Publications by authors named "Rima Darwiche"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

In vivo effects of cytokines on pancreatic beta-cells in models of type I diabetes dependent on CD4(+) T lymphocytes.

Immunol Cell Biol 2009 Feb 18;87(2):178-85. Epub 2008 Nov 18.

St Vincent's Institute, Fitzroy, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

CD4(+) T cells can actively kill beta-cells in type I diabetes as well as help CD8(+) T cells become cytolytic. Cytokines have the potential to kill beta-cells, or upregulate Fas on beta-cells, and increase their susceptibility to FasL. We investigated the direct effects of cytokines on beta-cells in perforin-deficient non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and NOD4.1 TCR transgenic mice, two models in which CD8(+) T cells play a less dominant role. Inhibiting the effects of cytokines by the overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signalling-1 (SOCS1) in beta-cells did not reduce diabetes or insulitis in perforin-deficient NOD, NOD4.1 or interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-deficient NOD4.1 mice. SOCS1 overexpression prevented Fas upregulation on NOD4.1 beta-cells, but did not prevent islet destruction because SOCS1 transgenic islets were killed when grafted into NOD4.1.scid mice. Likewise, Fas-deficient NOD.lpr islets were destroyed in NOD4.1 mice. Although blocking the effects of interferon (IFN)gamma on beta-cells did not affect diabetes in NOD4.1 mice, global deficiency of IFNgammaR2 reduced diabetes and insulitis, suggesting that IFNgamma is involved in CD4(+) T-cell activation or migration. Our data show that beta-cells under attack by CD4(+) T cells are not destroyed by the effects of cytokines including IFNgamma and IL-1 or Fas-dependent cytotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/icb.2008.81DOI Listing
February 2009

SOCS-1 protects from virally-induced CD8 T cell mediated type 1 diabetes.

J Autoimmun 2006 Nov 10;27(3):166-73. Epub 2006 Oct 10.

La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can rapidly kill beta-cells and therefore contribute to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). CTL-mediated beta-cell killing can occur via perforin-mediated lysis, Fas-Fas-L interaction, and the secretion of TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma. The secretion of IFN-gamma can contribute to beta-cell death directly by eliciting nitric oxide production, and indirectly by upregulating MHC class I and 'unmasking' beta-cells for recognition by CTL. Earlier studies in the RIP-LCMV mouse model of diabetes showed that disruption of beta-cell IFN-gamma signaling alone abolished the direct detrimental effects of IFN-gamma, but not MHC class I upregulation. Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) represses several crucial cytokine signaling pathways simultaneously, among them IFN-gamma and IL-1-beta. We therefore evaluated the protective capacity of islet cell SOCS-1 expression in the CD8(+) mediated RIP-LCMV diabetes model. Clinical disease was prevented in over 90% of the mice. Not only absence of MHC-I and Fas upregulation, but also resistance to cytokine-induced killing of beta-cells and a complete lack of CXCL-10 (IP10) production in islets led to a lack of islet infiltration and impaired activation of autoaggressive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells in these mice. Thus, SOCS expression renders beta-cells resistant to CTL attack in a mouse model of T1D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2006.08.002DOI Listing
November 2006

Severe pancreatitis with exocrine destruction and increased islet neogenesis in mice with suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 deficiency.

Am J Pathol 2004 Sep;165(3):913-21

Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Australia.

Mice with suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) deficiency die within 3 weeks of birth from a multiorgan inflammatory disease. Increased systemic levels and sensitivity of cells to the inflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor may contribute to the disease. Hepatitis and liver failure are thought to be the cause of the neonatal lethality in these mice. Here, we show that the pancreata of SOCS-1(-/-) mice are also severely affected by inflammation, displaying extensive edema and infiltration by T cells and macrophages. Acinar cells in particular were atrophied and reduced in their zymogen content. The expression of inflammatory markers, including class I major histocompatibility complex and inducible nitric oxide synthase, were increased in the SOCS-1(-/-) pancreas. Although there was generalized up-regulation of class I major histocompatibility complex, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was more prominent on exocrine tissues. There appeared to be preferential damage and apoptosis of exocrine over endocrine components. Unexpectedly, increased islet neogenesis, possibly from proliferating ductal cells, was observed in the pancreas of SOCS-1(-/-) mice. This is reminiscent of the pancreatitis and islet neogenesis that occur in mice that transgenically overexpress interferon-gamma and/or tumor necrosis factor. This study suggests that in addition to liver failure, the pancreatitis may also be an important contributor to the neonatal lethality in SOCS-1(-/-) mice.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1618606PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63353-6DOI Listing
September 2004

Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 overexpression protects pancreatic beta cells from CD8+ T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction.

J Immunol 2004 May;172(9):5714-21

St. Vincent's Institute of Medical Research, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia.

In type 1 diabetes, cytokine action on beta cells potentially contributes to beta cell destruction by direct cytotoxicity, inducing Fas expression, and up-regulating class I MHC and chemokine expression to increase immune recognition. To simultaneously block beta cell responsiveness to multiple cytokines, we overexpressed suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1). This completely prevented progression to diabetes in CD8(+) TCR transgenic nonobese diabetic (NOD) 8.3 mice without affecting pancreas infiltration and partially prevented diabetes in nontransgenic NOD mice. SOCS-1 appeared to protect at least in part by inhibiting TNF- and IFN-gamma-induced Fas expression on beta cells. Fas expression was up-regulated on beta cells in vivo in prediabetic NOD8.3 mice, and this was inhibited by SOCS-1. Additionally, IFN-gamma-induced class I MHC up-regulation and TNF- and IFN-gamma-induced IL-15 expression by beta cells were inhibited by SOCS-1, which correlated with suppressed 8.3 T cell proliferation in vitro. Despite this, 8.3 T cell priming in vivo appeared unaffected. Therefore, blocking beta cell responses to cytokines impairs recognition by CD8(+) T cells and blocks multiple mechanisms of beta cell destruction, but does not prevent T cell priming and recruitment to the islets. Our findings suggest that increasing SOCS-1 expression may be useful as a strategy to block CD8(+) T cell-mediated type 1 diabetes as well as to more generally prevent cytokine-dependent tissue destruction in inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.172.9.5714DOI Listing
May 2004

Virally induced inflammation triggers fratricide of Fas-ligand-expressing beta-cells.

Diabetes 2004 Mar;53(3):591-6

Division of Developmental Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, San Diego, California, USA.

Tissue-specific expression of Fas-ligand (Fas-L) can provide immune privilege by inducing apoptosis of "invading" lymphocytes expressing Fas. However, accelerated diabetes has been reported in transgenic mice expressing Fas-L in islets (RIP-Fas-L) as a result of Fas-dependent fratricide of beta-cells after transfer of diabetogenic clones. Here we studied whether Fas-L could protect islets from autoaggressive CD8 lymphocytes in a transgenic model of virally induced diabetes (RIP-LCMV-NP transgenic mice), in which the autoaggressive response is directed to a viral nucleoprotein (NP) expressed as a transgene in beta-cells. Indeed, disease incidence after viral (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV]) infection was reduced by approximately 30%, which was associated with a decrease of autoaggressive CD8 NP-specific lymphocytes in islets and pancreatic draining lymph nodes. However, surprisingly, a high degree (50%) of diabetes was seen in mice that expressed only Fas-L but not the viral transgene (NP) in beta-cells after infection with LCMV. This was due to induction of Fas on beta-cells after LCMV infection of the pancreas, resulting in Fas/Fas-L-mediated fratricide. Thus, although Fas-L can lend some immune privilege to islet cells, local virus-induced inflammation will induce Fas on beta-cells, leading to their mutual destruction if Fas-L is present. Expression of Fas-L therefore might not be protective in situations in which viral inflammation can be expected, resulting in Fas induction on the targeted cell itself.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.53.3.591DOI Listing
March 2004

IL-1 receptor deficiency slows progression to diabetes in the NOD mouse.

Diabetes 2004 Jan;53(1):113-21

St. Vincent's Institute of Medical Research, Fitzroy, VIC, Australia.

Proinflammatory cytokines are believed to be important in pancreatic beta-cell destruction in the development of type 1 diabetes. They act by upregulation of genes including Fas and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which have both been shown to lead to beta-cell death in vitro. We used mice deficient in the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (IL-1R) to assess the contribution of IL-1 to different models of diabetes. IL-1R-deficient islets were protected from the damaging effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (IFN)-gamma in vitro, and beta-cell expression of iNOS was reduced, suggesting that IL-1 mediates the induction of iNOS by TNF and IFN-gamma. IL-1 action was not required for induction of class I major histocompatibility complex or Fas by TNF and IFN-gamma. IL-1R-deficient nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice developed diabetes significantly slower than wild-type mice. IL-1R deficiency did not affect diabetes in 8.3 TCR transgenic NOD mice but prolonged the time to diabetes in BDC2.5 TCR transgenic NOD mice. We conclude that IL-1R deficiency slows progression to diabetes in NOD mice but on its own does not prevent diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.53.1.113DOI Listing
January 2004

Fas is detectable on beta cells in accelerated, but not spontaneous, diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.

J Immunol 2003 Jun;170(12):6292-7

St. Vincent's Institute of Medical Research, Fitzroy, Australia, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Australia.

Fas (CD95) is a potential mechanism of pancreatic beta cell death in type 1 diabetes. beta cells do not constitutively express Fas but it is induced by cytokines. The hypothesis of this study is that Fas expression should be measurable on beta cells for them to be killed by this mechanism. We have previously reported that up to 5% of beta cells isolated from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice are positive for Fas expression by flow cytometry using autofluorescence to identify beta cells. We have now found that these are not beta cells but contaminating dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes. In contrast beta cells isolated from NODscid mice that are recipients of T lymphocytes from diabetic NOD mice express Fas 18-25 days after adoptive transfer but before development of diabetes. Fas expression on beta cells was also observed in BDC2.5, 8.3, and 4.1 TCR-transgenic models of diabetes in which diabetes occurs more rapidly than in unmodified NOD mice. In conclusion, Fas is observed on beta cells in models of diabetes in which rapid beta cell destruction occurs. Its expression is likely to reflect differences in the intraislet cytokine environment compared with the spontaneous model and may indicate a role for this pathway in beta cell destruction in rapidly progressive models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.170.12.6292DOI Listing
June 2003

Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 is a critical regulator of interleukin-7-dependent CD8+ T cell differentiation.

Immunity 2003 Apr;18(4):475-87

The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia.

To determine the tissue-specific functions of SOCS-1, mice were generated in which the SOCS-1 gene could be deleted in individual tissues. A reporter gene of SOCS-1 promoter activity was also inserted. Using the reporter, high SOCS-1 expression was found at the CD4(+)CD8(+) stage in thymocyte development. To investigate the function of this expression, the SOCS-1 gene was specifically deleted throughout the thymocyte/T/NKT cell compartment. Unlike SOCS-1(-/-) mice, these mice did not develop lethal multiorgan inflammation but developed multiple lymphoid abnormalities, including enhanced differentiation of thymocytes toward CD8(+) T cells and very high percentages of peripheral CD8(+) T cells with a memory phenotype (CD44(hi)CD25(lo)CD69(lo)). These phenotypes were found to correlate with hypersensitivity to the gamma-common family of cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1074-7613(03)00078-5DOI Listing
April 2003

Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 regulates signaling in response to interleukin-2 and other gamma c-dependent cytokines in peripheral T cells.

J Biol Chem 2003 Jun 28;278(25):22755-61. Epub 2003 Mar 28.

The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Post Office, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria 3050, Australia.

Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) is an essential regulator of cytokine signaling. SOCS-1-/- mice die before weaning with a complex disease characterized by fatty degeneration and necrosis of the liver. This disease is mediated by interferon (IFN) gamma as neonatal mortality fails to occur in SOCS-1-/-IFNgamma-/- mice. However, the immune system of healthy SOCS-1-/-IFNgamma-/- mice is dysregulated with a reduced ratio of CD4:CD8 T cells and increases in some aspects of T cell activation. SOCS-1-/-IFNgamma-/- mice also die before their wild type and IFNgamma-/- counterparts with a range of inflammatory conditions including pneumonia, gut infiltration, and skin ulceration, suggesting that SOCS-1 controls not only IFNgamma signaling, but also other immunoregulatory factors. This study shows that T cells from SOCS-1-deficient mice display hypersensitivity to cytokines that act through the gammac receptor. SOCS-1 expression is induced by interleukin (IL) 2, IL-4, IL-7, and IL-15, and SOCS-1-deficient T cells show increased proliferation and prolonged survival in response to IL-2 and IL-4. Furthermore, IL-2 induced increased STAT5 phosphorylation and CD44 expression in SOCS-1-deficient T cells compared with controls. Hypersensitivity to gammac-dependent cytokines may contribute to abnormal T cell function, as well as the pathology observed in mice lacking SOCS-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M303021200DOI Listing
June 2003

The role of cytokines as effectors of tissue destruction in autoimmunity.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2003 ;520:73-86

The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, Burnet Clinical Research Unit, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0171-8_5DOI Listing
July 2003

Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 has IFN-gamma-independent actions in T cell homeostasis.

J Immunol 2003 Jan;170(2):878-86

The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 is a member of a family of proteins that negatively regulate cytokine signaling pathways. We have previously established that SOCS-1 is a key regulator of IFN-gamma signaling and that IFN-gamma is responsible for the complex inflammatory disease that leads to the death of SOCS-1-deficient mice. In this study, we provide evidence that SOCS-1 is also a critical regulator of IFN-gamma-independent immunoregulatory factors. Mice lacking both SOCS-1 and IFN-gamma, although outwardly healthy, have clear abnormalities in their immune system, including a reduced ratio of CD4:CD8 T cells in lymphoid tissues and increased expression of T cell activation markers. To examine the contribution of TCR Ag specificity to these immune defects, we have generated two lines of SOCS-1-deficient mice expressing a transgenic TCR specific for an exogenous Ag, OVA (OT-I and OT-II). Although TCR transgenic SOCS-1(-/-) mice have a longer lifespan than nontransgenic SOCS-1(-/-) mice, they still die as young adults with inflammatory disease and the TCR transgenic SOCS-1(-/-) T cells appear activated despite the absence of OVA. This suggests that both Ag-dependent and -independent mechanisms contribute to the disease in SOCS-1-deficient mice. Thus, SOCS-1 is a critical regulator of T cell activation and homeostasis, and its influence extends beyond regulating IFN-gamma signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.170.2.878DOI Listing
January 2003

Constitutive activation of the SRC family kinase Hck results in spontaneous pulmonary inflammation and an enhanced innate immune response.

J Exp Med 2002 Sep;196(5):589-604

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria 3050, Australia.

To identify the physiological role of Hck, a functionally redundant member of the Src family of tyrosine kinases expressed in myelomonocytic cells, we generated Hck(F/F) "knock-in" mice which carry a targeted tyrosine (Y) to phenylalanine (F) substitution of the COOH-terminal, negative regulatory Y(499)-residue in the Hck protein. Unlike their Hck(-/-) "loss-of-function" counterparts, Hck(F/F) "gain-of-function" mice spontaneously acquired a lung pathology characterized by extensive eosinophilic and mononuclear cell infiltration within the lung parenchyma, alveolar airspaces, and around blood vessels, as well as marked epithelial mucus metaplasia in conducting airways. Lungs from Hck(F/F) mice showed areas of mild emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis, which together with inflammation resulted in altered lung function and respiratory distress in aging mice. When challenged transnasally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Hck(F/F) mice displayed an exaggerated pulmonary innate immune response, characterized by excessive release of matrix metalloproteinases and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha. Similarly, Hck(F/F) mice were highly sensitive to endotoxemia after systemic administration of LPS, and macrophages and neutrophils derived from Hck(F/F) mice exhibited enhanced effector functions in vitro (e.g., nitric oxide and TNFalpha production, chemotaxis, and degranulation). Based on the demonstrated functional association of Hck with leukocyte integrins, we propose that constitutive activation of Hck may mimic adhesion-dependent priming of leukocytes. Thus, our observations collectively suggest an enhanced innate immune response in Hck(F/F) mice thereby skewing innate immunity from a reversible physiological host defense response to one causing irreversible tissue damage.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2193996PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20020873DOI Listing
September 2002

Comparison of insulin secretory function in two mouse models with different susceptibility to beta-cell failure.

Endocrinology 2002 Jun;143(6):2085-92

University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia.

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a susceptibility to beta-cell failure. However, subjects at risk of developing type 2 diabetes, such as those with obesity or a family history of diabetes, have been shown to display hyperinsulinemia. Although this hyperinsulinemia may be an adaptive response to insulin resistance, the possibility that insulin hypersecretion may be a primary defect has not been thoroughly investigated. The DBA/2 mouse is a model of pancreatic islet susceptibility. Unlike the resistant C57BL/6 mouse strain, the DBA/2 mouse islet fails when stressed with insulin resistance or when exposed to chronic high glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to compare insulin secretory function in the DBA/2 and C57BL/6 strains in the absence of insulin resistance or high glucose. Insulin secretion was assessed in vivo using the iv glucose tolerance test and in vitro using isolated islets in static incubations. It was shown that DBA/2 mice hypersecreted insulin in vivo, compared with C57BL/6 mice, at 1 d and at 4 and 10 wk of age. This hypersecretion was not attributable to insulin resistance (as assessed by the insulin tolerance test) or increased parasympathetic nervous system outflow. Insulin hypersecretion was also demonstrated in vitro. This was associated with higher glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and elevated activity (but not protein levels) of islet glucokinase and hexokinase. Furthermore, GLUT2 protein levels were higher, which may explain an increase in glucokinase activity in DBA/2 mouse islets. In summary, the DBA/2 mouse, a model of islet failure, has increased glucose-mediated insulin secretion from a very early age, which is associated with an increase in glucose utilization. Further studies will determine whether there is a link between insulin hypersecretion and subsequent beta-cell failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/endo.143.6.8859DOI Listing
June 2002

Interleukin-1 plus gamma-interferon-induced pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction is mediated by beta-cell nitric oxide production.

Diabetes 2002 Feb;51(2):311-6

Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Cytokines have been implicated in pancreatic beta-cell destruction leading to type 1 diabetes. In vitro, a combination of gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) stimulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in islets, and the resulting increased production of nitric oxide (NO) causes islet cell destruction. Islets contain macrophages, ductal cells, and endothelial cells that, when activated, may mediate islet cell damage by producing either NO themselves or cytokines that then stimulate NO production by beta-cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-cell damage mediated by cytokine-induced NO production is dependent on beta-cell production of NO, or whether NO produced by other cells in the islet is capable of destroying beta-cells. To address this aim, we used transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative IFN-gamma receptor in beta-cells (RIP-Delta(gamma)R). RIP-Delta(gamma)R islets are resistant to IL-1 + IFN-gamma-induced inhibition of insulin secretion and DNA damage, indicating that beta-cell IFN-gamma responsiveness is required for IL-1 + IFN-gamma-mediated beta-cell damage. Although islets isolated from RIP-Delta(gamma)R mice are resistant to functional damage, these islets produce NO in response to IL-1 + IFN-gamma, but at a lower concentration than that produced by wild-type islets. beta-Cells appear to be the primary cellular source of IL-1 + IFN-gamma-induced iNOS expression in wild-type islets. In contrast, IL-1 + IFN-gamma fail to stimulate iNOS expression by insulin-expressing cells in islets isolated from RIP-DeltagammaR mice. IL-1 + IFN-gamma-induced expression of iNOS was detected in non-beta-cells in both wild-type and RIP-DeltagammaR islets. These findings support the hypothesis that NO must be produced by beta-cells to induce damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.51.2.311DOI Listing
February 2002