Publications by authors named "Risto Penttinen"

11 Publications

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Fate of bone marrow-derived stromal cells after intraperitoneal infusion or implantation into femoral bone defects in the host animal.

J Tissue Eng 2010 Aug 1;2010:345806. Epub 2010 Aug 1.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, 20520 Turku, Finland.

The fate of intraperitoneally injected or implanted male rat bone marrow-derived stromal cells inside female sibling host animals was traced using Y-chromosome-sensitive PCR. When injected intraperitoneally, Y-chromosome-positive cells were found in all studied organs: heart muscle, lung, thymus, liver, spleen, kidney, skin, and femoral bone marrow with a few exceptions regardless of whether they had gone through osteogenic differentiation or not. In the implant experiments, expanded donor cells were seeded on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) scaffolds and grown under three different conditions (no additives, in osteogenic media for one or two weeks) prior to implantation into corticomedullar femoral defects. Although the impact of osteogenic in vitro cell differentiation on cell migration was more obvious in the implantation experiments than in the intraperitoneal experiments, the donor cells stay alive when injected intraperitoneally or grown in an implant and migrate inside the host. However, when the implants contained bioactive glass, no signs of Y-chromosomal DNA were observed in all studied organs including the implants indicating that the cells had been eliminated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2010/345806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3042670PMC
August 2010

Hemoglobin expression in rat experimental granulation tissue.

J Mol Cell Biol 2011 Jun 8;3(3):190-6. Epub 2010 Nov 8.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

The general opinion that hemoglobin is only a carrier protein for oxygen and carbon dioxide has been challenged by several recent studies showing hemoglobin expression in other cells than those of the erythroid series, for example, in macrophages. We discovered β-globin expression in rat experimental granulation tissue induced by subcutaneously implanted cellulose sponges. Closer investigation revealed also α-globin expression. The first peak of the biphasic globin expression noticed during granulation tissue formation correlated with the invasion of monocytes/macrophages, whereas the second one seemed to be connected to the appearance of hematopoietic progenitors. Data presented in this study indicate globin expression both in macrophages and in immature erythroid cells as validated by erythroid-specific markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmcb/mjq036DOI Listing
June 2011

Extracellular matrix molecules: potential targets in pharmacotherapy.

Pharmacol Rev 2009 Jun;61(2):198-223

Department of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8, FI-20520 Turku, Finland.

The extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of numerous macromolecules classified traditionally into collagens, elastin, and microfibrillar proteins, proteoglycans including hyaluronan, and noncollagenous glycoproteins. In addition to being necessary structural components, ECM molecules exhibit important functional roles in the control of key cellular events such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Any structural inherited or acquired defect and/or metabolic disturbance in the ECM may cause cellular and tissue alterations that can lead to the development or progression of disease. Consequently, ECM molecules are important targets for pharmacotherapy. Specific agents that prevent the excess accumulation of ECM molecules in the vascular system, liver, kidney, skin, and lung; alternatively, agents that inhibit the degradation of the ECM in degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis would be clinically beneficial. Unfortunately, until recently, the ECM in drug discovery has been largely ignored. However, several of today's drugs that act on various primary targets affect the ECM as a byproduct of the drugs' actions, and this activity may in part be beneficial to the drugs' disease-modifying properties. In the future, agents and compounds targeting directly the ECM will significantly advance the treatment of various human diseases, even those for which efficient therapies are not yet available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/pr.109.001289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2830117PMC
June 2009

Hydroxyapatite coating of cellulose sponges attracts bone-marrow-derived stem cells in rat subcutaneous tissue.

J R Soc Interface 2009 Oct 11;6(39):873-80. Epub 2009 Mar 11.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, Turku, Finland.

The presence of bone-marrow-derived stem cells was investigated in a wound-healing model where subcutaneously implanted cellulose sponges were used to induce granulation tissue formation. When cellulose was coated with hydroxyapatite (HA), the sponges attracted circulating haemopoietic and mesenchymal progenitor cells more efficiently than uncoated cellulose. We hypothesized that the giant cells/macrophages of HA-coated sponges recognize HA as foreign material, phagocyte or hydrolyse it and release calcium ions, which are recognized by the calcium-sensing receptors (CaRs) expressed on many cells including haemopoietic progenitors. Our results showed, indeed, that the HA-coated sponges contained more CaR-positive cells than untreated sponges. The stem cells are, most probably, responsible for the richly vascularized granulation tissue formed in HA-coated sponges. This cell-guiding property of HA-coated cellulose might be useful in clinical situations involving impaired wound repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2009.0020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2838357PMC
October 2009

Bioactive glass-derived hydroxyapatite-coating promotes granulation tissue growth in subcutaneous cellulose implants in rats.

Acta Biomater 2008 Mar 28;4(2):354-61. Epub 2007 Jul 28.

Departments of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.

Granulation tissue was induced in hydroxyapatite-coated cellulose sponges with subcutaneous implantation in rats. A massive inflammatory reaction with an intense foreign body reaction and an increased invasion of fibrovascular tissue was observed by days 1-3 post-operation, whereas tissue growth into the uncoated control implants was much slower and took place mainly on their surfaces. The foreign body reaction in apatite-coated sponges declined after post-operative day 14, and no obvious differences were seen between the two cellulose sponges from 1 month up to 1 year after implantation. The apatite-coated implants attracted macrophages and fibroblasts, and favored angiogenesis. The excessive connective tissue formation was histologically normal, synthesized the major extracellular matrix molecules in a normal ratio and did not seem to disturb the animals in any way. These results warrant further investigations on clinical applicability of hydroxyapatite-coated cellulose sponges, when fast proliferation of connective tissue is desirable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2007.07.005DOI Listing
March 2008

Hydroxyapatite coating of cellulose sponge does not improve its osteogenic potency in rat bone.

Acta Biomater 2005 Sep 15;1(5):535-44. Epub 2005 Jul 15.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.

Regenerated cellulose sponges were coated biomimetically with hydroxyapatite to increase their osteogenic properties. Induction of apatite precipitation was carried out with bioactive glass in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 24 h and the final coating was carried out in 1.5 x concentrated SBF for 14 days. Biomimetically mineralized and non-mineralized sponges were then implanted into standard size femoral cortical defects of rats, and the invasion of bone into the implant was followed up to one year. The apatite coating did not improve the osteoconductive property of cellulose in this rat cortical defect model. In fact, it generated a strong and highly cellular inflammatory reaction and less osteoid tissue. The biomimetic implants contained more immunodetectable TGFbeta1 (a strong stimulator of fibroblast activity) than untreated implants, and also bound more TGFbeta1 in vitro, which could, at least in part, explain the fibrotic invasion of biomimetically mineralized sponges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2005.05.003DOI Listing
September 2005

Intact surface of bioactive glass S53P4 is resistant to osteoclastic activity.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2006 Apr;77(1):67-74

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, FIN 20520 Turku, Finland.

Bioactive glass reacts with body fluids and is gradually dissolved in tissues and in cell cultures. We investigated whether osteoclasts contribute to this process, by culturing newborn rat bone-marrow cells containing osteoclasts on polished bioactive glass plates (glass S53P4). The cultures were inspected at days 1-5 and stained for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to demonstrate osteoblasts and for tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) to visualize osteoclasts. Nonosteoclastic cells proliferated several-fold both on bioactive glass and on plastic, whereas osteoclasts and their precursors matured into multicellular giant cells and degenerated. Most cells on bioactive glass became ALP-positive, whereas on plastic the majority of cells remained ALP-negative. Osteoclasts survived on bioactive glass for 4-5 days, whereas on plastic they degenerated and disappeared after 3 days. Condensed nuclei indicating apoptosis were detected both in degenerating osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The surface of the bioactive glass reacted rapidly forming rounded pits, erosions, and cracks within 24 h in areas occupied by osteoblasts. Light microscopy and scanning electron micrographs demonstrated, however, a smooth surface below the cytoplasm of osteoclasts. This indicates that when applied on an intact bioactive glass surface, osteoclasts were unable to dissolve the glass material within this culture period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.30600DOI Listing
April 2006

NF1 gene expression in mouse fracture healing and in experimental rat pseudarthrosis.

J Histochem Cytochem 2006 Mar 28;54(3):363-70. Epub 2005 Nov 28.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an inherited disease with an incidence of about 1:3000 worldwide. Approximately half of all patients with NF1 present osseous manifestations, which can vary from mild to severely debilitating changes such as congenital pseudarthrosis. In the present study, fracture healing of mouse tibia was followed and specimens were collected 5, 9, 14, and 22 days postoperatively. Experimental pseudarthrosis of rat was followed up to 15 weeks postoperatively. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to demonstrate expression of NF1 tumor suppressor and phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), an indicator of the Ras-MAPK pathway. The results showed that ossified callus was formed in mouse fracture 22 days after the operation. The final outcome of rat pseudarthrosis was detected 9 weeks after the operation, presenting abundant cartilaginous callus at the pseudarthrosis. NF1 gene expression was noted in the maturing and in the hypertrophic cartilages during normal mouse fracture healing, and in rat pseudarthrosis. Phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK was detected in a subpopulation of the hypertrophic chondrocytes in both models. Furthermore, positive labeling for NF1 mRNA and protein was detected in endothelium in both the pseudarthrosis and in the fracture. In conclusion, NF1 gene expression and function are needed for normal fracture healing, possibly restraining excessive Ras-MAPK pathway activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1369/jhc.5A6784.2005DOI Listing
March 2006

Long-term evaluation of porous poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-L-lactide) as a bone-filling material.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2005 Nov;75(2):308-15

Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.

Porous poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-L-lactide) (P(CL-co-LA, wt % ca. 5/95) sponges were prepared, coated biomimetically with CaP/apatite, and implanted with noncoated control sponges into rat femur cortical defects and dorsal subcutaneous space. The implants were inspected histologically at 2, 4, and 33 weeks after the operation. All implants were filled with fibrovascular tissue within 4 weeks. The femur implants were partially ossified with compact bone, which in the CaP-coated sponges was less mature and more fragmented. Approximately equal amounts of bone were observed in both types of implants. The polymer induced a mild inflammatory reaction with foreign body giant cells but no accumulation of fluid. Degradation of the polymer was slow; most of it was found intact at 33 weeks in histological samples. Nondegraded polymer seems to prevent complete ossification. Cultured osteoblasts proliferated well on apatite-coated material, whereas only a few cells were seen on noncoated material. Thus CaP/apatite coating helped the attachment of osteoblasts in cell cultures but did not offer any advantage in bone formation over noncoated material in vivo. We conclude that a shorter degradation time of P(CL-co-LA) is needed to create an optimal implant. Furthermore, in vivo experiments seem to be necessary for the estimation of osteopromotive properties of a biomaterial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.30418DOI Listing
November 2005

Mice with a deletion in the first intron of the Col1a1 gene develop age-dependent aortic dissection and rupture.

Circ Res 2004 Jan 20;94(1):83-90. Epub 2003 Nov 20.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Turku, Finland.

The functional significance of the first intron of the Col1a1 gene in regulation of type I collagen synthesis remains uncertain. A previous study in mice established that a mutated Col1a1 allele that lacked a large fraction of the first intron, but retained the sequences required for normal splicing, was subject to an age- and tissue-dependent decrease in expression. In this study, we report that mice homozygous for this deletion are predisposed to dissection and rupture of the aorta during their adult life. Aortic dissection was not detected in autopsies of heterozygous animals or their littermate controls. Electron micrographs revealed fewer collagen fibrils and less compacted, irregular elastic lamellae in the aortic walls of homozygous mutant animals. Northern analysis of aortic RNA from 2.5- and 12-month-old homozygous mutant mice revealed that Col1a1 mRNA levels were decreased by 29% and 42%, respectively, relative to those of control littermates. In 12-month-old heterozygotes, the decrease was 32%. Allele-specific amplification of heterozygous cDNAs demonstrated that this reduction was limited to transcripts from the mutant allele. The collagen content of the aortas of homozygous mutant mice was also significantly lower in comparison to that of age-matched, control animals. These data establish that the integrity of the aortic wall depends on an adequate content of type I collagen, and that continued synthesis of collagen in the aorta as a function of age is critically dependent on sequences in the first intron of the Col1a1 gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.RES.0000108263.74520.15DOI Listing
January 2004

Diminished callus size and cartilage synthesis in alpha 1 beta 1 integrin-deficient mice during bone fracture healing.

Am J Pathol 2002 May;160(5):1779-85

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Integrins mediate cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components. Integrin alpha 1 beta 1 is a collagen receptor expressed on many mesenchymal cells, but mice deficient in alpha 1 integrin (alpha1-KO) have no gross structural defects. Here, the regeneration of a fractured long bone was studied in alpha1-KO mice. These mice developed significantly less callus tissue than the wild-type (WT) mice, and safranin staining revealed a defect in cartilage formation. The mRNA levels of nine extracellular matrix genes in calluses were evaluated by Northern blotting. During the first 9 days the mRNA levels of cartilage-related genes, including type II collagen, type IX collagen, and type X collagen, were lower in alpha1-KO mice than in WT mice, consistent with the reduced synthesis of cartilaginous matrix appreciated in tissue sections. Histological observations also suggested a diminished number of chondrocytes in the alpha 1-KO callus. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining revealed a reduction of mesenchymal progenitors at the callus site. Although, the number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from WT and alpha 1-KO whole marrow was equal, in cell culture the proliferation rate of the MSCs of alpha 1-KO mice was slower, recapitulating the in vivo observation of reduced callus cell proliferation. The results demonstrate the importance of proper collagen-integrin interaction in fracture healing and suggest that alpha1 integrin plays an essential role in the regulation of MSC proliferation and cartilage production.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1850876PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9440(10)61124-8DOI Listing
May 2002