Publications by authors named "Riitta Parkkola"

178 Publications

Changes in electrocardiogram parameters during acute nonshivering cold exposure and associations with brown adipose tissue activity, plasma catecholamine levels, and brachial blood pressure in healthy adults.

Physiol Rep 2021 Feb;9(3):e14718

Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Background: Sympathetic activity causes changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) during cold exposure and the changes have been studied mostly during hypothermia and less during mild acute nonshivering cold exposure. Cold-induced sympathetic activity also activates brown adipose tissue (BAT) and increases arterial blood pressure (BP) and plasma catecholamine levels. We examined changes in ECG parameters during acute nonshivering cold exposure and their associations with markers of sympathetic activity during cold exposure: brachial blood pressure (BP), plasma catecholamine levels, and BAT activity measured by positron emission tomography (PET).

Methods And Results: Healthy subjects (M/F = 13/24, aged 20-55 years) were imaged with [ O]H O (perfusion, N = 37) and [ F]FTHA to measure plasma nonesterified fatty acid uptake (NEFA uptake, N = 37) during 2-h nonshivering cold exposure. 12-lead ECG (N = 37), plasma catecholamine levels (N = 17), and brachial BP (N = 31) were measured at rest in room temperature (RT) and re-measured after a 2-h nonshivering cold exposure. There were significant differences between RT and cold exposure in P axis (35.6 ± 26.4 vs. 50.8 ± 22.7 degrees, p = 0.005), PR interval (177.7 ± 24.6 ms vs.163.0 ± 28.7 ms, p = 0.001), QRS axis (42.1 ± 31.3 vs. 56.9 ± 24.1, p = 0.003), and QT (411.7 ± 25.5 ms vs. 434.5 ± 39.3 ms, p = 0.001). There was no significant change in HR, QRS duration, QTc, JTc, and T axis during cold exposure. Systolic BP (127.2 ± 15.7 vs. 131.8 ± 17.9 mmHg, p = 0.008), diastolic BP (81.7 ± 12.0 vs. 85.4 ± 13.0 mmHg, p = 0.02), and plasma noradrenaline level increased during cold exposure (1.97 ± 0.61 vs. 5.07 ± 1.32 µmol/L, p = 0.001). Cold-induced changes in ECG parameters did not correlate with changes in BAT activity, brachial BP, plasma catecholamines, or skin temperature.

Conclusions: During short-term nonshivering cold exposure, there were increases in P axis, PR interval, QRS axis, and QT compared to RT in healthy adults. Cold-induced changes in ECG parameters did not correlate with BAT activity, brachial BP, or plasma catecholamine levels which were used as markers of cold-induced sympathetic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881801PMC
February 2021

Associations Between Brain Gray Matter Volumes and Adipose Tissue Metabolism in Healthy Adults.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 Mar 2;29(3):543-549. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Objective: Gray matter (GM) volume in different brain loci has been shown to vary in obesity and diabetes, and elevated fasting plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels have been suggested as one potential mechanism. The hypothesis presented in this study is that brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity may correlate with GM volume in areas negatively associated with obesity and diabetes.

Methods: A total of 36 healthy patients (M/F: 12/24, age 39.7 ± 9.4 years, BMI 27.5 ± 5.6 kg/m ) were imaged with positron emission tomography using fatty acid analog [ F]FTHA to measure NEFA uptake and with [ O]H O to measure perfusion during cold exposure, at room temperature during fasting, or during a postprandial state. A 2-hour hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was performed to measure whole-body insulin sensitivity (M value, mean 7.6 ± 3.9 mg/kg/min). T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T was performed on all patients.

Results: BAT NEFA uptake was associated directly with GM volume in anterior cerebellum and occipital lobe (P ≤ 0.04) when adjusted for age, gender, and intra-abdominal fat volume and with anterior cerebellum, limbic lobe, and temporal lobe GM volumes when adjusted for M value.

Conclusions: BAT NEFA metabolism may participate in protection from cognitive degeneration associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, such as central obesity and insulin resistance. Potential causal relationships between BAT activity and GM volumes remain to be examined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.23094DOI Listing
March 2021

Insulin Resistance Is Associated With Enhanced Brain Glucose Uptake During Euglycemic Hyperinsulinemia: A Large-Scale PET Cohort.

Diabetes Care 2021 Mar 14;44(3):788-794. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

Objective: Whereas insulin resistance is expressed as reduced glucose uptake in peripheral tissues, the relationship between insulin resistance and brain glucose metabolism remains controversial. Our aim was to examine the association of insulin resistance and brain glucose uptake (BGU) during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp in a large sample of study participants across a wide range of age and insulin sensitivity.

Research Design And Methods: [F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) data from 194 participants scanned under clamp conditions were compiled from a single-center cohort. BGU was quantified by the fractional uptake rate. We examined the association of age, sex, M value from the clamp, steady-state insulin and free fatty acid levels, C-reactive protein levels, HbA, and presence of type 2 diabetes with BGU using Bayesian hierarchical modeling.

Results: Insulin sensitivity, indexed by the M value, was associated negatively with BGU in all brain regions, confirming that in insulin-resistant participants BGU was enhanced during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. In addition, the presence of type 2 diabetes was associated with additional increase in BGU. On the contrary, age was negatively related to BGU. Steady-state insulin levels, C-reactive protein and free fatty acid levels, sex, and HbA were not associated with BGU.

Conclusions: In this large cohort of participants of either sex across a wide range of age and insulin sensitivity, insulin sensitivity was the best predictor of BGU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896252PMC
March 2021

Brain growth in extremely preterm infants before and after implementing NAVA ventilation.

Acta Paediatr 2021 Jan 5. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.15749DOI Listing
January 2021

Association of Cumulative Paternal Early Life Stress With White Matter Maturation in Newborns.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 11 2;3(11):e2024832. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Importance: Early life stress (ELS) has been shown to affect brain development and health outcomes. Recent animal studies have linked paternal early stress exposures with next-generation outcomes. Epigenetic inheritance through the male germline has been suggested to be one of the mechanisms.

Objectives: To test whether paternal ELS, as measured using the Trauma and Distress Scale, is associated with neonate brain development.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study included data from participants from the prospective 2-generation FinnBrain Birth Cohort, which was collected from 2011 to 2015. Pregnant women and the fathers were consecutively recruited at gestational week 12 from maternity clinics in Finland. Magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed in 2019. Participants in this study were 72 families (infant, father, mother).

Exposure: Paternal exposure to ELS.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the major white-matter tracts of the newborn brain.

Results: A total of 72 trios (infant, mother, and father) were analyzed. At the time of delivery, the mean (SD) age was 31.0 (4.4) years for fathers and 30.3 (4.5) years for mothers. Forty-one infants (57%) were boys; mean (SD) child age at inclusion was 26.9 (7.2) days from birth and 205 (8) days from estimated conception. Increasing levels of paternal ELS were associated with higher FA values in the newborn brain in the body of the corpus callosum, right superior corona radiata, and retrolenticular parts of the internal capsule. This association persisted after controlling for maternal ELS, maternal socioeconomic status (SES), maternal body mass index, maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, child sex, and child age from birth and gestation corrected age when imaged. In additional region-of-interest analyses, the association between FA values and paternal Trauma and Distress Scale sum scores remained statistically significant in the earliest maturing regions of the brain, eg, the genu of the corpus callosum (in the regression models, β = 0.00096; 95% CI, 0.00034-0.00158; P = .003) and the splenium (β = 0.00090; 95% CI, 0.00000-0.00180; P = .049).

Conclusions And Relevance: This cohort study found a statistically significant association between paternal ELS and offspring brain development. This finding may have far-reaching implications in pediatrics, as it suggests the possibility of a novel route of intergenerational inheritance of ELS on next-generation brain development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.24832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686861PMC
November 2020

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging during Visual Perception Tasks in Adolescents Born Prematurely.

J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2020 Sep 15:1-12. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Radiology, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Objectives: Impairments in visual perception are among the most common developmental difficulties related to being born prematurely, and they are often accompanied by problems in other developmental domains. Neural activation in participants born prematurely and full-term during tasks that assess several areas of visual perception has not been studied. To better understand the neural substrates of the visual perceptual impairments, we compared behavioral performance and brain activations during visual perception tasks in adolescents born very preterm (birth weight ≤1500 g or gestational age <32 weeks) and full-term.

Methods: Tasks assessing visual closure, discrimination of a deviating figure, and discrimination of figure and ground from the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Third Edition were performed by participants born very preterm (n = 37) and full-term (n = 34) at 12 years of age during functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: Behavioral performance in the visual perception tasks did not differ between the groups. However, during the visual closure task, brain activation was significantly stronger in the group born very preterm in a number of areas including the frontal, anterior cingulate, temporal, and posterior medial parietal/cingulate cortices, as well as in parts of the cerebellum, thalamus, and caudate nucleus.

Conclusions: Differing activations during the visual closure task potentially reflect a compensatory neural process related to premature birth or lesser neural efficiency or may be a result of the use of compensatory behavioral strategies in the study group born very preterm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355617720000867DOI Listing
September 2020

White Matter Changes on Diffusion Tensor Imaging in the FINGER Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;78(1):75-86

Institute of Clinical Medicine/Neurology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: Early pathological changes in white matter microstructure can be studied using the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). It is not only important to study these subtle pathological changes leading to cognitive decline, but also to ascertain how an intervention would impact the white matter microstructure and cognition in persons at-risk of dementia.

Objectives: To study the impact of a multidomain lifestyle intervention on white matter and cognitive changes during the 2-year Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), a randomized controlled trial in at-risk older individuals (age 60-77 years) from the general population.

Methods: This exploratory study consisted of a subsample of 60 FINGER participants. Participants were randomized to either a multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk management, n = 34) or control group (general health advice, n = 26). All underwent baseline and 2-year brain DTI. Changes in fractional anisotropy (FA), diffusivity along domain (F1) and non-domain (F2) diffusion orientations, mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AxD), radial diffusivity (RD), and their correlations with cognitive changes during the 2-year multidomain intervention were analyzed.

Results: FA decreased, and cognition improved more in the intervention group compared to the control group (p < 0.05), with no significant intergroup differences for changes in F1, F2, MD, AxD, or RD. The cognitive changes were significantly positively related to FA change, and negatively related to RD change in the control group, but not in the intervention group.

Conclusion: The 2-year multidomain FINGER intervention may modulate white matter microstructural alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7683078PMC
January 2020

Sex-specific association between infant caudate volumes and a polygenic risk score for major depressive disorder.

J Neurosci Res 2020 12 9;98(12):2529-2540. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Polygenic risk scores for major depressive disorder (PRS-MDD) have been identified in large genome-wide association studies, and recent findings suggest that PRS-MDD might interact with environmental risk factors to shape human limbic brain development as early as in the prenatal period. Striatal structures are crucially involved in depression; however, the association of PRS-MDD with infant striatal volumes is yet unknown. In this study, 105 Finnish mother-infant dyads (44 female, 11-54 days old) were investigated to reveal how infant PRS-MDD is associated with infant dorsal striatal volumes (caudate, putamen) and whether PRS-MDD interacts with prenatal maternal depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, gestational weeks 14, 24, 34) on infant striatal volumes. A robust sex-specific main effect of PRS-MDD on bilateral infant caudate volumes was observed. PRS-MDD were more positively associated with caudate volumes in boys compared to girls. No significant interaction effects of genotype PRS-MDD with the environmental risk factor "prenatal maternal depressive symptoms" (genotype-by-environment interaction) nor significant interaction effects of genotype with prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and sex (genotype-by-environment-by-sex interaction) were found for infant dorsal striatal volumes. Our study showed that a higher PRS-MDD irrespective of prenatal exposure to maternal depressive symptoms is associated with smaller bilateral caudate volumes, an indicator of greater susceptibility to major depressive disorder, in female compared to male infants. This sex-specific polygenic effect might lay the ground for the higher prevalence of depression in women compared to men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24722DOI Listing
December 2020

Diffusion tensor imaging in frontostriatal tracts is associated with executive functioning in very preterm children at 9 years of age.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Jan 1;51(1):112-118. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

PEDEGO Research Unit and Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

Background: Very preterm birth can disturb brain maturation and subject these high-risk children to neurocognitive difficulties later.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of prematurity on microstructure of frontostriatal tracts in children with no severe neurologic impairment, and to study whether the diffusion tensor imaging metrics of frontostriatal tracts correlate to executive functioning.

Materials And Methods: The prospective cohort study comprised 54 very preterm children (mean gestational age 28.8 weeks) and 20 age- and gender-matched term children. None of the children had severe neurologic impairment. The children underwent diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological assessments at a mean age of 9 years. We measured quantitative diffusion tensor imaging metrics of frontostriatal tracts using probabilistic tractography. We also administered five subtests from the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition, to evaluate executive functioning.

Results: Very preterm children had significantly higher fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity values (P<0.05, corrected for multiple comparison) in dorsolateral prefrontal caudate and ventrolateral prefrontal caudate tracts as compared to term-born children. We found negative correlations between the diffusion tensor imaging metrics of frontostriatal tracts and inhibition functions (P<0.05, corrected for multiple comparison) in very preterm children.

Conclusion: Prematurity has a long-term effect on frontostriatal white matter microstructure that might contribute to difficulties in executive functioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04802-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796865PMC
January 2021

Newborn amygdalar volumes are associated with maternal prenatal psychological distress in a sex-dependent way.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 11;28:102380. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Institute of Clinical Medicine University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Center for Population Health Research, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.

Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy (PPD) has been associated with changes in offspring amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. Studies on child amygdalae suggest that sex moderates the vulnerability of fetal brains to prenatal stress. However, this has not yet been observed in these structures in newborns. Newborn studies are crucial, as they minimize the confounding influence of postnatal life. We investigated the effects of maternal prenatal psychological symptoms on newborn amygdalar and hippocampal volumes and their interactions with newborn sex in 123 newborns aged 2-5 weeks (69 males, 54 females). Based on earlier studies, we anticipated small, but statistically significant effects of PPD on the volumes of these structures. Maternal psychological distress was measured at gestational weeks (GW) 14, 24 and 34 using Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90, anxiety scale) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) questionnaires. Newborn sex was found to moderate the relationship between maternal distress symptoms at GW 24 and the volumes of left and right amygdala. This relationship was negative and significant only in males. No significant main effect or sex-based moderation was found for hippocampal volumes. This newborn study provides evidence for a sex-dependent influence of maternal psychiatric symptoms on amygdalar structural development. This association may be relevant to later psychopathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7453059PMC
August 2020

Newborn white matter microstructure moderates the association between maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and infant negative reactivity.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2020 Jul;15(6):649-660

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Maternal postpartum depression is a prominent risk factor for aberrant child socioemotional development, but there is little understanding about the neural phenotypes that underlie infant sensitivity to maternal depression. We examined whether newborn white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter maturity, moderates the association between maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and infant negative reactivity at 6 months. Participants were 80 mother-infant dyads participating in a prospective population-based cohort, and included families whose newborns underwent a magnetic resonance/diffusion tensor imaging scan at 2-5 weeks of age and whose mothers reported their own depressive symptoms at 3 and 6 months postpartum and infant negative emotional reactivity at 6 months. The whole-brain FA moderated the association between maternal depressive symptoms and mother-reported infant negative reactivity at 6 months after adjusting for the covariates. Maternal depressive symptoms were positively related to infant negative reactivity among infants with high or average FA in the whole brain and in corpus callosum and cingulum, but not among those with low FA. The link between maternal depressive symptoms and infant negative reactivity was moderated by newborn FA. The variation in white matter microstructure might play a role in child susceptibility to parental distress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsaa081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393309PMC
July 2020

Preterm children's developmental coordination disorder, cognition and quality of life: a prospective cohort study.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2020 6;4(1):e000633. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Pediatric Neurology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Objective: To evaluate the rate of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and its correlation to cognition and self-experienced health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children born very preterm.

Design: Prospective follow-up study.

Setting: Regional population of children born very preterm in Turku University Hospital, Finland, in 2001-2006.

Patients: A total of 170 children born very preterm were followed up until 11 years of age.

Main Outcome Measures: Motor and cognitive outcomes were evaluated using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - Second Edition (Movement ABC-2) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition, respectively, and HRQoL using the 17-Dimensional Illustrated Questionnaire (17D). The Touwen neurological examination was performed to exclude other neurological conditions affecting the motor outcome.

Results: Eighteen children born very preterm (17 boys) (11.3%) had DCD, defined as Movement ABC-2 total test score ≤5th percentile. A positive correlation between motor and cognitive outcome (r=0.22, p=0.006) was found. Children born very preterm with DCD had lower cognitive scores than those without DCD (Full-Scale IQ mean 76.8 vs 91.6, p=0.001). Moreover, children born very preterm with DCD reported lower HRQoL than children born very preterm without motor impairment (17D mean 0.93 vs 0.96, p=0.03). However, HRQoL was higher in this group of children born very preterm compared with population-based normative test results (p<0.001).

Conclusions: DCD was still common at 11 years of age in children born very preterm in 2000s. DCD associated with adverse cognitive development and lower self-experienced HRQoL. However, this group of children born very preterm reported better HRQoL in comparison with Finnish norms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjpo-2019-000633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254160PMC
April 2020

Visual Perceptual Skills in Very Preterm Children: Developmental Course and Associations With Neural Activation.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 08 30;109:72-78. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Children's Hospital and Pediatric Research Center, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The objective of this study was to examine how nonverbal skills at age five years relate to visual perception and brain activation during visual perception tasks at age 12 years in very preterm subjects without visual or other neurodevelopmental impairments or major brain pathologies.

Methods: At age five years, 36 prematurely born (birth weight ≤1500 g or gestational age less than 32 weeks) and 31 term-born control children were assessed with the nonverbal subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised and the NEPSY-Second Edition. At age 12 years the same children were re-assessed with tasks from the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Third Edition, during functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: Test performance at age five years was significantly poorer in the very preterm group than the control subjects, but at age 12 years performance was similar in both groups. In the very preterm group, better nonverbal skills at age five years were significantly associated with stronger neural activation during the visual perception task at age 12 years. No associations between nonverbal skills at age five years and brain activation at age 12 years appeared in the control group.

Conclusions: The associations between better nonverbal skills and stronger neural activation during visual perception task only observed in the very preterm group may reflect delayed development of the visual perception network and/or prematurity-related neural plasticity. The developmental follow-up of very preterm children should include psychological assessment of nonverbal skills at least until age five years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.04.012DOI Listing
August 2020

Brain volumes in relation to loneliness and social competence in preadolescents born very preterm.

Brain Behav 2020 06 24;10(6):e01640. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Introduction: The aim of the present study was to assess how regional brain volumes associate with self-experienced social and emotional loneliness and social competence in very preterm and term-born preadolescents.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-four very preterm subjects (birthweight ≤1,500 g and/or gestational age <32 weeks) without neurodevelopmental impairments and/or major brain pathologies and 31 term-born subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 12 years of age. Regional brain volumes were measured using an automated image quantification tool. At 11 years of age, social and emotional loneliness were assessed with the Peer Network and Dyadic Loneliness Scale-self-report questionnaire and cooperating skills, empathy, impulsivity, and disruptiveness with the Multisource Assessment of Children's Social Competence Scale-self-report questionnaire.

Results: In the very preterm group, a number of significant associations were found between smaller regional brain volumes and self-experienced emotional loneliness, more impulsivity and more disruptiveness. In the control group, brain volumes and loneliness were not associated, and brain volumes and social competence were associated with a lesser degree than in the very preterm group.

Conclusion: Experiences of emotional loneliness and poorer social competence appear to be more related to brain volumes in very preterm preadolescents than in those born full-term. It also appears that in very preterm preadolescents, emotional loneliness may be more reflected in brain development than social loneliness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303371PMC
June 2020

Modulating dream experience: Noninvasive brain stimulation over the sensorimotor cortex reduces dream movement.

Sci Rep 2020 04 21;10(1):6735. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, 8050, Zurich, Switzerland.

Recently, cortical correlates of specific dream contents have been reported, such as the activation of the sensorimotor cortex during dreamed hand clenching. Yet, despite a close resemblance of such activation patterns to those seen during the corresponding wakeful behaviour, the causal mechanisms underlying specific dream contents remain largely elusive. Here, we aimed to investigate the causal role of the sensorimotor cortex in generating movement and bodily sensations during REM sleep dreaming. Following bihemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) or sham stimulation, guided by functional mapping of the primary motor cortex, naive participants were awakened from REM sleep and responded to a questionnaire on bodily sensations in dreams. Electromyographic (EMG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were used to quantify physiological changes during the preceding REM period. We found that tDCS, compared to sham stimulation, significantly decreased reports of dream movement, especially of repetitive actions. Other types of bodily experiences, such as tactile or vestibular sensations, were not affected by tDCS, confirming the specificity of stimulation effects to movement sensations. In addition, tDCS reduced EEG interhemispheric coherence in parietal areas and affected the phasic EMG correlation between both arms. These findings show that a complex temporal reorganization of the motor network co-occurred with the reduction of dream movement, revealing a link between central and peripheral motor processes and movement sensations of the dream self. tDCS over the sensorimotor cortex interferes with dream movement during REM sleep, which is consistent with a causal contribution to dream experience and has broader implications for understanding the neural basis of self-experience in dreams.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63479-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174293PMC
April 2020

Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue is a Metabolically Active and Insulin-Sensitive Distinct Fat Depot.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 07;105(7)

Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Context: Bone marrow (BM) in adult long bones is rich in adipose tissue, but the functions of BM adipocytes are largely unknown. We set out to elucidate the metabolic and molecular characteristics of BM adipose tissue (BMAT) in humans.

Objective: Our aim was to determine if BMAT is an insulin-sensitive tissue, and whether the insulin sensitivity is altered in obesity or type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

Design: This was a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

Setting: The study was conducted in a clinical research center.

Patients Or Other Participants: Bone marrow adipose tissue glucose uptake (GU) was assessed in 23 morbidly obese subjects (9 with T2DM) and 9 healthy controls with normal body weight. In addition, GU was assessed in another 11 controls during cold exposure. Bone marrow adipose tissue samples for molecular analyses were collected from non-DM patients undergoing knee arthroplasty.

Intervention(s): Obese subjects were assessed before and 6 months after bariatric surgery and controls at 1 time point.

Main Outcome Measure: We used positron emission tomography imaging with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose tracer to characterize GU in femoral and vertebral BMAT. Bone marrow adipose tissue molecular profile was assessed using quantitative RT-PCR.

Results: Insulin enhances GU in human BMAT. Femoral BMAT insulin sensitivity was impaired in obese patients with T2DM compared to controls, but it improved after bariatric surgery. Furthermore, gene expression analysis revealed that BMAT was distinct from brown and white adipose tissue.

Conclusions: Bone marrow adipose tissue is a metabolically active, insulin-sensitive and molecularly distinct fat depot that may play a role in whole body energy metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247553PMC
July 2020

Resting-state networks of the neonate brain identified using independent component analysis.

Dev Neurobiol 2020 03 19;80(3-4):111-125. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been successfully used to probe the intrinsic functional organization of the brain and to study brain development. Here, we implemented a combination of individual and group independent component analysis (ICA) of FSL on a 6-min resting-state data set acquired from 21 naturally sleeping term-born (age 26 ± 6.7 d), healthy neonates to investigate the emerging functional resting-state networks (RSNs). In line with the previous literature, we found evidence of sensorimotor, auditory/language, visual, cerebellar, thalmic, parietal, prefrontal, anterior cingulate as well as dorsal and ventral aspects of the default-mode-network. Additionally, we identified RSNs in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions that have not been previously described in this age group and correspond to the canonical RSNs established in adults. Importantly, we found that careful ICA-based denoising of fMRI data increased the number of networks identified with group-ICA, whereas the degree of spatial smoothing did not change the number of identified networks. Our results show that the infant brain has an established set of RSNs soon after birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dneu.22742DOI Listing
March 2020

White Matter Hyperintensities and Cognitive Impairment in Healthy and Pathological Aging: A Quantified Brain MRI Study.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2019 25;48(5-6):297-307. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.

Background: Brain changes involving the white matter (WM), often an indication of cerebrovascular pathology, are frequently seen in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Few studies have examined possible cognitive domain- or group-specific cognitive effects of WM pathology in old age, MCI, and AD.

Objective: Our purpose was to examine the relationship between WM hyperintensities (WMH), a typical marker for WM pathology, and cognitive functioning in healthy old age and pathological aging using quantified MRI data.

Methods: We utilized multidomain neuropsychological data and quantified MRI data from a sample of 42 cognitively healthy older adults and 44 patients with MCI/AD (total n = 86).

Results: After controlling for age and education, WMH in the temporal and parieto-occipital lobes was associated with impairments in processing speed and parieto-occipital pathology with verbal memory impairment in the whole sample. Additionally, temporal WMH was associated with impaired processing speed in the patient group specifically.

Conclusions: WM pathology is strongly associated with impaired processing speed, and our results indicate that these impairments arise from WMH in the temporal and parieto-occipital regions. In MCI and AD patients with temporal WMH, processing speed impairments are especially prominent. The results of this study increase our knowledge of cognitive repercussions stemming from temporal and/or parieto-occipital WM pathology in healthy and pathological aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000506124DOI Listing
July 2020

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Incidental Findings in Brain MRIs of Healthy Neonates-The FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study.

Front Neurol 2019 8;10:1347. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Birth is a traumatic event with molding forces directed to the fetal skull, which may result in intracranial hemorrhages. However, the knowledge on prevalence and risk factors of incidental brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in infants is still inconclusive. The prevalence and nature of incidental MRI findings were assessed in a birth cohort of 175 asymptomatic infants. The role of delivery method as well as other potential risk factors for intracranial hemorrhages were evaluated. The infants underwent 3T MRI at the age of 2-5 weeks, and the neurological status of the infants with an incidental finding was evaluated by a pediatric neurologist. Information on the delivery method, duration of delivery, parity, used anesthesia, oxytocin induction, and Apgar score was gathered to evaluate their association with the prevalence of hemorrhages. Incidental intracranial hemorrhages were detected in 12 infants (6.9%), all following spontaneous or assisted vaginal delivery. Vacuum-assistance was found to be a risk factor for subdural hemorrhages with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.7 (95% CI [1.18; 18.9], = 0.032). All infants were evaluated to develop normally by their clinical status. Incidental intracranial hemorrhages are relatively common among infants born by vaginal delivery. They are often of little clinical significance within the first years of life and have unlikely consequences for later neurodevelopment either. Despite their benign character, investigators should be prepared to share this information with parents competently as the findings can cause parental anxiety, and especially as the popularity of MRI as a research tool is increasing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.01347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960102PMC
January 2020

A Novel Approach for Manual Segmentation of the Amygdala and Hippocampus in Neonate MRI.

Front Neurosci 2019 24;13:1025. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

The gross anatomy of the infant brain at term is fairly similar to that of the adult brain, but structures are immature, and the brain undergoes rapid growth during the first 2 years of life. Neonate magnetic resonance (MR) images have different contrasts compared to adult images, and automated segmentation of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can thus be considered challenging as less software options are available. Despite this, most anatomical regions are identifiable and thus amenable to manual segmentation. In the current study, we developed a protocol for segmenting the amygdala and hippocampus in T2-weighted neonatal MR images. The participants were 31 healthy infants between 2 and 5 weeks of age. Intra-rater reliability was measured in 12 randomly selected MR images, where 6 MR images were segmented at 1-month intervals between the delineations, and another 6 MR images at 6-month intervals. The protocol was also tested by two independent raters in 20 randomly selected T2-weighted images, and finally with T1 images. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) for intra-rater, inter-rater, and T1 vs. T2 comparisons were computed. Moreover, manual segmentations were compared to automated segmentations performed by iBEAT toolbox in 10 T2-weighted MR images. The intra-rater reliability was high ICC ≥ 0.91, DSC ≥ 0.89, the inter-rater reliabilities were satisfactory ICC ≥ 0.90, DSC ≥ 0.75 for hippocampus and DSC ≥ 0.52 for amygdalae. Segmentations for T1 vs. T2-weighted images showed high consistency ICC ≥ 0.90, DSC ≥ 0.74. The manual and iBEAT segmentations showed no agreement, DSC ≥ 0.39. In conclusion, there is a clear need to improve and develop the procedures for automated segmentation of infant brain MR images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.01025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6768976PMC
September 2019

Midlife Insulin Resistance as a Predictor for Late-Life Cognitive Function and Cerebrovascular Lesions.

J Alzheimers Dis 2019 ;72(1):215-228

Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Finland.

Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) but not for AD neuropathology. The association between T2DM and AD is assumed to be mediated through vascular mechanisms. However, insulin resistance (IR), the hallmark of T2DM, has been shown to associate with AD neuropathology and cognitive decline.

Objective: To evaluate if midlife IR predicts late-life cognitive performance and cerebrovascular lesions (white matter hyperintensities and total vascular burden), and whether cerebrovascular lesions and brain amyloid load are associated with cognitive functioning.

Methods: This exposure-to-control follow-up study examined 60 volunteers without dementia (mean age 70.9 years) with neurocognitive testing, brain 3T-MRI and amyloid-PET imaging. The volunteers were recruited from the Finnish Health 2000 survey (n = 6062) to attend follow-up examinations in 2014-2016 according to their insulin sensitivity in 2000 and their APOE genotype. The exposure group (n = 30) had IR in 2000 and the 30 controls had normal insulin sensitivity. There were 15 APOEɛ4 carriers per group. Statistical analyses were performed with multivariable linear models.

Results: At follow-up the IR+group performed worse on executive functions (p = 0.02) and processing speed (p = 0.007) than the IR- group. The groups did not differ in cerebrovascular lesions. No associations were found between cerebrovascular lesions and neurocognitive test scores. Brain amyloid deposition associated with slower processing speed.

Conclusion: Midlife IR predicted poorer executive functions and slower processing speed, but not cerebrovascular lesions. Brain amyloid deposition was associated with slower processing speed. The association between midlife IR and late-life cognition might not be mediated through cerebrovascular lesions measured here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-190691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6839606PMC
November 2020

Association between Deep Gray Matter Changes and Neurocognitive Function in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: A Tensor-Based Morphometric MRI Study.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2019 12;48(1-2):68-78. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, Finland, and University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Background: Atrophy of the deep gray matter (DGM) has been associated with a risk of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the degree of cognitive impairment. However, specific knowledge of the associations between degenerative DGM changes and neurocognitive functions remains limited.

Objective: To examine degenerative DGM changes and evaluate their association with neurocognitive functions.

Method: We examined DGM volume changes with tensor-based morphometry (TBM) and analyzed the relationships between DGM changes and neurocognitive functions in control (n = 58), MCI (n = 38), and AD (n = 58) groups with multiple linear regression analyses.

Results: In all DGM areas, the AD group had the largest changes in TBM volume. The differences in TBM volume changes were larger between the control group and the AD group than between the other pairs of groups. In the AD group, volume changes of the right thalamus were significantly associated with episodic memory, learning, and semantic processing. Significant or trend-level associations were identified between bilateral caudate nucleus changes and episodic memory as well as semantic processing. In the control and MCI groups, very few significant associations emerged.

Conclusions: Atrophy of the DGM structures, especially the thalamus and caudate nucleus, is related to cognitive impairment in AD. DGM atrophy is associated with tests reflecting both subcortical and cortical cognitive functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000502476DOI Listing
April 2020

Diffusion tensor imaging is associated with motor outcomes of very preterm born children at 11 years of age.

Acta Paediatr 2020 04 7;109(4):738-745. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Children's Hospital, and Pediatric Research Center, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Aim: Very preterm children born <32 weeks of gestation are at risk for motor difficulties such as cerebral palsy and developmental coordination disorder. This study explores the association between diffusion tensor imaging metrics at term and motor outcomes at 11 years of age.

Methods: A cohort of 37 very preterm infants (mean gestational age 29 4/7, SD 2 0/7) born in 2004-2006 in Turku University Hospital underwent diffusion tensor imaging at term. A region of interest analysis of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity was performed. Motor outcomes at 11 years of age were measured with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - Second Edition.

Results: The diffusion metrics of the corpus callosum (genu P = .005, splenium P = .049), the left corona radiata (P = .035) and the right optic radiation (P = .017) were related to later motor performance. Mean diffusivity decreased and fractional anisotropy increased in proportion to the improving performance.

Conclusion: The diffusion metrics of the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, the left corona radiata and the right optic radiation at term were associated with motor skills at 11 years of age. Diffusion tensor imaging should be further studied as a potential tool in recognising children at risk for motor impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.15004DOI Listing
April 2020

Maternal Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Is Associated With Sexually Dimorphic Alterations in Amygdala Volume in 4-Year-Old Children.

Front Behav Neurosci 2019 6;13:175. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

The FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Prenatal stress is associated with child behavioral outcomes increasing susceptibility for psychiatric disorders in later life. Altered fetal brain development might partly mediate this association, as some studies suggest. With this study, we investigated the relation between prenatal stress, child's brain structure and behavioral problems. The association between self-reported maternal pregnancy-related anxiety (PRAQ-R2 questionnaire, second and third trimester) and brain gray matter volume was probed in 27 4-year-old children (13 female). Voxel based morphometry was applied with an age-matched template in SPM for the whole-brain analyses, and amygdala volume was assessed with manual segmentation. Possible pre- and postnatal confounders, such as maternal depression and anxiety among others, were controlled for. Child behavioral problems were assessed with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire by maternal report. We found a significant interaction effect of pregnancy-related anxiety and child's sex on child's amygdala volume, i.e., higher pregnancy-related anxiety in the second trimester was related to significantly greater left relative amygdala volume in girls compared to boys. Further exploratory analyses yielded that both maternal pregnancy-related anxiety and child's amygdala volume are related to child emotional and behavioral difficulties: While higher pregnancy-related anxiety was associated with more emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems and overall child difficulties, greater left amygdala volume was related to less of these child difficulties and might partly mediate sex-specific associations between pregnancy-related anxiety and child behavioral difficulties. Our data suggest that maternal prenatal distress leads to sexually dimorphic structural changes in the offspring's limbic system and that these changes are also linked to behavioral difficulties. Our results provide further support for the notion that prenatal stress impacts child development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6691065PMC
August 2019

Natalizumab treatment reduces microglial activation in the white matter of the MS brain.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2019 07 7;6(4):e574. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Turku PET Centre (M.S., J.T., M.M., A.V., S.S., J.K., J. Rokka, M.N., J. Rinne, E.R., L.A.), Turku University Hospital and University of Turku; Division of Clinical Neurosciences (M.S., M.N., J. Rinne, E.R., L.A.), Turku University Hospital and University of Turku; and Department of Radiology (R.P.), University Hospital and University of Turku, Finland.

Objective: To evaluate whether natalizumab treatment reduces microglial activation in MS.

Methods: We measured microglial activation using the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO)-binding radioligand [C]PK11195 and PET imaging in 10 patients with MS before and after 1 year treatment with natalizumab. Microglial activation was evaluated as the distribution volume ratio (DVR) of the specifically bound radioligand in brain white and gray matter regions of interest. MRI and disability measurements were performed for comparison. Evaluation was performed identically with 11 age- and sex-matched patients with MS who had no MS therapy.

Results: Natalizumab treatment reduced microglial activation in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM; baseline DVR vs DVR after 1 year of treatment 1.25 vs 1.22, = 0.014, Wilcoxon) and at the rim of chronic lesions (baseline DVR vs DVR after 1 year of treatment 1.24 vs 1.18, = 0.014). In patients with MS with no treatment, there was an increase in microglial activation at the rim of chronic lesions (1.23 vs 1.27, = 0.045). No alteration was observed in microglial activation in gray matter areas. In the untreated patient group, higher microglial activation at baseline was associated with more rapid disability progression during an average of 4 years of follow-up.

Conclusions: TSPO-PET imaging can be used as a tool to assess longitudinal changes in microglial activation in the NAWM and in the perilesional areas in the MS brain in vivo. Natalizumab treatment reduces the diffuse compartmentalized CNS inflammation related to brain resident innate immune cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6624093PMC
July 2019

Domain-specific cognitive effects of white matter pathology in old age, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 2020 05 14;27(3):453-470. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Psychology, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.

Concomitant white matter (WM) brain pathology is often present in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cognitive effects of WM pathology on cognition in normal and pathological aging have been studied, but very little is known about possible group-specific effects in old age, MCI and AD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between WM pathology and cognitive functioning in four cognitive domains in old age, MCI and AD. The study utilized multi-domain neuropsychological data and visually rated MRI imaging data from a sample of 56 healthy older adults, 40 patients with MCI and 52 patients with AD ( = 148). After controlling for age and education, main effects of frontal WM pathology (especially in the left hemisphere) were found for cognitive performances in two domains, whereas a main effect of parieto-occipital WM pathology was only found for processing speed. In addition, with regard to processing speed, an interaction between group and WM changes was found: Patients with AD that had moderate or severe left frontal WM pathology were considerably slower than patients with AD that had milder cerebrovascular pathology. Frontal WM pathology, especially in the left hemisphere, seems to affect cognitive functions in many domains in all three groups. The results of the study increase our knowledge of cognitive repercussions stemming from frontal and/or parieto-occipital WM pathology in AD. Clinicians should be aware that patients with AD with prominent frontal cerebrovascular pathology can have considerably slowed cognitive processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13825585.2019.1628916DOI Listing
May 2020

Brain volumes and cortical thickness on MRI in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER).

Alzheimers Res Ther 2019 06 4;11(1):53. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Department of Neurology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) was a multicenter randomized controlled trial that reported beneficial effects on cognition for a 2-year multimodal intervention (diet, exercise, cognitive training, vascular risk monitoring) versus control (general health advice). This study reports exploratory analyses of brain MRI measures.

Methods: FINGER targeted 1260 older individuals from the general Finnish population. Participants were 60-77 years old, at increased risk for dementia but without dementia/substantial cognitive impairment. Brain MRI scans were available for 132 participants (68 intervention, 64 control) at baseline and 112 participants (59 intervention, 53 control) at 2 years. MRI measures included regional brain volumes, cortical thickness, and white matter lesion (WML) volume. Cognition was assessed at baseline and 1- and 2-year visits using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. We investigated the (1) differences between the intervention and control groups in change in MRI outcomes (FreeSurfer 5.3) and (2) post hoc sub-group analyses of intervention effects on cognition in participants with more versus less pronounced structural brain changes at baseline (mixed-effects regression models, Stata 12).

Results: No significant differences between the intervention and control groups were found on the changes in MRI measures. Beneficial intervention effects on processing speed were more pronounced in individuals with higher baseline cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease signature areas (composite measure of entorhinal, inferior and middle temporal, and fusiform regions). The randomization group × time × cortical thickness interaction coefficient was 0.198 (p = 0.021). A similar trend was observed for higher hippocampal volume (group × time × hippocampus volume interaction coefficient 0.1149, p = 0.085).

Conclusions: The FINGER MRI exploratory sub-study did not show significant differences between the intervention and control groups on changes in regional brain volumes, regional cortical thicknesses, or WML volume after 2 years in at-risk elderly without substantial impairment. The cognitive benefits on processing speed of the FINGER intervention may be more pronounced in individuals with fewer structural brain changes on MRI at baseline. This suggests that preventive strategies may be more effective if started early, before the occurrence of more pronounced structural brain changes.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01041989 . Registered January 5, 2010.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-019-0506-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6549301PMC
June 2019

Test-retest reliability of Diffusion Tensor Imaging metrics in neonates.

Neuroimage 2019 08 25;197:598-607. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used in children and adults to study the microstructural features of the brain. Its use in neonate brains has been limited. Neonate brains are almost completely unmyelinated, and this together with the tendency for babies to move during a scanning session may affect the reliability of the measurements. Here we divided a 96 direction acquisition into three segments, and analysed the intra scan test-retest reliability for pairs of segments. Each segment was subjected to a rigorous quality control, and from the surviving data we chose 25 diffusion encoding directions from each segment, and assessed the pairwise reliability of the most common DTI metrics. This pairwise reliability was assessed for data from 86 infants. We used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), voxelwise and ROI analysis schemes, to see potential differential effects of analysis strategy and post processing on the obtained DTI metrics. We found that intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) values were generally high (ICC > 0.80). Residual motion in the data, after quality control, was not found to associate with the diffusion metrics. The results indicate that DTI metrics from neonate data can be reliable, even at relatively low angular resolution that are common for neonate scans. The results lend confidence to the use of neonate DTI data in cross sectional and longitudinal analyses in brain white matter skeleton. Future studies should assess the reliability of fiber tracking techniques in neonate data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.04.067DOI Listing
August 2019

Effects of short-term sprint interval and moderate-intensity continuous training on liver fat content, lipoprotein profile, and substrate uptake: a randomized trial.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 06 18;126(6):1756-1768. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Turku PET Centre, University of Turku , Turku , Finland.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and increased liver fat content (LFC) alter lipoprotein profile and composition and impair liver substrate uptake. Exercise training mitigates T2D and reduces LFC, but the benefits of different training intensities in terms of lipoprotein classes and liver substrate uptake are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or sprint interval training (SIT) on LFC, liver substrate uptake, and lipoprotein profile in subjects with normoglycemia or prediabetes/T2D. We randomized 54 subjects (normoglycemic group, = 28; group with prediabetes/T2D, = 26; age = 40-55 yr) to perform either MICT or SIT for 2 wk and measured LFC with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lipoprotein composition with NMR, and liver glucose uptake (GU) and fatty acid uptake (FAU) using PET. At baseline, the group with prediabetes/T2D had higher LFC, impaired lipoprotein profile, and lower whole body insulin sensitivity and aerobic capacity compared with the normoglycemic group. Both training modes improved aerobic capacity ( < 0.001) and lipoprotein profile (reduced LDL and increased large HDL subclasses; all < 0.05) with no training regimen (SIT vs. MICT) or group effect (normoglycemia vs. prediabetes/T2D). LFC tended to be reduced in the group with prediabetes/T2D compared with the normoglycemic group posttraining ( = 0.051). When subjects were divided according to LFC (high LFC, >5.6%; low LFC, <5.6%), training reduced LFC in subjects with high LFC ( = 0.009), and only MICT increased insulin-stimulated liver GU ( = 0.03). Short-term SIT and MICT are effective in reducing LFC in subjects with fatty liver and in improving lipoprotein profile regardless of baseline glucose tolerance. Short-term MICT is more efficient in improving liver insulin sensitivity compared with SIT. In the short term, both sprint interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) reduce liver fat content and improve lipoprotein profile; however, MICT seems to be preferable in improving liver insulin sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00900.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6620664PMC
June 2019

Unlikely association between Kawasaki disease and intracranial aneurysms: a prospective cohort study.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Feb 15:1-4. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

1Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Clinical Neurosciences.

OBJECTIVEKawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis that can cause aneurysm formation in coronary arteries and, more rarely, in peripheral arteries. A possible connection between KD and intracranial aneurysms is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if KD is associated with intracranial aneurysms.METHODSIn this prospective cohort study, all patients hospitalized and diagnosed with KD in the authors' hospital district area in the period from 1978 to 1995 were identified. Patients with a current age ≥ 25 years and a history of KD in childhood were included in the study, which was conducted between 2016 and 2017. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the brain was performed in all patients.RESULTSForty patients (25 males), whose mean age was 33.5 ± 3.9 years (mean ± standard deviation), were eligible for study inclusion. The mean age at KD diagnosis was 3.9 ± 3.1 years, and the mean follow-up was 29.5 ± 4.3 years. Six patients (15%) had coronary arterial lesions during the acute illness of KD. None of the patients (0%) had intracranial aneurysms on brain MRA, which is significantly under the prevalence of 10% (95% CI 0%-8.8%, p = 0.03) that is the recommended limit for intracranial aneurysm screening.CONCLUSIONSThe study results suggest that KD is not associated with an increased prevalence of intracranial aneurysms and that screening for intracranial aneurysms is not warranted in patients with a history of KD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.11.PEDS18575DOI Listing
February 2019