Publications by authors named "Richard Tacey"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Development and validation of cell-based assays for the detection of neutralizing antibodies to drug products: a practical approach.

Bioanalysis 2012 Dec;4(24):2959-70

Immunochemistry Division, PPD, Richmond, VA 23230-3323, USA.

Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that bind to drug products and may diminish or eliminate the associated biological activity are an unintended and undesirable outcome of some drug products. Standard immunoassays can detect drug-specific antibodies but cannot distinguish NAbs, so cell-based assays are often preferred because they closely mimic the mechanism by which NAbs and drug products interact in vivo. Each cell-based NAb assay is unique and based on several factors, such as the drug product, study population and phase of development (preclinical or clinical). The type of NAb assay (direct or indirect) depends on the drug's mechanism of action. Key steps in assay development are: selecting a suitable cell line, choosing the proper cellular response (end point method), selection of proper controls and optimization of assay parameters. Once developed, the assay must be rigorously tested (validated) to ensure that it meets several important criteria and is fit for its intended purpose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.12.285DOI Listing
December 2012

Validation and life-cycle management of a quantitative ligand-binding assay for the measurement of Nulojix(®), a CTLA-4-Fc fusion protein, in renal and liver transplant patients.

Bioanalysis 2012 Jun;4(10):1215-26

Bristol-Myers Squibb, Route 206 & Province Line Rd, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Background: Nulojix(®) is a fusion protein composed of the Fc portion of a human IgG1 linked to the extracellular modified domain of CTLA-4. Nulojix differs from another Bristol Myers Squibb product, Orencia(®) by two amino acids and was approved by the FDA on 15 June 2011 for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in adult patients receiving kidney transplant.

Results: A sandwich ELISA utilizing two monoclonal antibodies against CTLA-4 was employed for Nulojix quantification and pharmacokinetic analysis. At least 17 analysts have qualified on the assay and contributed to reportable results over the last 7 years. In-study accuracy and precision demonstrate suitable performance: %bias within -4 to 4%, %CV ≤13% and total error within 6-15%. Incurred sample reanalysis was completed in applicable disease-state populations. The assay was automated and validated in additional clinical matrices (ascites and urine) and Nulojix quantification was validated in the presence of clinically relevant co-administered compounds. In 2011, the biotinylation procedure was modified meriting a regression change (quadratic to 4-parameter logistic) and associated partial validation.

Conclusion: This long-term pharmacokinetic program provides a good example of the dynamic clinical environment and adaptation requirements of ligand-binding assays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.12.79DOI Listing
June 2012

Bioanalytical method validation for macromolecules in support of pharmacokinetic studies.

Pharm Res 2005 Sep 24;22(9):1425-31. Epub 2005 Aug 24.

Alta Analytical Laboratory, San Diego, California, USA.

The development and validation of ligand binding assays used in the support of pharmacokinetic studies has been the focus of various workshops and publications in recent years, all in an effort to establish a guidance document for standardization of these bioanalytical methods. This summary report of the workshop from 2003 focuses on the issues discussed in presentations and notes points of discussion and areas of consensus among the participants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-005-5917-9DOI Listing
September 2005

Development and validation of ELISA for herceptin detection in human serum.

J Immunol Methods 2004 Dec 2;295(1-2):169-82. Epub 2004 Nov 2.

PPD Development, 2244 Dabney Road, Richmond, 23230, VA, USA.

Herceptin, a humanized anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody, is used for treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients overexpressing HER2 on tumor cells, and is being studied in clinical trials for therapy of other types of cancer. In the present work, we developed a Herceptin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from commercially available reagents to meet the growing needs of clinical studies. In this immunoassay, a mixture of monoclonal antibodies specific for the cytoplasmic domain of human HER2 (676-1255 amino acids) is adsorbed onto a microtiter plate, followed by addition of full-length HER2 protein, which is captured by the antibodies. Herceptin in the serum that is added to the microwells binds to the extracellular domain (ECD) of the captured HER2. The Herceptin bound to HER2 is detected by an antihuman IgG-horse radish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate and a (3, 5, 3', 5')-tetramethylenbenzidine (TMB) substrate. The calibration range of the assay is 5-100 ng/mL after 1:2000 sample dilution corresponding to 10-200 microg/mL Herceptin in undiluted serum. The intra- and interassay CVs ranged from 4.56% to 13.3% and from 9.9% to 18.9%, respectively. The assay shows dilutional linearity and specificity. Soluble p105 HER2, which can be shed into serum does not interfere with the assay. The analytical performance of the Herceptin ELISA indicates that this assay can be used for monitoring concentration levels of Herceptin in human serum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2004.09.012DOI Listing
December 2004

Recommendations for the bioanalytical method validation of ligand-binding assays to support pharmacokinetic assessments of macromolecules.

Pharm Res 2003 Nov;20(11):1885-900

Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, California, USA.

Purpose: With this publication a subcommittee of the AAPS Ligand Binding Assay Bioanalytical Focus Group (LBABFG) makes recommendations for the development, validation, and implementation of ligand binding assays (LBAs) that are intended to support pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic assessments of macromolecules.

Methods: This subcommittee was comprised of 10 members representing Pharmaceutical, Biotechnology, and the contract research organization industries from the United States, Canada, and Europe. Each section of this consensus document addresses a specific analytical performance characteristic or aspect for validation of a LBA. Within each section the topics are organized by an assay's life cycle, the development phase, pre-study validation, and in-study validation. Because unique issues often accompany bioanalytical assays for macromolecules, this document should be viewed as a guide for designing and conducting the validation of ligand binding assays.

Results: Values of +/- 20% (25% at the lower limit of quantification [LLOQ]) are recommended as default acceptance criteria for accuracy (% relative error [RE], mean bias) and interbatch precision (%coefficient of variation [CV]). In addition, we propose as secondary criteria for method acceptance that the sum of the interbatch precision (%CV) and the absolute value of the mean bias (%RE) be less than or equal to 30%. This added criterion is recommended to help ensure that in-study runs of test samples will meet the proposed run acceptance criteria of 4-6-30. Exceptions to the proposed process and acceptance criteria are appropriate when accompanied by a sound scientific rationale.

Conclusions: In this consensus document, we attempt to make recommendations that are based on bioanalytical best practices and statistical thinking for development and validation of LBAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:pham.0000003390.51761.3dDOI Listing
November 2003

The detection of anti-erythropoietin antibodies in human serum and plasma. Part I. Validation of the protocol for a radioimmunoprecipitation assay.

J Immunol Methods 2003 Dec;283(1-2):317-29

PPD Development, Richmond, VA, USA.

Rare cases of unexplained sudden severe anemia or red cell aplasia and resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) have been attributed to the development of anti-EPO antibodies. The development and validation of a radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assay to detect human anti-EPO antibodies in serum or plasma has been hampered by the lack of purified antibody to fully characterize and validate the assay. We have prepared an affinity-purified human antibody to EPO and used the antibody to characterize and validate a sensitive and reproducible RIP assay that can qualitatively measure anti-EPO antibody in serum or plasma samples. The lower limit of detection of the assay is 8 ng/ml of purified antibody. The threshold for detecting antibody is > or =0.9% cpm bound. The precision of the assay using purified antibody standards ranges from 5.8% to 15.3% and the precision of the assay using dilutions of the positive control ranges from 15.9% to 18.7%. EPO in the samples did not interfere with detection of the anti-EPO antibody except at high concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2003.09.003DOI Listing
December 2003