Publications by authors named "Riina Žordania"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A missense mutation in the catalytic domain of O-GlcNAc transferase links perturbations in protein O-GlcNAcylation to X-linked intellectual disability.

FEBS Lett 2020 02 7;594(4):717-727. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Division of Gene Regulation and Expression, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, UK.

X-linked intellectual disabilities (XLID) are common developmental disorders. The enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase encoded by OGT, a recently discovered XLID gene, attaches O-GlcNAc to nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. As few missense mutations have been described, it is unclear what the aetiology of the patient phenotypes is. Here, we report the discovery of a missense mutation in the catalytic domain of OGT in an XLID patient. X-ray crystallography reveals that this variant leads to structural rearrangements in the catalytic domain. The mutation reduces in vitro OGT activity on substrate peptides/protein. Mouse embryonic stem cells carrying the mutation reveal reduced O-GlcNAcase (OGA) and global O-GlcNAc levels. These data suggest a direct link between changes in the O-GlcNAcome and intellectual disability observed in patients carrying OGT mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.13640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042088PMC
February 2020

A retrospective analysis of the prevalence of imprinting disorders in Estonia from 1998 to 2016.

Eur J Hum Genet 2019 11 11;27(11):1649-1658. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Clinical Genetics, United Laboratories, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu, Estonia.

Imprinting disorders (ImpDis) represent a small group of rare congenital diseases primarily affecting growth, development, and the hormonal and metabolic systems. The aim of present study was to identify the prevalence of the ImpDis in Estonia, to describe trends in the live birth prevalence of these disorders between 1998 and 2016, and to compare the results with previously published data. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all Estonian patients since 1998 with both molecularly and clinically diagnosed ImpDis. A prospective study was also conducted, in which all patients with clinical suspicion for an ImpDis were molecularly analyzed. Eighty-seven individuals with ImpDis were identified. Twenty-seven (31%) of them had Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), 15 (17%) had Angelman syndrome (AS), 15 (17%) had Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), 12 (14%) had Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), 10 (11%) had pseudo- or pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism, four had central precocious puberty, two had Temple syndrome, one had transient neonatal diabetes mellitus, and one had myoclonus-dystonia syndrome. One third of SRS and BWS cases fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for these disorders, but tested negative for genetic abnormalities. Seventy-six individuals were alive as of January 1, 2018, indicating the total prevalence of ImpDis in Estonia is 5.8/100,000 (95% CI 4.6/100,000-7.2/100,000). The minimum live birth prevalence of all ImpDis in Estonia in 2004-2016 was 1/3,462, PWS 1/13,599, AS 1/27,198, BWS 1/21,154, SRS 1/15,866, and PHP/PPHP 1/27,198. Our results are only partially consistent with previously published data. The worldwide prevalence of SRS and GNAS-gene-related ImpDis is likely underestimated and may be at least three times higher than expected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-019-0446-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6871525PMC
November 2019

Three families with mild PMM2-CDG and normal cognitive development.

Am J Med Genet A 2017 Jun 19;173(6):1620-1624. Epub 2017 Apr 19.

Department of Clinical Genetics, United Laboratories, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu, Estonia.

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are caused by defective glycosylation of proteins and lipids. PMM2-CDG is the most common subtype among the CDG. The severity of PMM2-CDG is variable. Patients often have a recognizable phenotype with neurological and multisystem symptoms that might cause early death. We report six patients from three families who are diagnosed with a clinically mild PMM2-CDG and have normal cognitive development. All these patients had delayed gross motor skills with mild-to-moderate neurological findings. Cerebellar hypoplasia was detected in all siblings for whom brain MRI was performed. In 5/6 children the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) showed normal cognitive development with full scale IQ scores ranging from borderline to average. Four patients were diagnosed with PMM2-CDG at the age of 8 years or later as their neurological symptoms were quite mild and they had been able to participate in regular school programs. We report patients with p.Val231Met/p.Arg239Trp and p.Ile120Thr/p.Gly228Cys genotypes which may cause milder variants of PMM2-CDG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5444958PMC
June 2017

An 8.4-Mb 3q26.33-3q28 microdeletion in a patient with blepharophimosis-intellectual disability syndrome and a review of the literature.

Clin Case Rep 2016 08 22;4(8):824-30. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

Department of Genetics United Laboratories Tartu University Hospital Tartu Estonia.

3q26.33-3q27.2 microdeletion can be classified as a clinical entity characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, feeding problems in infancy, short stature, intellectual disability, hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features (medially sparse eyebrows, narrow horizontal palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, flat nasal bridge and tip, short philtrum, and downturned corners of mouth), and teeth and feet abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.632DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4974439PMC
August 2016

CLPB mutations cause 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, progressive brain atrophy, intellectual disability, congenital neutropenia, cataracts, movement disorder.

Am J Hum Genet 2015 Feb 15;96(2):245-57. Epub 2015 Jan 15.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Metabolic Laboratory, Radboudumc, 6525GA Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

We studied a group of individuals with elevated urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid, neutropenia that can develop into leukemia, a neurological phenotype ranging from nonprogressive intellectual disability to a prenatal encephalopathy with progressive brain atrophy, movement disorder, cataracts, and early death. Exome sequencing of two unrelated individuals and subsequent Sanger sequencing of 16 individuals with an overlapping phenotype identified a total of 14 rare, predicted deleterious alleles in CLPB in 14 individuals from 9 unrelated families. CLPB encodes caseinolytic peptidase B homolog ClpB, a member of the AAA+ protein family. To evaluate the relevance of CLPB in the pathogenesis of this syndrome, we developed a zebrafish model and an in vitro assay to measure ATPase activity. Suppression of clpb in zebrafish embryos induced a central nervous system phenotype that was consistent with cerebellar and cerebral atrophy that could be rescued by wild-type, but not mutant, human CLPB mRNA. Consistent with these data, the loss-of-function effect of one of the identified variants (c.1222A>G [p.Arg408Gly]) was supported further by in vitro evidence with the mutant peptides abolishing ATPase function. Additionally, we show that CLPB interacts biochemically with ATP2A2, known to be involved in apoptotic processes in severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) 3 (Kostmann disease [caused by HAX1 mutations]). Taken together, mutations in CLPB define a syndrome with intellectual disability, congenital neutropenia, progressive brain atrophy, movement disorder, cataracts, and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.12.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4320260PMC
February 2015

Prenatal diagnosis of 17p13.1p13.3 duplication.

Case Rep Med 2012 17;2012:840538. Epub 2012 Oct 17.

Department of Genetics, United Medix Laboratories Ltd., 00380 Helsinki, Finland ; Department of Clinical Genetics, Helsinki University Central Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, Finland.

We present here the first prenatal diagnosis of 17p13.1p13.3 duplication. 17p13.3 duplication has recently been defined as a new distinctive syndrome with several diagnosed patients. In the current case prenatal chromosome analysis (G-banding) performed on cultured amniocytes revealed additional material in chromosome 19p. This was further defined as a chromosome 17p13.1p13.3 duplication by FISH and genomic microarray analysis (GMA). In addition Prenatal BACs-on-Beads (PN_BoBs) assay was performed, which detected the duplication clearly. This enables rapid prenatal diagnosis of the duplication for this family in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/840538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3483775PMC
November 2012

The live-birth prevalence of mucopolysaccharidoses in Estonia.

Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2012 Aug 5;16(8):846-9. Epub 2012 Apr 5.

Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.

Previous studies on the prevalence of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) in different populations have shown considerable variations. There are, however, few data with regard to the prevalence of MPSs in Fenno-Ugric populations or in north-eastern Europe, except for a report about Scandinavian countries. A retrospective epidemiological study of MPSs in Estonia was undertaken, and live-birth prevalence of MPS patients born between 1985 and 2006 was estimated. The live-birth prevalence for all MPS subtypes was found to be 4.05 per 100,000 live births, which is consistent with most other European studies. MPS II had the highest calculated incidence, with 2.16 per 100,000 live births (4.2 per 100,000 male live births), forming 53% of all diagnosed MPS cases, and was twice as high as in other studied European populations. The second most common subtype was MPS IIIA, with a live-birth prevalence of 1.62 in 100,000 live births. With 0.27 out of 100,000 live births, MPS VI had the third-highest live-birth prevalence. No cases of MPS I were diagnosed in Estonia, making the prevalence of MPS I in Estonia much lower than in other European populations. MPSs are the third most frequent inborn error of metabolism in Estonia after phenylketonuria and galactosemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/gtmb.2011.0307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3422553PMC
August 2012

Prevalence of c.35delG and p.M34T mutations in the GJB2 gene in Estonia.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2010 Sep 18;74(9):1007-12. Epub 2010 Jun 18.

Department of Genetics, United Laboratories, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu, Estonia.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of c.35delG and p.M34T mutations in the GJB2 gene among children with early onset hearing loss and within a general population of Estonia.

Methods: Using an arrayed primer extension assay, we screened 233 probands with early childhood onset hearing loss for 107 different mutations in the GJB2 gene. We then looked for the two most common mutations, c.35delG and p.M34T, in a population of 998 consecutively born Estonian neonates to determine the frequency of these mutations in the general population.

Results: In 115 (49%) of the patients with early onset hearing loss, we found a mutation in at least one allele of the GJB2 gene. Seventy-three (31%) were homozygous for the c.35delG mutation, seven (3%) were homozygous for the p.M34T mutation, and five (2%) had c35delG/p.M34T compound heterozygosity. Other six identified mutations in GJB2 gene occurred rarely. Among the 998 anonymous newborn samples, we detected 45 who were heterozygous for c.35delG, 2 individuals homozygous for c.35delG, and 58 who were heterozygous for p.M34T. Additionally, we detected two c.35delG/p.M34T compound heterozygotes.

Conclusion: The most common GJB2 gene mutations in Estonian children with early onset hearing loss were c.35delG and p.M34T, with c.35delG accounting for 75% of GJB2 alleles. The carrier frequency for c.35delG and p.M34T in a general population of Estonia was 1 in 22 and 1 in 17, respectively, and was higher than in most other countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2010.05.026DOI Listing
September 2010

Stickler syndrome caused by COL2A1 mutations: genotype-phenotype correlation in a series of 100 patients.

Eur J Hum Genet 2010 Aug 24;18(8):872-80. Epub 2010 Feb 24.

Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, Gent, Belgium. [corrected]

Stickler syndrome is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in different collagen genes. The aim of our study was to define more precisely the phenotype and genotype of Stickler syndrome type 1 by investigating a large series of patients with a heterozygous mutation in COL2A1. In 188 probands with the clinical diagnosis of Stickler syndrome, the COL2A1 gene was analyzed by either a mutation scanning technique or bidirectional fluorescent DNA sequencing. The effect of splice site alterations was investigated by analyzing mRNA. Multiplex ligation-dependent amplification analysis was used for the detection of intragenic deletions. We identified 77 different COL2A1 mutations in 100 affected individuals. Analysis of the splice site mutations showed unusual RNA isoforms, most of which contained a premature stop codon. Vitreous anomalies and retinal detachments were found more frequently in patients with a COL2A1 mutation compared with the mutation-negative group (P<0.01). Overall, 20 of 23 sporadic patients with a COL2A1 mutation had either a cleft palate or retinal detachment with vitreous anomalies. The presence of vitreous anomalies, retinal tears or detachments, cleft palate and a positive family history were shown to be good indicators for a COL2A1 defect. In conclusion, we confirm that Stickler syndrome type 1 is predominantly caused by loss-of-function mutations in the COL2A1 gene as >90% of the mutations were predicted to result in nonsense-mediated decay. On the basis of binary regression analysis, we developed a scoring system that may be useful when evaluating patients with Stickler syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2010.23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987380PMC
August 2010

A novel mutation in the SCO2 gene in a neonate with early-onset cardioencephalomyopathy.

Pediatr Neurol 2010 Mar;42(3):227-30

Tallinn Children's Hospital, Tallinn, Estonia.

Mutations in the SCO2 gene [SCO cytochrome oxidase deficient homolog 2 (yeast)] causing cytochrome c oxidase deficiency have been reported in at least in 26 patients with fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy. Mutation 1541G > A affecting protein stability is associated with the majority of cases, and the other 11 described mutations have more serious deleterious structural consequences for the protein product. Reported here is a novel case caused by compound heterozygosity of SCO2. The child presented at the age of 3 weeks with failure-to-thrive, muscular hypotonia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lactic acidemia. Leigh syndrome was diagnosed based on magnetic resonance imaging findings. Immunohistochemical and enzymatic investigations on muscle indicated totally absent cytochrome c oxidase activity. Both parents had mild mental retardation. Sequence analysis in the patient and in his parents revealed heterozygous mutation c.418G > A in exon 2 inherited from the father and maternally inherited heterozygous insertion of 19bp at position 17 in the coding region of the SCO2 gene. Respiratory chain enzyme activity measurements indicated normal activity in both parents, although the mother's cytochrome c oxidase activity was lower. This gene may be involved in the etiology of the mother's mental retardation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2009.10.004DOI Listing
March 2010

LEOPARD syndrome with recurrent PTPN11 mutation Y279C and different cutaneous manifestations: two case reports and a review of the literature.

Eur J Pediatr 2010 Apr 20;169(4):469-73. Epub 2009 Sep 20.

Department of Human Biology and Genetics, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

LEOPARD syndrome (LS) is a heterogeneous disease characterised mainly by cutaneous manifestations. LEOPARD is the acronym for its major features-multiple lentigines, electrocardiographic conduction defects, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormalities of (male) genitalia, retardation of growth and sensorineural deafness. As clinical manifestations are variable, molecular testing is supportive in the diagnosis of LS. We describe two unrelated LS cases with a common PTPN11 mutation Y279C and with completely different clinical features including distinct changes in skin pigmentation. In patient 1, the first complaint was hyperactive behaviour. First lentigines were presented at birth, but intensive growth began at the age of 2-4 years. Multiple dark lentigines were located mainly on the face and the upper part of the trunk, but the oral mucosa was spared. Patient 2 was born from induced labour due to polyhydramnion, and in the second week of life, mitral valve insufficiency and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were diagnosed. Rapid growth of lentigines began at the age of 3 years. These are mostly located in the joint areas in the lower extremities; the face and upper trunk are spared from lentigines. In both cases, the rapid growth of lentigines made it possible to shift the diagnosis towards LS. Clinicians should give more consideration to rare genetic syndromes, especially in the case of symptoms from different clinical areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-009-1058-1DOI Listing
April 2010

Splice variant IVS2-2A>G in the SLC26A5 (Prestin) gene in five Estonian families with hearing loss.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2009 Jan 22;73(1):103-7. Epub 2008 Nov 22.

Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

Objective: The aim of our study was to identify the IVS2-2A>G sequence change in the SLC26A5 (Prestin) gene in Estonian individuals with hearing loss and in their family members.

Methods: In the years 2005-2007 we have screened 194 probands with early onset hearing loss and 68 family members with an arrayed primer extension (APEX) microarray, which covers 201 mutations in six nuclear genes (GJB2, GJB6, GJB3, GJA1, SLC26A4, SLC26A5) and two mitochondrial genes encoding 12S rRNA and tRNA-Ser (UCN).

Results: In four probands with early onset hearing loss and in five unaffected family members from five families we identified the IVS2-2A>G change in one allele of the SLC26A5 gene. We did not find any homozygosity for this splice variant. IVS2-2A>G was identified in 2.1% of probands. One of these probands, however, is also homozygous for the 35delG mutation in the GJB2 gene and a second patient has Down syndrome, which is also associated with hearing impairment. Therefore, in those two cases the etiology of the hearing loss is probably not associated with the IVS2-2A>G sequence change in the SLC26A5 gene.

Conclusion: Our data support the hypothesis that heterozygosity for the mutation IVS2-2A>G in SLC26A5 gene may not, by itself, be sufficient to cause hearing loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2008.10.003DOI Listing
January 2009

Girl with partial Turner syndrome and absence epilepsy.

Pediatr Neurol 2008 Apr;38(4):289-92

Department of Pediatrics, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

This report describes a 16-year-old girl with short stature (-5 standard deviations), normal puberty, panic attacks, absence epilepsy, some stigmata of Turner syndrome, and a Madelung deformity. Routine chromosomal analysis revealed a female karyotype with one abnormal chromosome X, with the suspicion of additional material on the short arm. With fluorescent in situ hybridization and array-multiplex amplifiable probe hybridization methodology, a complex aberration was detected, with a deletion of the distal part of Xp22.33 (including the short-stature homeobox gene) and a duplication of Xp22.32-p22.12 proximal to the deleted segment. The deletion in our patient involves the Xp22.33 region. Two genes in this region may contribute to the patient's phenotype: short-stature homeobox, and visuospatial/perceptual abilities. The duplication in our patient involves the Xp22.12-p22.32 region, which, according to the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database, contains at least 93 genes, 49 of which are of unknown function. It is difficult to conjecture which gene overexpression in this region may have contributed to the phenotype of our patient. To our knowledge, this small, complex chromosome X aberration was not described previously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2007.11.008DOI Listing
April 2008

Descriptive epidemiology of Down's syndrome in Estonia.

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2006 Nov;20(6):512-9

Department of Paediatrics, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

The aim of the study was to investigate the livebirth prevalence of Down's syndrome (DS) in Estonia during the past 14 years, create a DS database and observe the effectiveness of prenatal screening. This is a population-based descriptive study. The study subjects were children with DS diagnosis born between the years 1990 and 2003. We collected data from genetic centres in Estonia, from the databases of DS support groups, from institutions for disabled children and from the registers of family doctors/paediatricians. Prenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies for women aged >or=35 years was started in Estonia in 1995. Therefore, we divided the DS children into two groups: 112 born between 1990 and 1994 comprise group I, and 127 born between 1995 and 2003 comprise group II. Group II was further divided into two subgroups: IIa, from 1995 to 1998, when screening of advanced maternal age (>or=35 years) commenced, and IIb, from 1999 to 2003, when screening of second trimester maternal serum for younger women commenced. Prenatally, 68 cases of DS were diagnosed between 1995 and 2003 in the whole of Estonia, and all of these pregnancies were terminated. This represents 34.9% of all delivered and prenatally detected DS cases from this period. The overall livebirth prevalence was 1.17 per 1000 livebirths. The livebirth prevalence in group I was 1.25 and in group II was 1.09 per 1000 livebirths. The second trimester maternal serum screening with advanced maternal age screening was more effective than advanced maternal age screening alone. The livebirth prevalence in group IIa was 1.22 and in group IIb 0.99 per 1000 livebirths. Overall, regular trisomy was found in 90.4%, translocation in 6.3% and mosaicism in 2.9%. The overall male to female sex ratio of DS was 1.09.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3016.2006.00758.xDOI Listing
November 2006

Prevalence of Angelman syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome in Estonian children: sister syndromes not equally represented.

Am J Med Genet A 2006 Sep;140(18):1936-43

Department of Pediatrics, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

In 2000-2004, we performed a focused search for individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) aiming to establish the prevalence data for the individuals born between 1984 and 2004 in Estonia. All persons with probable AS or PWS (n = 184) were studied using the DNA methylation test. Individuals with abnormal methylation were all further tested by chromosomal and FISH analysis, and if necessary for uniparental disomy and UBE3A gene mutation. Nineteen cases with abnormal methylation test result were identified. Seven of them had AS, including six (85.7%) due to 15q11-13 deletion and one paternal UPD15. Twelve subjects had PWS: 4 (33%) 15q11-13 deletions, 6 (50%) maternal UPD15, 1 unbalanced chromosome 14;15 translocation resulting in a chromosome 15pter-q13 deletion, and 1 Robertsonian 15q;15q translocation. The minimum livebirth prevalence in 1984-2004 for AS was 1:52,181 (95% CI 1:25,326-1:1,29,785) and for PWS 1:30,439 (95% CI 1:17,425-1:58,908). The livebirth prevalence of AS and PWS increased within this period, but the change was statistically significant only for PWS (P = 0.032), from expected 1:88,495 (95% CI 1:24,390-1:3,22,580) to expected 1:12,547 (95% CI 1:540-1:29,154). Six individuals with AS and 11 with PWS were alive on the prevalence day (January 1, 2005), indicating the point prevalence proportion of 1:56,112 (95% CI 1:25,780-1:1,52,899) and 1:30,606 (95% CI 1:17,105-1:61,311), respectively. Our results showing the birth prevalence of AS 1.7 times less than PWS challenge the opinion that both syndromes are equally represented, and are in line with the view that mutations in sperm and oocytes occur at different frequencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.31423DOI Listing
September 2006

The neonatal phenotype of Prader-Willi syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2006 Jun;140(11):1241-4

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.31223DOI Listing
June 2006

Parents' satisfaction with medical and social assistance provided to children with Down syndrome: experience in Estonia.

Community Genet 2003 ;6(3):166-70

Department of Paediatrics, University of Tartu, Estonia.

Objective: Parents of children with mental or physical disabilities have been assumed to live more stressful lives than other parents, and people with Down syndrome (DS) may get second-rate care because of their diagnosis. The aim of this work is to investigate the extent of parents' satisfaction with medical and social services in Estonia provided for the DS individuals and their families.

Methods: From 1999 to 2001, fifty-nine DS families answered questionnaires in which we inquired about their satisfaction with medical and social assistance.

Results: We found that satisfaction with the quality of the information about DS is low, and most of the parents are not satisfied with the social benefits and rehabilitation options.

Conclusions: The DS families need more medical information about this syndrome. The medical staff has to learn more about how to deliver bad news and how to support parents. More work needs to be done in the area of rehabilitation options and social assistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000078164DOI Listing
August 2004