Publications by authors named "Rita Indirli"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tolvaptan in the Management of Acute Euvolemic Hyponatremia After Transsphenoidal Surgery: A Retrospective Single-Center Analysis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 24;12:689887. Epub 2021 May 24.

Endocrinology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) can be a complication of hypothalamus-pituitary surgery. The use of tolvaptan in this setting is not well established, hence the primary aim of this study was to assess the sodium correction rates attained with tolvaptan compared with standard treatments (fluid restriction and/or hypertonic saline). Furthermore, we compared the length of hospital stay in the two treatment groups and investigated the occurrence of overcorrection and side effects including osmotic demyelination syndrome.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 308 transsphenoidal surgical procedures performed between 2011 and 2019 at our hospital. We selected adult patients who developed post-operative SIAD and recorded sodium monitoring, treatment modalities and outcomes. Correction rates were adjusted based on pre-treatment sodium levels.

Results: Twenty-nine patients (9.4%) developed post-operative SIAD. Tolvaptan was administered to 14 patients (median dose 15 mg). Standard treatments were employed in 14 subjects (fluid restriction n=11, hypertonic saline n=1, fluid restriction and hypertonic saline n=2). Tolvaptan yielded higher adjusted sodium correction rates (12.0 mmolL/24h and 13.4 mmolL/48h) than standard treatments (1.8 mmolL/24h, p<0.001, and 4.5 mmolL/48h, p=0.004, tolvaptan). The correction rate exceeded 10 mmolL/24h or 18 mmolL/48h in 9/14 and 2/14 patients treated with tolvaptan, respectively, and in no patient who received standard treatments. No side effects including osmotic demyelination occurred. Tolvaptan was associated with a shorter hospital stay (1115 days, p=0.01).

Conclusions: Tolvaptan is more effective than fluid restriction (with or without hypertonic saline) and allows for a shortened hospital stay in patients with SIAD after transsphenoidal surgery. However, its dose and duration should be carefully tailored, and close monitoring is recommended to allow prompt detection of overcorrection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.689887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8181462PMC
May 2021

Impaired exocrine pancreatic function in different stages of type 1 diabetes.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 02;9(1)

Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy

Introduction: Aim of this study was to investigate the pancreatic exocrine function in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) by multiple non-invasive tests.

Research Design And Methods: The study is a single-center, cross-sectional study of pancreatic exocrine function in adult patients with new-onset or long-standing T1D and healthy controls.

Results: Healthy controls, new-onset T1D, and long-standing T1D were similar for age at the time of the study, gender and body mass index (BMI) categories. Age of onset of T1D patients with long-standing disease was younger than that of patients with new-onset T1D (p<0.001). As expected, the three groups differed for C-peptide and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Lipase activity measured by C-mixed triglyceride breath test was reduced progressively, although not significantly, from controls to recent-onset T1D and long-standing T1D participants. Fecal elastase-1 was significantly lower in participants with T1D, either new onset or long standing. Pancreatic amylase, lipase, retinol binding protein and prealbumin were significantly different across the groups, with a significant trend toward lower values in long-standing T1D and intermediate values in new-onset T1D, while no differences were observed for total amylase. The markers of impaired exocrine function tests (fecal elastase-1, serum pancreatic amylase and lipase) and of nutritional status (retinol binding protein and prealbumin levels) correlated with the reduction of fasting and urinary C-peptide.

Conclusions: Our results confirm that exocrine pancreatic impairment is a feature of T1D, with low fecal elastase-1, serum pancreatic amylase and lipase as specific markers, associated with reduced levels of nutritional indexes. Moreover, the evidence of more advanced insufficiency in long-standing disease reflects the chronic nature of this process, and its correlation with the residual β-cell function suggests parallel pathways for the impairment of the endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-001158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887343PMC
February 2021

Procoagulant Imbalance in Klinefelter Syndrome Assessed by Thrombin Generation Assay and Whole-Blood Thromboelastometry.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar;106(4):e1660-e1672

Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore, Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Milan, Italy.

Context: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a condition at increased risk of thrombosis compared to 46,XY men.

Objective: This work aimed to investigate the coagulation balance of KS patients by thrombin generation assay (TGA) and thromboelastometry.

Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at 3 tertiary endocrinological centers in Milan, Italy. Fifty-eight KS patients and 58 age-matched healthy controls were included. Anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy and known coagulation disorders were exclusion criteria. TGA was performed in platelet-poor plasma (PPP) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Whole-blood thromboelastometry and activities of coagulation factors were assessed. Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), the area under the thrombin generation curve, assessed with and without thrombomodulin (ETP-TM+ and ETP-TM-), and their ratio (ETP ratio), were considered as indexes of procoagulant imbalance.

Results: Patients with KS displayed higher PPP-ETP-TM+ (mean 1528 vs 0.1315 nM × min; P < .001), PPP-ETP ratio (0.78 vs 0.0.70; P < .001), factor (F)VIII (135% vs 0.107%; P = .001), fibrinogen (283 vs 0.241 mg/dL; P < .001), and FVIII/protein C ratio (1.21 vs 0.1.06; P < .05) compared to controls. Protein C was comparable in the 2 groups. Similar results were observed in PRP. The ETP ratio was positively associated with FVIII (ρ = 0.538, P < .001) in KS. Thromboelastometry parameters confirmed evidence of hypercoagulability in KS.

Conclusion: Patients with KS display a procoagulant imbalance expressed by increased thrombin generation both in PPP and PRP, which is at least in part explained by increased FVIII levels. The procoagulant imbalance, which was confirmed by thromboelastometry, may be responsible for the thrombotic events observed in these patients. Further investigation on the benefit/risk ratio of antithrombotic prophylaxis is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993570PMC
March 2021

Adrenal Insufficiency at the Time of COVID-19: A Retrospective Study in Patients Referring to a Tertiary Center.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 03;106(3):e1354-e1361

Endocrinology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Context: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a global health emergency, and infected patients with chronic diseases often present with a severe impairment. Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is supposed to be associated with an increased infection risk, which could trigger an adrenal crisis.

Objective: Our primary aim was to evaluate the incidence of COVID-19 symptoms and complications in AI patients.

Design And Setting: We conducted a retrospective case-control study. All patients were on active follow-up and lived in Lombardy, Italy, one of the most affected areas.

Patients: We enrolled 279 patients with primary and secondary AI and 112 controls (patients with benign pituitary lesions without hormonal alterations). All AI patients had been previously trained to modify their replacement therapy on stress doses.

Intervention: By administering a standardized questionnaire by phone, we collected data on COVID-19 suggestive symptoms and consequences.

Results: In February through April 2020, the prevalence of symptomatic patients (complaining at least 1 symptom of viral infection) was similar between the 2 groups (24% in AI and 22.3% in controls, P = 0.79). Highly suggestive COVID-19 symptoms (at least 2 including fever and/or cough) also occurred equally in AI and controls (12.5% in both groups). No patient required hospitalization and no adrenal crisis was reported. Few nasopharyngeal swabs were performed (n = 12), as indicated by sanitary regulations, limiting conclusions on the exact infection rate (2 positive results in AI and none in controls, P = 0.52).

Conclusions: AI patients who are adequately treated and trained seem to display the same incidence of COVID-19-suggestive symptoms and disease severity as controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665569PMC
March 2021

Prevalence and determinants of radiological vertebral fractures in patients with Klinefelter syndrome.

Andrology 2020 11 21;8(6):1699-1704. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Endocrinology, Diabetology and Andrology Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, IRCCS, Rozzano, Italy.

Background: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) may induce skeletal fragility, but the studies so far published on this topic were mainly focused on the evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone microstructure, whereas data on fracture risk are still lacking.

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of vertebral fractures (VFs), that is, the hallmark of osteoporosis, in subjects with KS.

Materials And Methods: Eighty-seven patients with KS (median age 41 years, range 18-64) were consecutively evaluated for radiological VFs (by quantitative morphometry) and lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD (by DXA). Fifty-five patients with KS were also evaluated by the fracture risk assessment (FRAX) tool.

Results: Low BMD was found in 22/87 (25.3%) patients [12 with osteopenia, three with osteoporosis and seven with "low BMD per age" (subject < 50 years with Z-score ≤-2.0 SD)] and VFs in 13/87 (14.9%) patients. In patients with VFs, the median spine deformity index was 2 (range 1-9). Prevalence of VFs was similar between healthy and low-BMD patients (15.9% vs 13.6%; P = .80). Noteworthy, patients with VFs had significantly higher age at diagnosis of KS as compared to patients who did not fracture (P = .039), without significant differences in age at the time of observation (P = .162), body mass index (P = .234), testosterone replacement therapy (P = .432), duration of testosterone therapy (P = .409), vitamin D therapy (P = 681), and serum testosterone levels (P = .338). Moreover, patients with VFs were more likely to complain back pain in comparison with those without VFs (33.3% vs 7.4%; P = .047). In 55 cases evaluated by the FRAX® tool, no significant differences in 10-year risk of major fracture (P = .270) and hip fracture (P = .860) were found between fractured and non-fractured patients.

Conclusions: This study provides first evidence that KS may be associated with risk of VFs in close relationship with delay in disease diagnosis but independently of BMD values and serum testosterone levels or testosterone therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/andr.12841DOI Listing
November 2020

Central hypogonadism in Klinefelter syndrome: report of two cases and review of the literature.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 Mar 14;44(3):459-470. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Laboratorio di Ricerche Endocrino-Metaboliche, Dipartimento di Medicina Endocrino-Metabolica, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Piazzale Brescia 20, 20149, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is characterized by late adolescence/young adulthood onset of primary hypogonadism. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), when congenital, is usually associated with absent/incomplete puberty and low/normal gonadotropins. We report the clinical and genetic features of two subjects with KS and an unexpected HH hormone profile.

Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hypothalamus-pituitary region and next generation sequencing (NGS) of congenital HH-associated genes were obtained. A narrative review of the literature was conducted.

Results: Patients were diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome following karyotype analysis. Nevertheless, they showed unusual features: both had incomplete puberty, low gonadotropins and testosterone levels, and the first one was anosmic. Sellar lesions were excluded by MRI, and NGS was negative in both subjects. Our data add to those of the only 14 similar cases reported so far. Unexplained HH rarely occurs in KS and is variably associated with anosmia, other pituitary hormones deficiencies and heterogeneous karyotypes. However, most cases show an early, pre-pubertal onset of hypogonadism. If the causes behind this gonadotropins defect are largely unknown, hereby we provide the first review of the literature on this topic and propose some pathogenetic hypotheses, including the coexistence of KS and congenital HH as suggested by overlapping clinical features in some of these patients.

Conclusion: HH is an exceptional occurrence in Klinefelter syndrome and is associated with heterogeneous phenotypes and, probably, aetiologies. Moreover, KS could underlie HH nonresponsive to gonadotropins. An exhaustive diagnostic workup and a tailored clinical management are advisable in these rare forms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40618-020-01324-3DOI Listing
March 2021

TNM 8th edition in thyroid cancer staging: is there an improvement in predicting recurrence?

Endocr Relat Cancer 2020 06;27(6):325-336

Endocrinology, Diabetology and Andrology Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, IRCCS, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

TNM 8th edition introduces changes in the staging of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). This study aims at assessing the value of TNM 8th edition in predicting response to therapy and structural recurrence of DTC. Four hundred and eighty DTC patients were retrospectively evaluated by 7th and 8th editions of TNM staging system in relationship with risk stratification, response to therapy and recurrence of disease as defined by 2015 ATA guidelines. As compared to the 7th edition, TNM 8th led to downstage 136 patients (28.3%), with 97.5% of patients falling into lower stages (I-II) and only 2.5% remaining in higher stages (III-IV) (P < 0.001). Patients who were downstaged in stages I-II by TNM 8th were classified more frequently at intermediate-high risk (P < 0.001), had more frequently structural incomplete response to therapy (P = 0.009) and had higher risk of structural recurrence (P = 0.002) as compared to patients who were in the same TNM stages but were not downstaged. Specifically, the risk of structural recurrence was significantly higher in patients in whom the downstaging was induced by changes in tumour classification (hazard ratio (HR) 6.18, 95% CI 2.20-17.40; P = 0.001) but not in those who were downstaged for the increase in age cut-off (HR 2.80, 95% CI 0.86-9.19; P = 0.09). In conclusion, TNM 8th edition did not show reliability in predicting aggressiveness of DTC. In fact, the downstaging of DTC patients especially when performed due to changes in tumour classification may overlook patients predisposed to structural recurrence, potentially causing uncertainty in the therapeutic decision-making at the time of disease's diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/ERC-19-0412DOI Listing
June 2020

Bone Features of Unaffected Skeletal Sites in Melorheostosis: A Case Report.

J Clin Densitom 2020 Oct - Dec;23(4):690-694. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, MI, Italy; Endocrinology and Diabetology Service, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, MI, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Melorheostosis is a rare sporadic sclerosing bone dysplasia, which commonly affects appendicular skeleton with bone hyperostosis and soft tissues sclerosis; fragility fractures are rare in melorheostotic patients. We investigated bone features at unaffected sites in a postmenopausal woman with melorheostosis of the right lower limb and with a fracture of the melorheostosis-free T11 vertebral.

Methodology: Melorheostotic lesions were evaluated by plain radiography, magnetic resonance of the right lower limb, and whole-body bone scintigraphy. Dual X-ray absorptiometry, trabecular bone score, and quantitative computed tomography were performed to investigate unaffected bone sites. Biochemical assessment of bone metabolism was obtained.

Results: Dual X-ray absorptiometry was indicative of normal mineralization at femoral sites and osteopenia at lumbar spine (T-score -1.1), which was confirmed by spinal quantitative computed tomography (volumetric bone mineral density 89 mg/cm). Trabecular bone score suggested only mildly altered bone microarchitecture (1.304, normal values >1.350). Bone markers were consistent with high bone turnover. Causes of secondary osteoporosis or alterations in bone metabolism were excluded. Zoledronic acid induced a reduction in bone turnover markers after 6 months without significant changes in clinical features.

Conclusions: Fragility fractures at apparently unaffected sites may occur in adults with melorheostosis, in absence of significant demineralization diagnosed by dual X-ray absorptiometry, trabecular bone score, and quantitative computed tomography, which may underestimate the fracture risk in this set of patients. Treatment with zoledronate could be considered also to prevent fragility fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocd.2020.01.002DOI Listing
January 2020

Reduced PD-1 expression on circulating follicular and conventional FOXP3 Treg cells in children with new onset type 1 diabetes and autoantibody-positive at-risk children.

Clin Immunol 2020 02 30;211:108319. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Diabetes Research Institute (DRI), IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Autoantibodies (AAbs) are a hallmark of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Alterations in the frequency and phenotype of follicular helper (Tfh) T cells have been previously documented in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), but the contribution of follicular regulatory T (Treg) cells, which are responsible for suppressing AAb development, is less clear. Here, we investigated the frequency and activation status of follicular (CXCR5) and conventional (CXCR5) Treg cells in the blood of children with new-onset T1D, and children with risk for developing T1D (AAb-positive) and compared them to AAb-negative controls. Blood follicular and conventional Treg cells were higher in frequency in children with new onset T1D, but expressed reduced amounts of PD-1 as compared to AAb-negative children. Interestingly, the proportion of circulating FOXP3 Tregs expressing PD-1 was also reduced in AAb-positive at-risk children as compared to AAb-negative controls, suggesting its potential use as a biomarker of disease progression. Follicular Treg cells were reduced in frequency in the spleens of prediabetic NOD mice as they became older and turned diabetic. Interestingly, PD-1 expression declined also on circulating follicular and conventional Treg cells in prediabetic NOD mice as they aged. Together, these findings show that the frequency of circulating follicular and conventional Treg cells and their levels of PD-1 change with disease progression in children at-risk for developing T1D and in NOD mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2019.108319DOI Listing
February 2020

A Rare SPRY4 Gene Mutation Is Associated With Anosmia and Adult-Onset Isolated Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019 12;10:781. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Endocrinology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a rare, clinically heterogeneous condition, caused by the deficient secretion or action of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). It can manifest with absent or incomplete sexual maturation, or as infertility at adult-age; in a half of cases, IHH is associated with hypo/anosmia (Kallmann syndrome). Although a growing number of genes are being related to this disease, genetic mutations are currently found only in 40% of IHH patients. Severe congenital hyposmia was diagnosed in a 25-year-old Caucasian man referred to the Ear-Nose-Throat department of our clinic. The patient had no cryptorchidism or micropenis and experienced a physiological puberty; past medical history and physical examination were unremarkable. Olfactory structures appeared hypoplasic, while hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and stalk were normal on MRI (neuroradiological imaging); testosterone levels, as well as pulsatile gonadotropin secretion and other pituitary hormones were unaffected at the time of first referral. At the age of 48, the patient returned to our clinic for sexual complaints, and the finding of low testosterone levels (6.8 and 5.8 nmol/L on two consecutive assessments) with inappropriately normal gonadotropin levels led to the diagnosis of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. GnRH test was consistent with hypothalamic origin of the defect. Next generation sequencing was then performed revealing a rare heterozygous allelic variant in gene (c.158G>A, p.R53Q). The biological and clinical effects of this gene variant had never been reported before. A diagnosis of Kallmann syndrome was finally established, and the patient was started on testosterone replacement therapy. This case describes the clinical phenotype associated with a rare gene allelic variant, consisting in congenital severe smell defect and adult-onset IHH; in patients with apparently isolated congenital anosmia genetic analysis can be valuable to guide follow up, since IHH can manifest later in adulthood. Characterization of other modifying genes and acquired environmental factors is needed for a better understanding of the physiopathology and clinical manifestations of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6861180PMC
November 2019

Clinically Nonfunctioning Pituitary Incidentalomas: Characteristics and Natural History.

Neuroendocrinology 2020 13;110(7-8):595-603. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Endocrinology, Diabetology and Medical Andrology Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Rozzano, Italy.

Introduction: Available data on pituitary incidentalomas mostly derive from small-scale studies, with heterogeneous inclusion criteria and limited follow-up. No paper has focused specifically on clinically nonfunctioning pituitary in-cidentalomas (CNFPIs).

Objective: To describe the charac-teristics and the natural history of patients diagnosed with CNFPIs.

Methods: Retrospective multicenter cohort study evaluating hormonal, imaging, and visual field characteristics at diagnosis and during follow-up of CNFPIs investigated in 2 Pituitary Centers.

Results: Three hundred and seventy-one patients were included (50.9% microadenomas, 35.6% males). Men were older and more likely to have a macroadenoma (p < 0.01). Totally, 23.7% of patients presented secondary hormonal deficits (SHDs), related to tumor size (higher in macroadenomas; p < 0.001) and age (higher in older patients; p < 0.001). Hypogonadism was the most frequent SHD (15.6%). Two hundred and ninety-six patients had follow-up data, 29.1% required surgery after first evaluation, and 97 had at least 3 years of follow-up. In total, 15.3% adenomas grew (more macroadenomas), but only in microadenomas patients with longer follow-up showed a higher growth trend. Totally, 5.2% of patients developed new SHDs (micro- vs. macroadenomas p = 1.000), and in 60% of them this was not associated with an increase in tumor size. Thirteen additional patients required surgery during follow-up (1 microadenoma at diagnosis).

Conclusions: Macroadenomas and age are risk factors for SHD in CNFPIs, which occur at diagnosis in a quarter of patients. During follow-up, macroadenomas tend to grow more often, but microadenomas display higher growth trend as follow-up increases. Deterioration of pituitary function is not always related to adenoma growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000503256DOI Listing
July 2021

Post-surgical Thyroid Bed Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking Recurrent Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019 18;10:253. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Dermatology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare inflammatory disease presenting with chronic-recurrent cutaneous ulcers histopathologically hallmarked by neutrophilic infiltrates, which may occur more frequently at sites of surgical traumas. The disease is habitually limited to the skin, but it can virtually involve any organ. Nevertheless, no prior cases of PG involving the thyroid bed have ever been reported. A bilateral PG of the breast was diagnosed in a 51-year-old woman and treated with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse-therapy and cyclosporine, with partial improvement. During the hospitalization, cytological examination of two hypoechoic thyroid nodules by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was consistent with thyroid carcinoma. After total thyroidectomy, histopathology confirmed a papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and radioactive iodine ablation was performed. At 12-month ultrasonographic follow-up, two hypoechoic avascular areas localized in the empty thyroid bed raised the suspect of PTC recurrence. However, (i) undetectable levels of thyroglobulin without anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, (ii) neutrophilia and increased inflammatory marker levels, and (iii) cytological examination of FNA showing numerous neutrophils induced to suspect thyroid bed PG infiltration. An approach with high-dose methylprednisolone led to dimensional reduction of the hypoechoic areas on ultrasonography, thus confirming the hypothesis of thyroid bed PG. This case of thyroid bed PG supports the idea that PG reflects a cutaneous phenotype encompassed in the spectrum of systemic neutrophilic diseases. Endocrinologists should be aware that thyroid bed PG involvement is an albeit rare differential diagnosis to consider in patients who had undergone thyroid surgery, especially with a history of PG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6482159PMC
April 2019

Cabergoline Withdrawal Before and After Menopause: Outcomes in Microprolactinomas.

Horm Cancer 2019 06 18;10(2-3):120-127. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Natural course of prolactinomas after menopause is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to compare recurrence rate after cabergoline withdrawal in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal women with microprolactinoma. Sixty-two women with microprolactinoma treated with cabergoline for at least 1 year and followed for 2 years after drug withdrawal were retrospectively selected. Patients were divided into two groups: 48 patients stopped cabergoline before menopause ("PRE" group), while 14 after menopause ("POST" group). Recurrence was defined by prolactin levels above normal, confirmed on two occasions. Overall, 39/62 women relapsed. Patients who relapsed apparently had higher prolactin before withdrawal (median 216.2, range 21.2-464.3 mIU/L) compared with those in long-term remission (94.3, 29.7-402.8 mIU/L; p < 0.05), and the risk of recurrence seemed lower in POST women (4/14, 29%) than in PRE ones (35/48, 73%, p < 0.005, OR 0.149, 95% CI 0.040-0.558). However, none of the factors (prolactin before withdrawal, menopausal status, treatment duration, complete adenoma regression) showed a correlation with recurrence risk in multivariate analysis. The best strategy able to optimize CBG treatment and withdrawal's outcomes is still to be defined in microprolactinomas. Postmenopausal status cannot reliably predict long-term remission, and follow-up is needed also in women of this age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12672-019-00363-4DOI Listing
June 2019