Publications by authors named "Riitta Niittyvuopio"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Allogeneic stem cell transplant in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and karnofsky performance status score less than or equal to 80%: A study from the acute leukemia working party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT).

Cancer Med 2021 Jan 26;10(1):23-33. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

EBMT Paris Study Office, Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

Limited data are currently available on the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) with a reduced performance status. We herein present the results of a registry study on 2,936 AML patients undergoing allo-SCT in first remission (CR1) with a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score less than or equal to 80%. Two-year leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free, and relapse-free survival (GRFS) rates were 54%, 59%, and 41%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, patients with a KPS score = 80% had lower non-relapse mortality (NRM) and superior OS in comparison to patients with a KPS score <80% (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of patients with a KPS score =80%, a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen was associated with an increased risk of relapse (p = 0.002) and lower GRFS (p < 0.001) compared to myeloablative conditioning (MAC). Differently, in patients with a KPS score <80%, a RIC regimen resulted in lower NRM (p < 0.001), whereas relapse incidence did not differ, thus leading to an improved GRFS (p = 0.008) as compared to MAC. A transplant from a matched sibling donor (MSD) was associated with a reduced incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD (p < 0.01) and NRM (p < 0.01) in comparison to other donor types. In conclusion, allo-SCT appears feasible in AML patients with a jeopardized KPS score. Survival is significantly affected by the conditioning intensity, which should be adjusted according to the severity of KPS impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826477PMC
January 2021

Evaluation of Trends and Prognosis Over Time in Patients with AML Relapsing After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Reveals Improved Survival for Young Patients in Recent Years.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 Dec 28;26(24):6475-6482. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Clinical Hematology and Cellular Therapy, Saint-Antoine Hospital, INSERM UMR 938 and Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Purpose: Relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) post allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) has a dismal prognosis.

Experimental Design: To assess prognosis of patients with recurrent AML post allo-HCT over time, we analyzed European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry data of 8,162 adult patients with AML who relapsed between 2000 and 2018 after allo-HCT performed in first complete remission from matched sibling, unrelated, or haploidentical donors.

Results: The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate from relapse was 17%. For 3,630 patients, <50 years of age, the 2-year OS continuously increased from 16% between 2000 and 2004 to 18% for 2005-2009, to 21% for 2010-2014, and to 26% for 2015-2018 ( = 0.001). Improvement over time was noted both after relapse within and beyond 6 months from allo-HCT. On multivariate analysis among patients <50 years of age, OS was positively affected by a later year of relapse (baseline: 2000-2004; HR, 0.82; < 0.02 for 2010-2014 and HR, 0.72; = 0.0002 for 2015-2018), good performance status, favorable cytogenetics, and longer time from transplant to relapse, but negatively affected by increasing age. In contrast, among 4,532 patients, >50 years of age, the year of relapse had no influence on OS (16% for 2000-2004 and 14% for 2015-2018; = 0.56). Regarding treatment, encouraging results were observed after second allo-HCT, which was performed within 2 years after relapse in 17% of the entire cohort, resulting in a 2-year OS of 30.7%.

Conclusions: Outcome after posttransplant relapse among younger patients has improved significantly in recent years, likely reflecting, among other factors, the efficacy of posttransplant salvage including second allo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-3134DOI Listing
December 2020

Post-transplant cyclophosphamide versus antithymocyte globulin in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation from 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donors.

J Hematol Oncol 2020 07 3;13(1):87. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Sorbonne Université, AP-HP, INSERM UMRs938, Paris, France.

Background: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major contributor to mortality and morbidity after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The updated recommendations suggest that rabbit antithymocyte globulin or anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATG) should be used for GVHD prophylaxis in patients undergoing matched-unrelated donor (MUD) allo-HSCT. More recently, using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) in the haploidentical setting has resulted in low incidences of both acute (aGVHD) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Therefore, the aim of our study was to compare GVHD prophylaxis using either PTCY or ATG in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who underwent allo-HSCT in first remission (CR1) from a 10/10 HLA-MUD.

Methods: Overall, 174 and 1452 patients from the EBMT registry receiving PTCY and ATG were included. Cumulative incidence of aGVHD and cGVHD, leukemia-free survival, overall survival, non-relapse mortality, cumulative incidence of relapse, and refined GVHD-free, relapse-free survival were compared between the 2 groups. Propensity score matching was also performed in order to confirm the results of the main analysis RESULTS: No statistical difference between the PTCY and ATG groups was observed for the incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD. The same held true for the incidence of cGVHD and for extensive cGVHD. In univariate and multivariate analyses, no statistical differences were observed for all other transplant outcomes. These results were also confirmed using matched-pair analysis.

Conclusion: These results highlight that, in the10/10 HLA-MUD setting, the use of PTCY for GVHD prophylaxis may provide similar outcomes to those obtained with ATG in patients with AML in CR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-020-00923-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333262PMC
July 2020

Cytogenetic risk score maintains its prognostic significance in AML patients with detectable measurable residual disease undergoing transplantation in remission: On behalf of the acute leukemia working party of the European society for blood and marrow transplantation.

Am J Hematol 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Haematology and EBMT Paris study office / CEREST-TC, Saint Antoine Hospital, INSERM UMR 938 and Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

While evidence for measurable residual disease (MRD) is a harbinger of inferior outcome in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients referred for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), the exact clinical trajectory of specific patient subsets in this clinical setting is undefined. Using a recently published prognostic cytogenetic model (Canaani et al. Leukemia 2019) we evaluated whether this model applied also to studies of patients with positive MRD. The analysis comprised MRD patients in first complete remission undergoing allo-SCT from a matched sibling donor or unrelated donor. Seven hundred and seventy-five patients were evaluated with a median follow-up duration of 22 months. Cytogenetic risk score was favorable, intermediate/FLT3 intermediate/FLT3-ITD3, and adverse in 15%, 28.3%, 37% and 19.7% of the patients, respectively. Favorable and intermediate/FLT3 risk patients had 2-year leukemia-free survival rates of 78% and 61%, respectively, compared with only 50% and 37% for intermediate/FLT3-ITD3 and adverse risk patients, respectively (P < .001). In multivariate analysis adverse and intermediate/FLT3-ITD3 risk patients were more likely to experience disease relapse compared with favorable risk patients [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1-7.3; P < .001, and HR = 4.4, CI 95%, 2.4-7.8; P < .001, respectively]. The European society for blood and marrow transplantation cytogenetic risk score is a valuable adjunct for risk stratification of MRD AML patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25905DOI Listing
June 2020

Comparing transplant outcomes in ALL patients after haploidentical with PTCy or matched unrelated donor transplantation.

Blood Adv 2020 05;4(9):2073-2083

Department of Hematology, European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Paris Study Office/Centros de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador, Hôpital Saint Antoine, INSERM, Paris, France.

We compared outcomes of 1461 adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receiving hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a haploidentical (n = 487) or matched unrelated donor (MUD; n = 974) between January 2005 and June 2018. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy), calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for haploidentical, and CNI with MMF or methotrexate with/without antithymoglobulin for MUDs. Haploidentical recipients were matched (1:2 ratio) with MUD controls for sex, conditioning intensity, disease stage, Philadelphia-chromosome status, and cytogenetic risk. In the myeloablative setting, day +28 neutrophil recovery was similar between haploidentical (87%) and MUD (88%) (P = .11). Corresponding rates after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) were 84% and 88% (P = .47). The 3-month incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) and 3-year chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was similar after haploidentical compared with MUD: myeloablative conditioning, 33% vs 34% (P = .46) for aGVHD and 29% vs 31% for cGVHD (P = .58); RIC, 31% vs 30% (P = .06) for aGVHD and 24% vs 29% for cGVHD (P = .86). Among patients receiving myeloablative regimens, 3-year probabilities of overall survival were 44% and 51% with haploidentical and MUD (P = .56). Corresponding rates after RIC were 43% and 42% (P = .6). In this large multicenter case-matched retrospective analysis, despite the limitations of a registry-based study (ie, unavailability of key elements such as minimal residual disease testing), our analysis indicated that outcomes of patients with ALL undergoing HCT from a haploidentical donor were comparable with 8 of 8 MUD transplantations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218425PMC
May 2020

Association of Serum Ferritin Levels Before Start of Conditioning With Mortality After alloSCT - A Prospective, Non-interventional Study of the EBMT Transplant Complications Working Party.

Front Immunol 2020 15;11:586. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Elevated serum ferritin levels occur due to iron overload or during inflammation and macrophage activation. A correlation of high serum ferritin levels with increased mortality after alloSCT has been suggested by several retrospective analyses as well as by two smaller prospective studies. This prospective multicentric study aimed to study the association of ferritin serum levels before start of conditioning with alloSCT outcome. Patients with acute leukemia, lymphoma or MDS receiving a matched sibling alloSCT for the first time were considered for inclusion, regardless of conditioning. A comparison of outcomes between patients with high and low ferritin level was performed using univariate analysis and multivariate analysis using cause-specific Cox model. Twenty centers reported data on 298 alloSCT recipients. The ferritin cut off point was determined at 1500 μg/l (median of measured ferritin levels). In alloSCT recipients with ferritin levels above cut off measured before the start of conditioning, overall survival (HR = 2.5, CI = 1.5-4.1, = 0.0005) and progression-free survival (HR = 2.4, CI = 1.6-3.8, < 0.0001) were inferior. Excess mortality in the high ferritin group was due to both higher relapse incidence (HR = 2.2, CI = 1.2-3.8, = 0.007) and increased non-relapse mortality (NRM) (HR = 3.1, CI = 1.5-6.4, = 0.002). NRM was driven by significantly higher infection-related mortality in the high ferritin group (HR = 3.9, CI = 1.6-9.7, = 0.003). Acute and chronic GVHD incidence or severity were not associated to serum ferritin levels. We conclude that ferritin levels can serve as routine laboratory biomarker for mortality risk assessment before alloSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174614PMC
April 2020

Determinants of survival in myelofibrosis patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Leukemia 2021 01 14;35(1):215-224. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

CHU de Lille, LIRIC, INSERM U995, Université de Lille, 59000, Lille, France.

We aimed to evaluate the determinants of survival in myelofibrosis patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) and to describe factors predicting the main post-HCT complications. This retrospective study by the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation included 2916 myelofibrosis patients who underwent first allo-HCT from an HLA-identical sibling or unrelated donor between 2000 and 2016. After a median follow-up of 4.7 years from transplant, projected median survival of the series was 5.3 years. Factors independently associated with increased mortality were age ≥ 60 years and Karnofsky Performance Status <90% at transplant, and occurrence of graft failure, grades III-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGVHD), and disease progression/relapse during follow-up. The opposing effects of chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) on non-relapse mortality and relapse incidence resulted in a neutral influence on survival. Graft failure increased in unrelated donor recipients and decreased with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) and negative donor/recipient cytomegalovirus serostatus. Risk of grades III-IV aGVHD was higher with unrelated donors and decreased with MAC. Relapse incidence tended to be higher in patients with intermediate-2/high-risk DIPSS categories and to decrease in CALR-mutated patients. Acute and chronic GVHD reduced the subsequent risk of relapse. This information has potential implications for patient counseling and clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0815-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association and Gene Expression Studies Implicates Donor T Cell Function and Cytokine Pathways in Acute GvHD.

Front Immunol 2020 3;11:19. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Helsinki, Finland.

Graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that causes mortality and severe morbidity. Genetic disparities in human leukocyte antigens between the recipient and donor are known contributors to the risk of the disease. However, the overall impact of genetic component is complex, and consistent findings across different populations and studies remain sparse. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the genes responsible for GvHD, we combined genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from two distinct populations with previously published gene expression studies on GvHD in a single gene-level meta-analysis. We hypothesized that genes driving GvHD should be associated in both data modalities and therefore could be detected more readily through their combined effects in the integrated analysis rather than in separate analyses. The meta-analysis yielded a total of 51 acute GvHD-associated genes (false detection rate [FDR] <0.1). In support of our hypothesis, this number was significantly higher than that in a permutation meta-analysis involving the whole data set, as well as in separate meta-analyses on the GWAS and gene expression data sets. The genes indicated by the meta-analysis were significantly enriched in 277 Gene Ontology terms (FDR < 0.05), such as T cell function and cytokine-mediated signaling pathways, and the results highlighted several established immune mediators, such as interleukins and JAK-STAT signaling, and presented TRAF6 and TERT as potential effector candidates. Altogether, the results support the chosen methodological approach, implicate a role of gene-level variation in donors' key immunological regulators predisposing patients to acute GVHD, and present potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008714PMC
February 2021

Redefining and measuring transplant conditioning intensity in current era: a study in acute myeloid leukemia patients.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 06 29;55(6):1114-1125. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Service d' Hématologie Clinique et Thérapie Cellulaire, Hospital Saint-Antoine, Sorbonne Université, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine (CRSA), Paris, France.

To address limitations of the currently used reduced-intensity/myeloablative conditioning (RIC/MAC) classification scheme we aimed to develop a tool that can capture more standardized the conditioning intensity of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We assigned intensity weight scores for frequently used conditioning regimen components and used their sum to generate the transplant conditioning intensity (TCI) score. We retrospectively tested the impact of TCI on 8255 adult (45-65 years) acute myeloid leukemia patients who underwent HCT in first complete remission. A Cox model for early nonrelapse mortality (NRM) yielded a 3-group TCI risk scheme (low, intermediate, high) with respective TCI scores of [1-2], [2.5-3.5] and [4-6]. On multivariate modeling, TCI grouping was highly and better predictive for early (day 100 and 180) NRM, 2-year NRM and relapse (REL) as compared with the RIC/MAC classification. Validation was done on 200 bootstrap samples. Moreover, TCI scoring enabled the identification of a distinct subgroup of RIC and MAC conditioning regimens with an intermediate TCI [2.5-3.5] score that had identical outcomes and which are frequently referred as "reduced toxicity conditioning". TCI scheme provides an improvement of the RIC/MAC classification. We propose TCI as a new tool to define and measure the conditioning regimen intensity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0803-yDOI Listing
June 2020

Conditioning-based outcomes after allogeneic transplantation for myeloma following a prior autologous transplant (1991-2012) on behalf of EBMT CMWP.

Eur J Haematol 2020 Mar 25;104(3):181-189. Epub 2019 Dec 25.

University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the intensity of conditioning approaches used in allogeneic transplantation in myeloma-reduced intensity conditioning (RIC), non-myeloablative (NMA), myeloablative conditioning (MAC) or Auto-AlloHCT-on outcomes in patients who had had a prior autologous transplant.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of the EBMT database (1991-2012) was performed.

Results: A total of 344 patients aged between 40 and 60 years at the time of alloHCT were identified: 169 RIC, 69 NMA, 65 MAC and 41 Auto-Allo transplants. At a median follow-up of 54 months, the probabilities of overall survival (OS) at 5 years were 39% (95% CI 31%-47%), 45% (95% CI 32%-57%), 19% (95% CI 6%-32%) and 34% (95% CI 17%-51%), respectively. Status at allogeneic HCT other than CR or PR conferred a 70% higher risk of death and a 40% higher risk of relapse. OS was markedly lower in the MAC group (P = .004). MAC alloHCT was associated with a higher risk of death than RIC alloHCT until 2002 (HR = 4.1, P < .001) but not after 2002 (HR = 1.2, P = .276).

Conclusion: From 1991 to 2002, MAC was associated with poorer OS. Between 2003 and 2012, there were no significant differences in outcomes based on these different approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13352DOI Listing
March 2020

Measurable residual disease at myeloablative allogeneic transplantation in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a retrospective registry study on 2780 patients from the acute leukemia working party of the EBMT.

J Hematol Oncol 2019 10 23;12(1):108. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Haematology, EBMT Paris Study Office/CEREST-TC/Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: Assessment of measurable residual disease (MRD) is rapidly transforming the therapeutic and prognostic landscape of a wide range of hematological malignancies. Its prognostic value in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been established and MRD measured at the end of induction is increasingly used to guide further therapy. Although MRD detectable immediately before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is known to be associated with poor outcomes, it is unclear if or to what extent this differs with different types of conditioning.

Methods: In this retrospective registry study, we explored whether measurable residual disease (MRD) before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is associated with different outcomes in recipients of myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI)-based versus chemotherapy-based conditioning. We analyzed outcomes of 2780 patients (median age 38 years, range 18-72) who underwent first HCT in complete remission between 2000 and 2017 using sibling or unrelated donors.

Results: In 1816 of patients, no disease was detectable, and in 964 patients, MRD was positive. Conditioning was TBI-based in 2122 (76%) transplants. In the whole cohort MRD positivity was a significant independent factor for lower overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS), and for higher relapse incidence (RI), with respective hazard ratios (HR, 95% confidence intervals) of 1.19 (1.02-1.39), 1.26 (1.1-1.44), and 1.51 (1.26-1.8). TBI was associated with a higher OS, LFS, and lower RI with HR of 0.75 (0.62-0.90), 0.70 (0.60-0.82), and 0.60 (0.49-0.74), respectively. No significant interaction was found between MRD status and conditioning. When investigating the impact of MRD separately in the TBI and chemotherapy-based conditioning cohorts by multivariate analysis, we found MRD positivity to be associated with lower OS and LFS and higher RI in the TBI group, and with higher RI in the chemotherapy group. TBI-based conditioning was associated with improved outcomes in both MRD-negative and MRD-positive patients.

Conclusions: In this large study, we confirmed that patients who are MRD-negative prior to HCT achieve superior outcomes. This is particularly apparent if TBI conditioning is used. All patients with ALL irrespective of MRD status benefit from TBI-based conditioning in the myeloablative setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-019-0790-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6813121PMC
October 2019

Association of uric acid levels before start of conditioning with mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation - a prospective, non-interventional study of the EBMT Transplant Complication Working Party.

Haematologica 2020 Jul 10;105(7):1977-1983. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Uric acid is a danger signal contributing to inflammation. Its relevance to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) derives from preclinical models where the depletion of uric acid led to improved survival and reduced graft--host disease (GvHD). In a clinical pilot trial, peri-transplant uric acid depletion reduced acute GvHD incidence. This prospective international multicenter study aimed to investigate the association of uric acid serum levels before start of conditioning with alloSCT outcome. We included patients with acute leukemia, lymphoma or myelodysplastic syndrome receiving a first matched sibling alloSCT from peripheral blood, regardless of conditioning. We compared outcomes between patients with high and low uric acid levels with univariate- and multivariate analysis using a cause-specific Cox model. Twenty centers from 10 countries reported data on 366 alloSCT recipients. There were no significant differences in terms of baseline comorbidity and disease stage between the high- and low uric acid group. Patients with uric acid levels above median measured before start of conditioning did not significantly differ from the remaining in terms of acute GvHD grades II-IV incidence (Hazard ratio [HR] 1.5, 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-2.4, =0.08). However, they had significantly shorter overall survival (HR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.7-4.7, <0.0001) and progression free survival (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, =0.025). Non-relapse mortality was significantly increased in alloSCT recipients with high uric acid levels (HR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.0, =0.003). Finally, the incidence of relapse after alloSCT was increased in patients with higher uric acid levels (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.5, =0.04). We conclude that high uric acid levels before the start of conditioning correlate with increased mortality after alloSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.228668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327652PMC
July 2020

Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with anti-thymocyte globulin allogeneic bone marrow transplantation without anti-thymocyte globulin.

Haematologica 2020 04 14;105(4):1138-1146. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

EBMT Paris study of fice/CEREST-TC, Paris, France.

We compared severe graft--host-disease (GvHD) free and relapse-free survival and other transplantation outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients given bone marrow (BM) without anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) with ATG after myeloablative conditioning. In the cohort of patients receiving grafts from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor, patients given PBSC with ATG (n=1,021) and those given BM without ATG (n=1,633) presented comparable severe GvHD-free relapse-free survival (GRSF)(hazard ratio [HR]=0.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-1.1, =0.5) and overall survival (HR=1.0, 95% CI: 0.8-1.2, =0.8). They had however, a lower incidence of chronic GvHD (cGvHD) (HR=0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9, =0.01). In the cohort of patients receiving grafts from HLA-matched unrelated donor , patients given PBSC with ATG (n=2,318) had better severe GvHD-free and relapse-free survival (GRFS) than those given BM without ATG (n=303) (HR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9, =0.001). They also had a lower incidence of cGvHD (HR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.8, =0.0006) and better overall survival (HR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-1.0, =0.04). In summary, these data suggest that PBSC with ATG results in comparable (in the case of sibling donor) or significantly better (in the case of unrelated donor) severe GRFS than BM without ATG in patients with AML in complete remission receiving grafts after myeloablative conditioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.227603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7109757PMC
April 2020

Computational Analysis of HLA-presentation of Non-synonymous Recipient Mismatches Indicates Effect on the Risk of Chronic Graft-vs.-Host Disease After Allogeneic HSCT.

Front Immunol 2019 16;10:1625. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Helsinki, Finland.

Genetic mismatches in protein coding genes between allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipient and donor can elicit an alloimmunity response via peptides presented by the recipient HLA receptors as minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAs). While the impact of individual mHAs on allo-HSCT outcome such as graft-vs.-host and graft-vs.-leukemia effects has been demonstrated, it is likely that established mHAs constitute only a small fraction of all immunogenic non-synonymous variants. In the present study, we have analyzed the genetic mismatching in 157 exome-sequenced sibling allo-HSCT pairs to evaluate the significance of polymorphic HLA class I associated peptides on clinical outcome. We applied computational mismatch estimation approaches based on experimentally verified HLA ligands available in public repositories, published mHAs, and predicted HLA-peptide affinites, and analyzed their associations with chronic graft-vs.-host disease (cGvHD) grades. We found that higher estimated recipient mismatching consistently increased the risk of severe cGvHD, suggesting that HLA-presented mismatching influences the likelihood of long-term complications in the patient. Furthermore, computational approaches focusing on estimation of HLA-presentation instead of all non-synonymous mismatches indiscriminately may be beneficial for analysis sensitivity and could help identify novel mHAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6646417PMC
October 2020

Impact of antithymocyte globulin on outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with TBI.

Blood Adv 2019 07;3(13):1950-1960

Department of Haematology and EBMT Paris study office/CEREST-TC, Saint Antoine Hospital, INSERM UMR 938 and Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

The impact of the use of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) following a total body irradiation (TBI)-based myeloablative conditioning regimen has been poorly explored. We retrospectively analyzed 724 patients who underwent a first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) following a TBI-based conditioning regimen for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and compared the outcomes of 251 (35%) patients who received ATG (ATG group) with 473 (65%) patients who did not (non-ATG group). Median follow-up of surviving patients was 59 months (interquartile range, 28-83). The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) for non-ATG and ATG groups in the first 100 days was 33% vs 24%, respectively ( = .0098). The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was reduced significantly in the ATG group in comparison with the non-ATG group (46% vs 34%, = .003). Using multivariate analysis, in vivo T-cell depletion (ATG group) was independently associated with a decreased incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.28; < .001), grade III-IV aGVHD (HR, 0.21; < .001), cGVHD (HR, 0.63; = .02), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (HR, 0.54; = .02). Relapse risk, overall survival, and leukemia-free survival were similar between the 2 groups. Our results suggest that the addition of ATG to TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for allo-HCT in AML patients results in a significant reduction in aGVHD and cGVHD, translating into a significant reduction in NRM without increasing the relapse rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6616257PMC
July 2019

Second allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a study on behalf of the Acute Leukaemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Br J Haematol 2019 09 22;186(5):767-776. Epub 2019 May 22.

AService d'Hématologie Clinique et Thérapie Cellulaire, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP, Sorobonne University, INSERM UMR 938 and Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

Although second allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT2) is a therapeutic option for patients relapsing after first HCT (allo-HCT1), there is limited data on allo-HCT2 in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We retrospectively studied 245 patients receiving allo-HCT2 as a salvage treatment for relapse following allo-HCT1 between the 2000 and 2017. The median age at allo-HCT2 was 34·6 years (range: 18-74). One hundred and one patients (41%) received sibling donor and 144 (59%) unrelated donor allo-HCT2. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade II-IV and III-IV occurred in 33% and 17% of the patients, respectively. The incidence of 2-year total and extensive chronic GVHD was 38% and 19%, respectively. The 2- and 5-year cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality, relapse incidence, leukaemia-free survival, overall survival and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 24% and 26%, 56% and 62%, 20% and 12%, 30% and 14% and 12% & 7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with overall survival were age, time from allo-HCT1 to relapse, conditioning for allo-HCT1, Karnofsky score at allo-HCT2 and donor type for allo-HCT2. In conclusion, outcomes of allo-HCT2 in ALL patients were poor, with only 14% overall survival and 7% GRFS at 5 years with very high relapse incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15973DOI Listing
September 2019

Increased MHC Matching by C4 Gene Compatibility in Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 05 25;25(5):891-898. Epub 2018 Dec 25.

Research and Development, Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

HLA matching is a prerequisite for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) because it lowers the occurrence and severity of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, matching a few alleles of the classic HLA genes only may not ensure matching of the entire MHC region. HLA haplotype matching has been reported to be beneficial in HSCT because of the variation relevant to GVHD risk in the non-HLA region. Because polymorphism in the MHC is highly population specific, we hypothesized that donors from the Finnish registry are more likely to be matched at a higher level for the Finnish patients than donors from other registries. In the present study we determined 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the complement component 4 (C4) gene in the γ-block segment of MHC from 115 Finnish HSCT patients and their Finnish (n = 201) and non-Finnish (n = 280) donor candidates. Full matching of HLA alleles and C4 SNPs, independently or additively, occurred more likely in the Finnish-Finnish group as compared with the Finnish-non-Finnish group (P < .003). This was most striking in cases with HLA haplotypes typical of the Finnish population. Patients with ancestral HLA haplotypes (AH) were more likely to find a full HLA and C4 matched donor, regardless of donor origin, as compared with patients without AH (P < .0001). Despite the clear differences at the population level, we could not find a statistical association between C4 matching and clinical outcome. The results suggest that screening C4 SNPs can be advantageous when an extended MHC matching or HLA haplotype matching in HSCT is required. This study also supports the need for small population-specific stem cell registries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.12.759DOI Listing
May 2019

Incidence and risk factors of secondary cancers after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: analysis of a single centre cohort with a long follow-up.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 02 13;54(2):334-337. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Department of Hematology, Helsinki University Hospital Comprehensive Cancer Center and Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0290-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Extracorporeal photopheresis in the treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease: a single-center experience.

Transfusion 2018 08 29;58(8):1973-1979. Epub 2018 Apr 29.

Department of Hematology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a serious complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The long-term outcome of the patients is poor. Various immunosuppressive agents have been proposed as the second-line therapy but none of them has turned out more effective than the others. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a treatment option that does not predispose the patients to severe side effects of the immunosuppressive drugs.

Study Design And Methods: We analyzed the treatment results of ECP in 52 patients with steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent aGVHD. Eighty-one percent of the patients suffered from a severe, Grade III or IV, aGVHD. ECP was started alone as the second-line treatment in 23 patients and in combination with an immunosuppressive drug in 18 patients. Eleven patients received ECP as the third-line or later treatment.

Results: A total of 62% of the patients responded, with 48% achieving complete response. In the patients with complete or partial response, the probabilities of survival at 4 years were 54 and 17%, respectively. The outcome of nonresponders was poor. The 1-year overall survivals of the patients with ECP as the second-line treatment either alone or in combination with an immunosuppressive drug or as the third-line treatment were 51, 28, and 18%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, starting ECP no later than 10 days after the start of the first-line treatment correlated with a good response and a consequent survival benefit.

Conclusion: Extracorporeal photopheresis is an effective and well-tolerated treatment that should be considered as a second-line treatment for aGVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.14649DOI Listing
August 2018

Hidden genomic MHC disparity between HLA-matched sibling pairs in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Sci Rep 2018 03 29;8(1):5396. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Research and Development, Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Helsinki, Finland.

Matching classical HLA alleles between donor and recipient is an important factor in avoiding adverse immunological effects in HSCT. Siblings with no differences in HLA alleles, either due to identical-by-state or identical-by-descent status, are considered to be optimal donors. We carried out a retrospective genomic sequence and SNP analysis of 336 fully HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 matched and 14 partially HLA-matched sibling HSCT pairs to determine the level of undetected mismatching within the MHC segment as well as to map their recombination sites. The genomic sequence of 34 genes locating in the MHC region revealed allelic mismatching at 1 to 8 additional genes in partially HLA-matched pairs. Also, fully matched pairs were found to have mismatching either at HLA-DPB1 or at non-HLA region within the MHC segment. Altogether, 3.9% of fully HLA-matched HSCT pairs had large genomic mismatching in the MHC segment. Recombination sites mapped to certain restricted locations. The number of mismatched nucleotides correlated with the risk of GvHD supporting the central role of full HLA matching in HSCT. High-density genome analysis revealed that fully HLA-matched siblings may not have identical MHC segments and even single allelic mismatching at any classical HLA gene often implies larger genomic differences along MHC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23682-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5876349PMC
March 2018

Genetic polymorphism related to monocyte-macrophage function is associated with graft-versus-host disease.

Sci Rep 2017 Nov 15;7(1):15666. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Helsinki, Finland.

Despite detailed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching and modern immunosuppressive therapy, severe graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) remains a major hurdle for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). As the genetic diversity in GvHD complicates the systematic discovery of associated variants across populations, we studied 122 GvHD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 492 HLA-matched sibling HSCT donor-recipient pairs from Finland and Spain. The association between these candidate SNPs and grade III-IV acute GvHD and extensive chronic GvHD was assessed. The functional effects of the variants were determined using expression and cytokine quantitative trait loci (QTL) database analyses. Clear heterogeneity was observed in the associated markers between the two populations. Interestingly, the majority of markers, such as those annotated to IL1, IL23R, TLR9, TNF, and NOD2 genes, are related to the immunological response by monocytes-macrophages to microbes, a step that precedes GvHD as a result of intestinal lesions. Furthermore, cytokine QTL analysis showed that the GvHD-associated markers regulate IL1β, IFNγ, and IL6 responses. These results support a crucial role for the anti-microbial response in GvHD risk. Furthermore, despite apparent heterogeneity in the genetic markers associated with GvHD, it was possible to identify a biological pathway shared by most markers in both populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15915-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5688060PMC
November 2017

A randomized study of cyclosporine and methotrexate with or without methylprednisolone for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease: Improved long-term survival with triple prophylaxis.

Cancer 2018 02 7;124(4):727-733. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Stem Cell Transplantation Unit, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: In a previously published study, the authors randomized 108 adult patients with a malignant hematologic disorder undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from a human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling to receive methylprednisolone (53 patients; MP+) or not to receive methylprednisolone (55 patients; MP-) as a part of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. All patients received cyclosporine and methotrexate. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD was found to be significantly lower among the patients given MP.

Methods: In the current study, the authors performed a long-term follow-up to discover possible late effects of the intensified GVHD prophylaxis.

Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 24.5 years. In the MP+ group, the overall survival and recurrence-free survival were higher (P = .021 and P = .028, respectively) and the nonrecurrence mortality was lower (P = .003) than in the MP- group. There was a trend toward a lower cumulative incidence and a significantly lower prevalence (P = .031) of chronic GVHD in the MP+ group. There was no difference noted with regard to the rate of disease recurrence or in the incidence of secondary malignancies. Eleven patients in the MP- group but none in the MP+ group died >15 years after transplantation. At the end of follow-up, the overall survival rates in the MP+ and MP- groups were 55% and 20%, respectively, and the recurrence-free survival rates were 49% and 15%, respectively.

Conclusions: Long-term survival was found to be higher among the patients given MP in addition to cyclosporine and methotrexate. There was marked late nonrecurrence mortality observed in the group not given MP. No adverse late effects caused by the addition of corticosteroid were observed. Cancer 2018;124:727-33. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31100DOI Listing
February 2018

Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Patients with Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma.

Acta Derm Venereol 2016 08;96(6):816-7

Department of Dermatology, Center of Inflammation, Skin and Allergy Hospital, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-2362DOI Listing
August 2016

Donor Haplotype B of NK KIR Receptor Reduces the Relapse Risk in HLA-Identical Sibling Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation of AML Patients.

Front Immunol 2014 25;5:405. Epub 2014 Aug 25.

FRC Blood Service, Research and Development , Helsinki , Finland.

Successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) depends not only on good HLA match but also on T-cell mediated graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect. Natural killer (NK) cells are able to kill malignant cells by receiving activation signal from the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) recognizing HLA molecules on a cancer cell. It has been recently reported that the risk of relapse in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is reduced in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients whose donors have several activating KIR genes or KIR B-motifs in unrelated donor setting, obviously due to enhanced GvL effect by NK cells. We studied the effect on relapse rate of donor KIR haplotypes in the HLA-identical adult sibling HSCT, done in a single center, in Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Altogether, 134 patients with 6 different diagnoses were identified. Their donors were KIR genotyped using the Luminex and the SSP techniques. The clinical endpoint, that is, occurrence of relapse, was compared with the presence or absence of single KIR genes. Also, time from transplantation to relapse was analyzed. The patients with AML whose donors have KIR2DL2 or KIR2DS2 had statistically significantly longer relapse-free survival (P = 0.015). Our data support previous reports that donors with KIR B-haplotype defining genes have a lower occurrence of relapse in HSCT of AML patients. Determination of donor KIR haplotypes could be a useful addition for a risk assessment of HSCT especially in AML patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2014.00405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142321PMC
September 2014

Coinfusion of mobilized hematopoietic stem cells from an HLA-mismatched third-party donor with umbilical cord blood graft to support engraftment.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2014 Nov;36(8):e518-23

*Division of Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Children's Hospital †Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki Finland.

We evaluated the role of mismatched third-party hematopoietic stem cells (TPC) in shortening the neutropenia after umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). A TPC graft was given to 7/37 children with UCBT to support engraftment due to anticipated increased risk of nonengraftment (N=6) or active infection (N=1). TPC grafts were collected with apheresis from haploidentical family members. The median UCB and CD34 cell counts were 5.10 (range, 4.13 to 9.98)×10/kg and 5.98 (range, 4.40 to 14.00)×10/kg, respectively. The median time to neutrophil engraftment was shorter in the patients with TPC (12 d; range, 9 to 24 d) than those without (23 d; range, 12 to 44 d) (P=0.010). TPC chimerism was lost in median at 28 (range, 24 to 103) days posttransplant. TPC grafts from mothers engrafted similarly as the grafts from other family members. UCB graft cell count and the use of methotrexate posttransplant strongly contributed to engraftment. TPC may form a valuable transient bridging graft over the neutropenia after UCBT in patients with anticipated high-risk of nonengraftment or toxicity due to pretransplant infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000000222DOI Listing
November 2014

Pregnancy in essential thrombocythaemia: experience with 40 pregnancies.

Eur J Haematol 2004 Dec;73(6):431-6

Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

In this study, the course of 40 pregnancies in 16 women with essential thrombocythaemia (ET) was analysed retrospectively. Of the pregnancies, 45% were complicated, 55% uncomplicated, and 62% resulted in live birth. The most common complication was spontaneous abortion during the first trimester seen in 33% of all pregnancies and comprising 72% of all complications. Two intrauterine foetal deaths occurred at weeks 22 and 28. Three pregnancies were complicated by eclampsia or pre-eclampsia. Nine of 16 women with 29 pregnancies had at least one complicated pregnancy. In seven of 16 women, all 11 pregnancies were uneventful. The non-pregnancy-related symptoms of ET or the platelet count before conception or during pregnancy did not correlate with the risk of pregnancy complications. Treatment with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) alone during pregnancy or platelet-lowering drugs before or during pregnancy reduced the risk of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0609.2004.00324.xDOI Listing
December 2004

The predictive value of megakaryocytic and erythroid colony formation and platelet function tests on the risk of thromboembolic and bleeding complications in essential thrombocythaemia.

Eur J Haematol 2004 Apr;72(4):245-51

Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

The predictive value of spontaneous in vitro colony formation of megakaryocytic and erythroid progenitors (154 patients), and defective platelet aggregation responses (55 patients) on the risk of thrombohaemorrhagic complications in patients with essential thrombocythaemia (ET) was evaluated retrospectively. In the in vitro cultures of haematopoietic progenitors, 114/154 patients (74%) showed either spontaneous megakaryocytic or erythroid colony formation or both. Forty-three per cent of patients with any spontaneous colony growth and only 20% of those without this phenomenon had an arterial thrombosis at diagnosis or during the follow-up (P = 0.02). In the whole patient group neither spontaneous megakaryocytic nor spontaneous erythroid colony formation alone predicted the risk of arterial thrombosis. In patients younger than 45 yr of age, the prognostic value of spontaneous megakaryocytic growth was statistically significant: 44% of the patients with spontaneous megakaryocytic colony formation, but only 14% of those without it, experienced arterial thrombosis (P = 0.04). The presence of spontaneous colony formation had no effect on the risk of bleeding complications. Forty-one of the 55 patients (75%) showed abnormalities in the platelet aggregation responses. There was no statistically significant correlation between the platelet function response and the risk of bleeding or thrombotic complications. No correlation was found between the platelet aggregation responses and the presence of spontaneous colony growth. In conclusion, spontaneous colony formation indicated an increased risk of thrombohaemorragic events but the platelet function test had no predictive value for these complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0609.2004.00219.xDOI Listing
April 2004