence among adolescents in South India.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2019 Feb 1;33(4). Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Community Medicine, Velammal Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Madurai, India, Phone: +91-9043114998.

Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV) refers to acts of physical/sexual violence, emotional/psychological abuse and controlling behaviour by a current or former intimate partner. Understanding the attitudes and perspectives of adolescents towards IPV can help in its prevention. The study aimed to assess the knowledge about various domains of IPV and self-reported prediction of perpetrating IPV among adolescents in Madurai city, South India.

Methods: Students pursuing engineering, medicine and humanities were recruited conveniently. A structured self-administered questionnaire developed to cater to the objectives was used. After descriptive analysis, a modified Poisson regression with robust variance estimation was used to identify factors associated with one's self-reported prediction of becoming an IPV perpetrator and adjusted relative risks [0.95 confidence interval (CI)] were calculated. The project was approved by the Institute's Ethics Committee.

Results: Of the 369 students, 40% were aware of IPV prevalence among women in India. About 85% agreed with societally prescribed gender roles. More males than females found gender roles manifesting as IPV acceptable (p = 0.003). Only 6.8%, more females than males (p = 0.01), believed that no violence is permissible in intimate relationships. About 55% definitely did not foresee themselves becoming IPV perpetrators. Belief in gender roles [odds ratio (OR) = 3.85; 95% CI: 1.26, 11.74] and being a professional course student (2.48; 1.25, 4.91) were significantly associated with foreseeing oneself as an IPV perpetrator.

Conclusion: Knowledge about IPV and its redressal mechanisms among adolescents is poor. A significant proportion of them believe in gender roles and perceive violence within an intimate relationship as acceptable. Positively influencing adolescents' beliefs in gender roles may help to control IPV and nurture healthier relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0207DOI Listing
February 2019

Efficacy of herbal dentifrice on the prevention of plaque and gingivitis as compared to conventional dentifrice: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Indian Soc Periodontol 2018 Sep-Oct;22(5):379-389

Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The aim of this study was to review literature on the effects of herbal dentifrice compared to conventional dentifrice on plaque and gingival inflammation.

Materials And Methods: MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and major journals were explored for studies up to September 30, 2017. A comprehensive search was designed and the articles were independently screened for eligibility by two reviewers. Randomized controlled clinical trials, in which oral prophylaxis was undertaken before the intervention was introduced into the oral cavity using toothbrush were included. Where appropriate, a meta-analysis (MA) was performed and standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated.

Results: Ten articles out of 1378 titles were found to meet the eligibility criteria. A MA showed that for plaque intervention the SMD was 2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-3.41, = 0.0009; test for heterogeneity: < 0.00001, = 96% in favor of conventional dentifrice; and for gingival inflammation, the SMD was 1.37; 95% CI: 0.49-2.26, = 0.002; test for heterogeneity: < 0.00001, = 94% which also was in favor of conventional dentifrice. Subgroup analysis for plaque intervention and gingival inflammation in case of long-term (more than 4 weeks and up to 6 months) and short-term effects (minimum of 4 weeks) of herbal dentifrice showed no difference when compared to conventional dentifrice.

Conclusion: Currently, there is no high-quality evidence to support or abnegate the anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis effects of the herbal dentifrice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jisp.jisp_100_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6128134PMC
September 2018

Prevalence and correlates of sexual health disorders among adult men in a rural area of North India: An observational study.

J Family Med Prim Care 2018 May-Jun;7(3):515-521

Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background And Objectives: Sexual health disorders are an important but less researched public health issue in India. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of sexual health disorders and their associated factors among adult men in a rural community of Haryana, India.

Materials And Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among adult men aged 18-60 years using a multistage stratified random sampling. Information pertaining to sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and sexual practices, and self-reported sexual problems were collected. Sexual health disorders were defined based on International Statistical Classification of Diseases-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders. Step-wise logistic regression was carried out to identify factors independently associated with sexual disorders.

Results: At least one sexual health disorder was reported by 81% of the men. The most commonly reported disorder was self-perceived defect in semen (64.4%), followed by loss of libido (21%), masturbation guilt (20.8%), erectile dysfunction (5%), and premature ejaculation (4.6%). Factors significantly associated with sexual health disorders among all men were being never married (odds ratio = 2.04; 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 2.77), smoking (1.57; 1.16, 2.14), cannabis use (4.20; 1.68, 10.48), diabetes (2.40; 1.22, 4.73), and hypertension (3.17; 1.12, 8.92).

Interpretation And Conclusions: A high burden of sexual health disorders was identified among the rural men. Wider recognition of this issue is needed among the health-care providers and policymakers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_348_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6069647PMC
August 2018

Comparative morbidity profile of patients attending an Ayurveda clinic and a modern medicine clinic of a primary health center in rural Haryana, India.

J Family Med Prim Care 2018 Mar-Apr;7(2):374-379

Department of Community Medicine, BPS GMC, Sonepat, Haryana, India.

Context: There is a paucity of data on the profile of patients accessing traditional systems of medicine. A comparison of profile of patients attending an Ayurveda clinic with that of modern medicine clinic will help in better understanding of utilization of services and preference for system of medicine by the patients seeking health care.

Aim: The aim was to study the morbidity profile of patients who attended the Ayurveda clinic of a primary health center (PHC) in rural Haryana over 1 year and compared it with that of the modern medicine clinic attendees at the same facility.

Materials And Methods: The study site was PHC, Dayalpur in block Ballabgarh, district Faridabad, Haryana, India. All new patients who attended the Ayurveda clinic of PHC Dayalpur in the year 2012 were included in the study. New attendees of modern medicine clinic of the same PHC in the year 2012 were used for comparison of profile of patients.

Results: In year 2012, of the total new patients registered at PHC, 26% attended Ayurveda clinic. The male-to-female ratio (0.8:1) was similar in both clinics. The representation of children up to 5 years and elderly was significantly higher (12.0% vs. 6.7% and 19.5% vs. 11.0%) in modern medicine clinic as compared to Ayurveda clinic. The most common morbidities seen in Ayurveda clinic were or skin disease (12.3%), or osteoarthritis (10.3%), and or cough (8.5%). Three most common morbidities in modern medicine clinic were acute respiratory infection (35.7%), hypertension (10.6%), and acute febrile illness (9.2%).

Conclusions: The study provided evidence that Ayurveda was popular among rural population in North India. Therefore, the Government of India's initiative of setting up Ayurveda clinic in PHCs is well founded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_347_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060926PMC
August 2018

Profile of and expenditure on morbidity and hospitalizations among elderly-Analysis of a nationally representative sample survey in India.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2018 Jan 29;74:55-61. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Centre for Operational Research, International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (The Union), Paris, France.

Introduction: Understanding morbidity pattern and associated expenditure is essential for implementation of appropriate healthcare and social security measures for the elderly. This study aims to assess the proportion of ailing persons (PAP) in the last 15days, the utilization of hospitalization services in the last 365days and the expenditure incurred for hospitalizations among the elderly in India.

Methods: This study analysed data from a nationally representative survey by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) in 2014-15 on 36,480 rural and 29,452 urban households. Distribution of morbidity and in-patient health care utilisation were analysed by subgroups of sex, residence, wealth quintile and type of health care provider. All estimates were weighted to account for the complex sampling design.

Results & Discussion: Among 27,245 elderly persons, 30.3% reported having suffered an ailment in the past 15days and 8% reported at least one hospitalisation episode in the last 365days. All quintiles, except the lowest, utilized private sector more than the public sector for hospitalisations. The distribution of PAP (Concentration Index (CI)=+0.11; +0.07,+0.15) and the utilization of hospitalisation services (CI=+0.18; +0.11,+0.25) were found to be significantly pro-rich. The median (IQR) expenditure on hospitalization was INR 7370 (2600, 18,060). The wealthiest quintile spent 3.1 times more than the poorest quintile on hospitalisation.

Conclusion: Efforts to reduce inequity among elderly persons in health status and healthcare utilization should be integral to any strategy targeting achievement of third sustainable development goal- "ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2017.09.007DOI Listing
January 2018

Menstrual Disorders and Its Determinants Among Married Women of Rural Haryana.

J Clin Diagn Res 2015 Sep 1;9(9):LC06-9. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Velammal Medical College Hospital & Research Institute , Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India .

Introduction: Disorders of menstruation are common problems among women. They have several psychological effects on women's health.

Aim: This study aimed to estimate prevalence of menstrual disorders, usage of sanitary pads and their determinants among married women in selected villages of rural Haryana.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during September 2011 in 10 villages of PHC (Primary Health Centre) Mandi, Haryana, using a systematic random sampling technique. Currently married women in the age group of 18-45 years living in study area for more than 1 year were included in the study while those who were pregnant and unable to understand questions were excluded. Informed verbal consent was obtained from all participants.

Results: A total of 344 women were interviewed. The mean (SD) age of participants was 28.0 (5.4) years. Majority of women were housewives (78.8%) and most had education up to middle school (22.7%). Mean (SD) age at menarche was 14.3 (1.2) years. Nearly one-tenth of women had married before 18 years of age. Prevalence of all menstrual disorders was 20.3% and most common disorder was excessive pain. About one fifth reported irregularity of menstrual cycles. Almost half were not using sanitary pads during menses. Menstrual disorders were more common among non-users of contraception (OR=1.7, p = 0.04) and housewives (OR = 2.4, p= 0.03).

Conclusion: Disorders of menstruation were fairly common among women surveyed. Usage of sanitary pads was quiet low. Awareness generation among women regarding menstrual problems and Behaviour Change Communication to promote usage of sanitary pads are important measures to reduce related morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2015/13101.6441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4606254PMC
September 2015

Smokeless tobacco-associated cancers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of Indian studies.

Int J Cancer 2016 Mar 27;138(6):1368-79. Epub 2015 Oct 27.

Healis - Sekhsaria Institute for Public Health, Mumbai, India.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of smokeless tobacco (SLT) for mouth, oesophagus and pancreas, based largely on Western studies. We wanted to confirm this by conducting a systematic review using Indian studies because India faces the biggest brunt of SLT-attributable health effects. A systematic search was conducted for published and unpublished studies. Two authors independently reviewed the studies and extracted data. Summary odds ratio (OR) for each cancer type was calculated using fixed and random effects model. The population attributable fraction (PAF) method was used to calculate the attributable burden of incident cases. A significant association was found for oral-5.55 (5.07, 6.07), pharyngeal-2.69 (2.28, 3.17), laryngeal-2.84 (2.18, 3.70), oesophageal-3.17 (2.76, 3.63) and stomach-1.26 (1.00, 1.60) cancers. But in random effects model, laryngeal-1.79 (0.70, 4.54) and stomach-1.31 (0.92, 1.87) cancers became non-significantly associated. Gender-wise analysis revealed that women had a higher risk (OR = 12.0 vs. 5.16) of oral but a lower risk (1.9 vs. 4.5) of oesophageal cancer compared with men. For oral cancer, studies that adjusted for smoking, alcohol and other factors reported a significantly lower OR compared with studies that adjusted for smoking only or smoking and alcohol only (3.9 vs. 8.4). The annual number of attributable cases was calculated as 49,192 (PAF = 60%) for mouth, 14,747 (51%) for pharynx, 11,825 (40%) for larynx, 14,780 (35%) for oesophagus and 3,101 (8%) for stomach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29884DOI Listing
March 2016

HIV-Risk Behavior Among the Male Migrant Factory Workers in a North Indian City.

Indian J Community Med 2015 Apr-Jun;40(2):108-15

Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Background: Male migrants act as a bridge for transmitting infection from core risk groups to general population and hence this group becomes essential for the HIV control program. Migrant workers constitute a large proportion of workforce in India and HIV/AIDS epidemic in them would cause huge economic losses.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to ascertain the HIV-risk behavior among male migrant factory workers.

Materials And Methods: This was a cross-sectional facility based survey conducted in 2011. Male migrant workers aged ≥18 years, who were born outside Haryana, who had moved to current location after 15 years of age, who had worked in the current factory for at least one year, who were willing to participate and able to give valid consent were eligible. A consecutive sampling was done. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were done.

Results: A total of 755 male subjects completed the interview. About 21.5% had experienced non-spousal sexual intercourse in last one year. Nearly 60% did not use a condom at the last non-spousal sex. Factors associated with recent non-spousal sex were being unmarried, younger age at migration, recent migration to Haryana, greater number of places migrated and lesser total duration of migration and those associated with non-use of condom at the last non-spousal sex were older age, lower education, lesser number of places migrated and lower level of HIV/AIDS knowledge.

Conclusion: Unprotected, recent non-spousal sex was common among male migrants, which could increase their HIV/AIDS vulnerability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.153874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4389497PMC
April 2015

Prevalence and determinants of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among male migrant factory workers in Haryana, North India.

Indian J Public Health 2015 Jan-Mar;59(1):30-6

Professor, Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background: Male migrant workers display high risk sexual behavior and have been shown to have higher prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), which make them more vulnerable to HIV infection. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported STIs and delineate their determinants among male migrant factory workers in Faridabad, Haryana.

Materials And Methods: Male workers in two selected factories, who were aged ≥18 years, were born outside Haryana (destination), and who had migrated to Haryana after the age of 15 years were eligible. Socio-demographic information, HIV/AIDS knowledge and behavior, and self-reported STI symptoms in the last 1 year were ascertained by face-to-face interview. Determinants of STIs were identified by regression analysis.

Results: Totally 755 eligible workers participated. Mean ± SD age was 31.4 ± 8.2 years and migration duration was 9.5 ± 6.7 years. At least one STI symptom was reported by 41.7% of the participants (burning micturition- 35%, inguinal bubos-5.2%, genital ulcers- 2.6%, urethral pus discharge- 1.3%). Factors associated with STIs were higher age at migration, lower HIV/AIDS knowledge, paid sex in the last year, non-use of condoms during the last non-spousal sex, and unfavorable intention to use condom.

Conclusion: Prevalence of self-reported STIs among these migrant men was high. Targeted Interventions among migrant workers need to be strengthened for control and prevention of STIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-557X.152854DOI Listing
June 2015

Disease burden due to biomass cooking-fuel-related household air pollution among women in India.

Glob Health Action 2014 4;7:25326. Epub 2014 Nov 4.

Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background: Household air pollution (HAP) due to biomass cooking fuel use is an important risk factor for a range of diseases, especially among adult women who are primary cooks, in India. About 80% of rural households in India use biomass fuel for cooking. The aim of this study is to estimate the attributable cases (AC) for four major diseases/conditions associated with biomass cooking fuel use among adult Indian women.

Methods: We used the population attributable fraction (PAF) method to calculate the AC of chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis (TB), cataract, and stillbirths due to exposure to biomass cooking fuel. A number of data sources were accessed to obtain population totals and disease prevalence rates. A meta-analysis was conducted to obtain adjusted pooled odds ratios (ORs) for strength of association. Using this, PAF and AC were calculated using a standard formula. Results were presented as number of AC and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: The fixed effects pooled OR obtained from the meta-analysis were 2.37 (95% CI: 1.59, 3.54) for chronic bronchitis, 2.33 (1.65, 3.28) for TB, 2.16 (1.42, 3.26) for cataract, and 1.26 (1.12, 1.43) for stillbirths. PAF varied across conditions being maximum (53%) for chronic bronchitis in rural areas and least (1%) for cataract in older age and urban areas. About 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.1) of 5.6 m cases of chronic bronchitis, 0.3 (0.2, 0.4) of 0.76 m cases of TB, 5.0 (2.8, 6.7) of 51.4 m cases of cataract among adult Indian women and 0.02 (0.01, 0.03) of 0.15 m stillbirths across India are attributable to HAP due to biomass cooking fuel. These estimates should be cautiously interpreted in the light of limitations discussed which relate to exposure assessment, exposure characterization, and age-specific prevalence of disease.

Conclusions: HAP due to biomass fuel has diverse and major impacts on women's health in India. Although challenging, incorporating the agenda of universal clean fuel access or cleaner technology within the broader framework of rural development will go a long way in reducing disease burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/gha.v7.25326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4221659PMC
June 2015
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