Publications by authors named "Rihab R Nasr"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Circulating miRNA as Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis and Liver Metastasis.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Feb 19;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Stage IV CRC patients have poor prognosis with a five-year survival rate of 14%. Liver metastasis is the main cause of mortality in CRC patients. Since current screening tests have several drawbacks, effective stable non-invasive biomarkers such as microRNA (miRNA) are needed. We aim to investigate the expression of miRNA (miR-21, miR-19a, miR-23a, miR-29a, miR-145, miR-203, miR-155, miR-210, miR-31, and miR-345) in the plasma of 62 Lebanese Stage IV CRC patients and 44 healthy subjects using RT-qPCR, as well as to evaluate their potential for diagnosis of advanced CRC and its liver metastasis using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve. miR-21, miR-145, miR-203, miR-155, miR-210, miR-31, and miR-345 were significantly upregulated in the plasma of surgery naïve CRC patients when compared to healthy individuals. We identified two panels of miRNA that could be used for diagnosis of Stage IV CRC (miR-21 and miR-210) with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.731 and diagnostic accuracy of 69% and liver metastasis (miR-210 and miR-203) with an AUC = 0.833 and diagnostic accuracy of 72%. Panels of specific circulating miRNA, which require further validation, could be potential non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for CRC and liver metastasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11020341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921943PMC
February 2021

Bortezomib-mediated downregulation of S-phase kinase protein-2 (SKP2) causes apoptotic cell death in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.

J Transl Med 2016 Mar 9;14:69. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Translational Research Institute, Academic Health System, Hamad Medical Corporation, PO Box 3050, Doha, State of Qatar.

Background: Proteasome inhibitors are attractive cancer therapeutic agents because they can regulate apoptosis-related proteins. Bortezomib also known as Velcade(®), a proteasome inhibitor that has been approved by the food and drug administration for treatment of patients with multiple myeloma, and many clinical trials are ongoing to examine to the efficacy of bortezomib for the treatment of other malignancies. Bortezomib has been shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit cell growth of many cancer cells. In current study, we determine whether bortezomib induces cell death/apoptosis in CML.

Methods: Cell viability was measured using MTT assays. Apoptosis was measured by annexin V/PI dual staining and DNA fragmentation assays. Immunoblotting was performed to examine the expression of proteins. Colony assays were performed using methylcellulose.

Results: Treatment of CML cells with bortezomib results in downregulation of S-phase kinase protein 2 (SKP2) and concomitant stabilization of the expression of p27Kip1. Furthermore, knockdown of SKP2 with small interference RNA specific for SKP2 caused accumulation of p27Kip1. CML cells exposed to bortezomib leads to conformational changes in Bax protein, resulting in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and leakage of cytochrome c to the cytosol. In the cytosol, cytochrome c causes sequential activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, PARP cleavage and apoptosis. Pretreatment of CML cells with a universal inhibitor of caspases, z-VAD-fmk, prevents bortezomib-mediated apoptosis. Our data also demonstrated that bortezomib treatment of CML downregulates the expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. Finally, inhibition of proteasome pathways by bortezomib suppresses colony formation ability of CML cells.

Conclusions: Altogether, these findings suggest that bortezomib suppresses the cell proliferation via induction of apoptosis in CML cells by downregulation of SKP2 with concomitant accumulation of p27Kip1, suggesting that proteasomal pathway may form novel therapeutic targets for better management of CML.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-016-0823-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4784454PMC
March 2016

ST1926, an orally active synthetic retinoid, induces apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells and prolongs survival in a murine model.

Int J Cancer 2015 Aug 21;137(3):698-709. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib, is the first line of treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Unfortunately, patients develop resistance and relapse due to bcr-abl point mutations and the persistence of leukemia initiating cells (LIC). Retinoids regulate vital biological processes such as cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation, in particular of hematopoietic progenitor cells. The clinical usage of natural retinoids is hindered by acquired resistance and undesirable side effects. However, bioavailable and less toxic synthetic retinoids, such as the atypical adamantyl retinoid ST1926, have been developed and tested in cancer clinical trials. We investigated the preclinical efficacy of the synthetic retinoid ST1926 using human CML cell lines and the murine bone marrow transduction/transplantation CML model. In vitro, ST1926 induced irreversible growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase activation. Furthermore, ST1926 induced DNA damage and downregulated BCR-ABL. Most importantly, oral treatment with ST1926 significantly prolonged the longevity of primary CML mice, and reduced tumor burden. However, ST1926 did not eradicate LIC, evident by the ability of splenocytes isolated from treated primary mice to develop CML in untreated secondary recipients. These results support a potential therapeutic use of ST1926 in CML targeted therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29407DOI Listing
August 2015

Effective targeting of chronic myeloid leukemia initiating activity with the combination of arsenic trioxide and interferon alpha.

Int J Cancer 2014 Feb 10;134(4):988-96. Epub 2013 Sep 10.

Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Imatinib is the standard of care in chronic meloid leukemia (CML) therapy. However, imatinib is not curative since most patients who discontinue therapy relapse indicating that leukemia initiating cells (LIC) are resistant. Interferon alpha (IFN) induces hematologic and cytogenetic remissions and interestingly, improved outcome was reported with the combination of interferon and imatinib. Arsenic trioxide was suggested to decrease CML LIC. We investigated the effects of arsenic and IFN on human CML cell lines or primary cells and the bone marrow retroviral transduction/transplantation murine CML model. In vitro, the combination of arsenic and IFN inhibited proliferation and activated apoptosis. Importantly, arsenic and IFN synergistically reduced the clonogenic activity of primary bone marrow cells derived from CML patients. Finally, in vivo, combined interferon and arsenic treatment, but not single agents, prolonged the survival of primary CML mice. Importantly, the combination severely impaired engraftment into untreated secondary recipients, with some recipients never developing the disease, demonstrating a dramatic decrease in CML LIC activity. Arsenic/IFN effect on CML LIC activity was significantly superior to that of imatinib. These results support further exploration of this combination, alone or with imatinib aiming at achieving CML eradication rather than long-term disease control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28427DOI Listing
February 2014