Publications by authors named "Richard Toesca"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Epidemiology of unintentional drowning in a metropolis of the French Mediterranean coast: a retrospective analysis (2000-2011).

Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2016 Sep 17;23(3):317-22. Epub 2015 Jun 17.

a SAMU13, Pôle RUSH, CHU La Timone, AP-HM, Marseille, France.

Drowning affects more than 500,000 people worldwide and is responsible for at least 350,000 deaths each year. In France, 1235 drowning resulting in 496 deaths were recorded in the summer 2012. This retrospective study has investigated the epidemiology of drowning in the city of Marseille (South of France) between 2000 and 2011. We identified 449 cases of unintentional drowning. The highest incidence was found among males with a median age of 36 years. The incidence was 5.3 victims per 10,000 inhabitants with a mortality rate of 1.2 per 10,000. These accidents occurred mainly at sea (89%) and during the summer season. A majority of drowning victims (69%) were admitted in a hospital. This is the only study in France to analyse data on drowning throughout the year and over a long period. Drowning is a serious condition burdened by 22% of victims who die.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17457300.2015.1047862DOI Listing
September 2016

COMparison of Platelet reactivity following prAsugrel and ticagrelor loading dose in ST-Segment elevation myocardial infarctION patients: The COMPASSION study.

Platelets 2015 2;26(6):570-2. Epub 2014 Oct 2.

Service de Cardiologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Nord, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille , Chemin des Bourrely, Marseille , France .

Prasugrel and ticagrelor are potent P2Y12-ADP receptor antagonists which are superior to clopidogrel in acute coronary syndromes. To date no clinical trial directly compared these two drugs. Platelet reactivity correlates with ischemic and bleeding events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Recent pharmacological studies have observed a delayed onset of action of these two drugs in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We provide the first adequately powered pharmacological study comparing PR following ticagrelor and prasugrel loading dose (LD) in STEMI patients when the maximal biological effect is reached. In the present study, ticagrelor was associated with a lower rate of high on-treatment PR compared to prasugrel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09537104.2014.959914DOI Listing
May 2016

Effect of ticagrelor-related dyspnea on compliance with therapy in acute coronary syndrome patients.

Int J Cardiol 2014 Apr 22;173(1):120-1. Epub 2014 Feb 22.

Département de Cardiologie Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Nord, Aix-Marseille Univ., Marseille, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.02.028DOI Listing
April 2014

Outcome of acute respiratory distress syndrome patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and brought to a referral center.

Intensive Care Med 2014 Jan 30;40(1):74-83. Epub 2013 Oct 30.

URMITE, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Inserm 1095, Aix Marseille Université, 13005, Marseille, France,

Purpose: Patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are candidates for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy. The evaluation of organ severity is difficult in patients considered for cannulation in a distant hospital. This study was designed to identify early factors associated with hospital mortality in ARDS patients treated with ECMO and retrieved from referring hospitals.

Methods: Data from 85 consecutive ARDS patients equipped with ECMO by our mobile team and consequently admitted to our ICU were prospectively collected and analyzed.

Results: The main ARDS etiologies were community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (35%), influenza pneumonia (23%) (with 12 patients having been treated during the first half of the study period), and nosocomial pneumonia (14%). The median (interquartile range) time between contact from the referring hospital and patient cannulation was 3 (1-4) h. ECMO was venovenous in 77 (91%) patients. No complications occurred during transport by our mobile unit. Forty-eight patients died at the hospital (56%). Based on a multivariate logistic regression, a score including age, SOFA score, and a diagnosis of influenza pneumonia was constructed. The probability of hospital mortality following ECMO initiation was 40% in the 0-2 score class (n = 58) and 93% in the 3-4 score class (n = 27). Patients with an influenza pneumonia diagnosis and a SOFA score before ECMO of less than 12 had a mortality rate of 22%.

Conclusions: Age, SOFA score, and a diagnosis of influenza may be used to accurately evaluate the risk of death in ARDS patients considered for retrieval under ECMO from distant hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-013-3135-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7095017PMC
January 2014

Ticagrelor versus prasugrel in diabetic patients with an acute coronary syndrome. A pharmacodynamic randomised study.

Thromb Haemost 2014 Feb 24;111(2):273-8. Epub 2013 Oct 24.

Laurent Bonello, MD, PhD, Department of cardiology, Hôpital universitaire nord, Chemin des bourrely, 13015 Marseille, France, Tel.: +33 491 968 858, Fax: +33 491 968 979, E-mail:

Optimal P2Y12 receptor blockade is critical to prevent ischaemic recurrence in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We aimed to compare the level of platelet reactivity (PR) inhibition achieved by prasugrel and ticagrelor loading dose (LD) in diabetic acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing PCI. We performed a single-center prospective open-label randomised trial. Patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing PCI for an ACS were randomised to receive prasugrel 60 mg or ticagrelor 180 mg. The primary endpoint of the study was the level of platelet reactivity (PR) assessed between 6 and 18 hours post-LD using the VASP index. We randomised 100 diabetic patients undergoing PCI for an ACS. No difference was observed in baseline characteristics between the two groups. In particular, the rate of patient receiving insulin therapy was identical (25 vs 28.6%; p =0.7). Ticagrelor achieved a significantly lower PR compared to prasugrel loading dose (17.3 ± 14.2 vs 27.7 ± 23.3%; p=0.009). In addition the rate of high on-treatment platelet reactivity, defined by a VASP ≥50%, tend to be lower in the ticagrelor group although the difference did not reach statistical significance (6 vs 16%; p=0.2). The rate of low on treatment PR was identical (60 vs 54%; p=0.8). The present study demonstrates that ticagrelor LD is superior to prasugrel LD to reduce PR in ACS patients with diabetes mellitus. Whether the higher potency of ticagrelor could translate into a clinical benefit should be investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH13-05-0384DOI Listing
February 2014

Assessing post-treatment platelet reactivity: a focus on patient selection and setting.

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2013 Nov 2;11(11):1557-66. Epub 2013 Sep 2.

Département de Cardiologie, Hôpital Universitaire Nord, Marseille, France.

Dual antiplatelet therapy is critical to inhibit platelet reactivity in order to prevent ischemic recurrences in stented patients. However, studies have observed a variable blockade of the P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor between patients following clopidogrel intake. This interindividual variability in the biological response is not uncommon with clopidogrel (about 50%) and even prasugrel (20%). High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) is correlated with thrombotic events following percutaneous coronary intervention. Several studies suggested that tailoring of antiplatelet therapy based on platelet reactivity (PR) monitoring could safely reduce the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events in HTPR patients. In addition, low on-treatment PR was recently associated with bleeding events both in patients treated with prasugrel and clopidogrel. Of importance, bleedings are associated with a poor prognosis in stented patients. Overall, the potential of PR monitoring to individualize antiplatelet therapy might benefit stented patients by reducing both ischemic and bleeding risks. However, such strategies remain to be evaluated in adequately designed large-scale randomized clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/14779072.2013.820440DOI Listing
November 2013

Platelet reactivity evaluated with the VASP assay following ticagrelor loading dose in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

Thromb Res 2013 Jul 30;132(1):e15-8. Epub 2013 May 30.

Département de cardiologie, Hôpital universitaire nord, Aix-Marseille Univ., Marseille, France.

Background: The level of platelet reactivity (PR) inhibition obtained after P2Y12-ADP receptor antagonist loading dose (LD) is associated with the ischemic and bleeding risk following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the level of PR inhibition achieved by a 180 mg LD of ticagrelor and the rate of high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) in ACS patients undergoing PCI.

Methods: We performed a multicentre prospective observational study enrolling ACS patients undergoing PCI. Patients were included if they were admitted for ST-elevation myocardial infarction or non ST-elevation ACS. To assess PR, a VASP index was measured at least 6 and within 24 hours following a 180 mg LD of ticagrelor. HTPR was defined as a VASP index ≥50%.

Results: One hundred and fifteen patients were included: 31.3% of STEMI, 49.6% of NSTEMI and 19.1% of unstable angina. Following ticagrelor LD the mean VASP index was 17±14%. However the response to ticagrelor was not uniform with a small inter-individual variability: inter quartile range: 7.6-22.8% and a rate of HTPR of 3.5%. A high number of patients, 65.6%, had a VASP index <16%. None of the baseline characteristics of the study population was associated with PR. In addition, PR was similar in STEMI, NSTEMI and unstable angina (p=0.9).

Conclusion: In ACS patients the level of PR inhibition achieved by a 180 mg loading dose of ticagrelor is not uniform and the rate of HTPR is 3.5%. A high proportion of patients exhibited a VASP index <16%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2013.04.030DOI Listing
July 2013

Emergency medical service in the stroke chain of survival.

Eur J Emerg Med 2013 Feb;20(1):39-44

Department of Emergency Medicine and Intensive Care, Timone University, Marseille, France.

Background: The Emergency Medical Services (EMS) play a primordial role in the early management of adults with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role and effectiveness of the EMS in the stroke chain of survival in Marseille.

Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in patients treated for AIS or transient ischaemic attack in three emergency departments and at the Marseille stroke centre over a period of 12 months.

Results: In 2009, of 1034 patients ultimately presenting a diagnosis of AIS or transient ischaemic attack, 74% benefited from EMS activation. Dispatchers correctly diagnosed 57% of stroke patients. The symptoms most frequently reported included limb weakness, speech problems and facial paresis. Elements resulting in misdiagnosis by dispatchers were general discomfort, chest pain, dyspnoea, fall or vertigo. Stroke patients not diagnosed by emergency medical dispatchers but calling within 3 h of symptom onset accounted for 20% of cases.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that public intervention programmes must stress the urgency of recognizing stroke symptoms and the importance of calling EMS through free telephone numbers. Further efforts are necessary to disseminate guidelines for healthcare providers concerning stroke recognition and the new therapeutic possibilities in order to increase the likelihood of acute stroke patients presenting to a stroke team early enough to be eligible for acute treatment. In addition, EMS dispatchers should receive further training about atypical stroke symptoms, and 'Face Arm Speech Test' tests must be included in the routine questionnaires used in emergency medical calls concerning elderly persons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEJ.0b013e32835015acDOI Listing
February 2013

Mobile cardio-respiratory support in prehospital emergency medicine.

Eur J Emerg Med 2011 Apr;18(2):99-101

Department of Emergency Medicine and Intensive Care, Timone University Hospital, 264 rue St. Pierre, Marseille Cedex 5, France.

Introduction: Serious pulmonary and cardiac failure may be treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) when the conventional treatment fails. Improvements in extracorporeal circulation devices have allowed us to set up two specialized mobile units: a mobile cardiac assistance unit (MCAU) and a mobile respiratory assistance unit (MRAU). Their role is to provide ECMO at patient's bedside, and then to ensure inter-hospital transport (IHT). The aim of this study was to evaluate our experiences with the transportation of patients on ECMO.

Methods: We performed two prospective observational studies, the first on IHT requiring MCAU during 3 years and the second on IHT requiring MRAU during 6 months.

Results: Thirty-two patients needed MCAU. The median age is 40 years. The median distance travelled is 45 km. The median time of arrival at patient bedside is 49 min. Causes of cardiac shock were: myocarditis (28.1%), acute heart failure of unknown aetiology (21.9%), drug-induced cardiovascular failure (18.8%), post-infarction cardiac failure (12.5%), post-cardiac surgery (12.5%) and refractory cardiac arrest (6.2%). Thirty days mortality was 40%. Eleven patients needed MRAU. The median age was 33 years. The median distance travelled is 40 km; the median time of arrival at patient bedside is 47 min. All patients had severe acute respiratory distress syndrome complicating severe H1N1 virus infection. Thirty days mortality was 65%. In both the cases, all transportations were uneventful.

Conclusion: This study shows that mobile ECMO system can be successfully and quickly established at patient's bedside, and that transportation of patients on ECMO can be performed safely and without technical difficulties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEJ.0b013e3283402249DOI Listing
April 2011