Publications by authors named "Richard T Maziarz"

185 Publications

Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Non-Relapse Mortality and Disease Relapse in Older versus Younger Adults Undergoing Matched Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A CIBMTR Analysis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Oct 9. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

CIBMTR® (Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research), Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Background: The effect of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) on the risk of non-relapse mortality (NRM) and relapse has not been specifically studied in older adults, who are increasingly undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) and surviving long-term to develop cGVHD. In this Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research analysis, we tested our hypothesis that the risk of NRM was higher with the development of cGVHD, particularly among older adults (≥60 years).

Methods: We included 4429 adults ≥40 years who received first HLA-matched peripheral blood alloHCT for acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome between the years 2008-2017. We compared outcomes of 4 groups: older adults (≥60 years) and younger adults (40-59 years) with or without cGVHD to determine the effect of older age and cGVHD on various outcomes. We used Cox proportional hazard models to determine the risk of NRM, relapse and overall survival (OS). We treated cGVHD as a time-dependent covariate. Severity of cGVHD was based on the CIBMTR clinical definitions.

Results: cGVHD was significantly associated with a higher risk of NRM and lower risk of relapse regardless of age. The risk of NRM was higher among older versus younger adults. Adults who developed cGVHD as a group had longer OS, compared to age-matched cohorts without cGVHD. Older adults had worse OS regardless of cGVHD. Among adults with cGVHD, clinically moderate or severe cGVHD was associated with a significantly higher risk of NRM and lower risk of relapse; severe cGVHD was associated with shorter OS, whereas mild and moderate cGVHD were associated with longer OS.

Conclusions: Among both younger and older adults, the development of cGVHD was associated with a higher risk of NRM, lower risk of relapse and longer OS. Older adults had a higher risk of NRM but the increased risk of NRM associated with cGVHD did not differ based on age. Development of mild-moderate cGVHD offered the most favorable balance between minimizing NRM and decreasing relapses. The relapse risk was lowest for adults with severe cGVHD, but high NRM resulted in shorter OS. Developing strategies to avoid clinically severe cGVHD is critically important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.10.002DOI Listing
October 2021

Post-Transplant cyclophosphamide is associated with increase in Non-CMV Herpesvirus infections in Acute leukemia and MDS patients.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Sep 26. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Division of Hematology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.

Background: There is increasing use of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for GVHD prophylaxis for both haploidentical and fully matched transplants. Published studies have reported an increased incidence of CMV infection with the use of PTCy. Limited data exist regarding the incidence and outcomes of infection with non-CMV herpes viruses (NCHV) in this setting.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative incidence of NCHV infections and the association of NCHV infections with transplant-specific outcomes in patients receiving haploidentical transplant with PTCy(HaploCy), matched sibling donor transplant with PTCy (SibCy) or matched sibling donor transplant with calcineurin inhibitor based prophylaxis (SibCNI). We hypothesized that, like CMV infection, patients receiving haploidentical transplant with PTCy will have higher risk of NCHV infections.

Study Design: Using the CIBMTR database, we analyzed patients (HaploCy, n=757; SibCNI, n=1605; SibCy, n=403) receiving first hematopoietic stem-cell transplant between 2012 and 2017 for acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.

Results: The cumulative incidence of non-CMV herpes virus infection at six months post-transplant in the HaploCy, SibCy and SibCNI were 13.9% (99%CI=10.8-17.3%), 10.7% (99%CI=7.1-15%), and 5.7% (99%CI=4.3-7.3%), p<0.001 respectively. This was primarily due to a higher frequency of HHV-6 viremia reported in patients receiving PTCy. Incidence of Epstein-Barr viremia was low in all groups and no cases of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder were seen in PTCy groups. The incidence of non-CMV herpes virus organ disease was low in all three cohorts. Development of NCHV infection was associated with increased treatment-related mortality, particularly in the HaploCy group. There was no association with the development of GVHD, relapse, and disease-free survival. Patients in PTCy cohorts who did not develop non-CMV herpes virus infection had lower rates of cGVHD.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the use of PTCy is associated with increased risk of NCHV infection. Development of NCHV infection is associated with increased non-relapse mortality, especially in HaploCY group. Prospective trials should consider viral surveillance strategies in conjunction with assessment of immune reconstitution for better understanding of the clinical relevance of viral reactivation in different transplant settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.09.015DOI Listing
September 2021

Long-term clinical outcomes of tisagenlecleucel in patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive B-cell lymphomas (JULIET): a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Oct 10;22(10):1403-1415. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Center for Hematologic Malignancies, Oregon Health and Science University Knight Cancer Institute, Portland, OR, USA.

Background: In the primary analysis of the pivotal JULIET trial of tisagenlecleucel, an autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, the best overall response rate was 52% and the complete response rate was 40% in 93 evaluable adult patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive B-cell lymphomas. We aimed to do a long-term follow-up analysis of the clinical outcomes and correlative analyses of activity and safety in the full adult cohort.

Methods: In this multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial (JULIET) done at 27 treatment sites in ten countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, and the USA), adult patients (≥18 years) with histologically confirmed relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphomas who were ineligible for, did not consent to, or had disease progression after autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1 at screening, were enrolled. Patients received a single intravenous infusion of tisagenlecleucel (target dose 5 × 10 viable transduced CAR T cells). The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ie, the proportion of patients with a best overall disease response of a complete response or partial response using the Lugano classification, as assessed by an independent review committee) at any time post-infusion and was analysed in all patients who received tisagenlecleucel (the full analysis set). Safety was analysed in all patients who received tisagenlecleucel. JULIET is registered with ClinialTrials.gov, NCT02445248, and is ongoing.

Findings: Between July 29, 2015, and Nov 2, 2017, 167 patients were enrolled. As of Feb 20, 2020, 115 patients had received tisagenlecleucel infusion and were included in the full analysis set. At a median follow-up of 40·3 months (IQR 37·8-43·8), the overall response rate was 53·0% (95% CI 43·5-62·4; 61 of 115 patients), with 45 (39%) patients having a complete response as their best overall response. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were anaemia (45 [39%]), decreased neutrophil count (39 [34%]), decreased white blood cell count (37 [32%]), decreased platelet count (32 [28%]), cytokine release syndrome (26 [23%]), neutropenia (23 [20%]), febrile neutropenia (19 [17%]), hypophosphataemia (15 [13%]), and thrombocytopenia (14 [12%]). The most common treatment-related serious adverse events were cytokine release syndrome (31 [27%]), febrile neutropenia (seven [6%]), pyrexia (six [5%]), pancytopenia (three [3%]), and pneumonia (three [3%]). No treatment-related deaths were reported.

Interpretation: Tisagenlecleucel shows durable activity and manageable safety profiles in adult patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive B-cell lymphomas. For patients with large B-cell lymphomas that are refractory to chemoimmunotherapy or relapsing after second-line therapies, tisagenlecleucel compares favourably with respect to risk-benefit relative to conventional therapeutic approaches (eg, salvage chemotherapy).

Funding: Novartis Pharmaceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00375-2DOI Listing
October 2021

Autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma-type Richter syndrome.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep;5(18):3528-3539

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Department of Medicine, and.

Richter syndrome (RS) represents a transformation from chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) to aggressive lymphoma, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which is associated with a dismal prognosis. Patients with DLBCL-RS have poor outcomes with DLBCL-directed therapy; thus, consolidation with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been used, with durable remissions observed. Studies reporting HCT outcomes in patients with DLBCL-RS have been small, have not evaluated the prognostic impact of cytogenetic risk factors, and were conducted prior to the era of novel targeted therapy of CLL/SLL. We performed a Center for International Blood and Transplant Research registry study evaluating outcomes after autologous HCT (auto-HCT; n = 53) and allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT; n = 118) in patients with DLBCL-RS treated in the modern era. More auto-HCT recipients were in complete response (CR) at HCT relative to allo-HCT recipients (66% vs 34%), whereas a higher proportion of allo-HCT recipients had 17p deletion (33% vs 7%) and had previously received novel agents (39% vs 10%). In the auto-HCT cohort, the 3-year relapse incidence, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 37%, 48%, and 57%, respectively. Among allo-HCT recipients, the 3-year relapse incidence, PFS, and OS were 30%, 43%, and 52%, respectively. In the allo-HCT cohort, deeper response at HCT was associated with outcomes (3-year PFS/OS, 66%/77% CR vs 43%/57% partial response vs 5%/15% resistant; P < .0001 for both), whereas cytogenetic abnormalities and prior novel therapy did not impact outcomes. In our study, HCT resulted in durable remissions in therapy-sensitive patients with DLBCL-RS treated in the era of targeted CLL/SLL therapy, including patients with high-risk features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004865DOI Listing
September 2021

Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network State of the Science Symposium 2021: Looking Forward as the Network Celebrates its 20th Year.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

In 2021 the BMT CTN held the 4th State of the Science Symposium where the deliberations of 11 committees concerning major topics pertinent to a particular disease, modality, or complication of transplant, as well as two committees to consider clinical trial design and inclusion, diversity, and access as cross-cutting themes were reviewed. This article summarizes the individual committee reports and their recommendations on the highest priority questions in hematopoietic stem cell transplant and cell therapy to address in multicenter trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.016DOI Listing
August 2021

Lifetime Costs for Treated Follicular Lymphoma Patients in the US.

Pharmacoeconomics 2021 Oct 17;39(10):1163-1183. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Background And Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the lifetime costs of patients receiving treatment for follicular lymphoma (FL) in the United States.

Methods: A Markov model was programmed in hēRo3 with a 6-month cycle length, 35-year time horizon (lifetime projection), and health states for line of treatment, response, receipt of maintenance therapy among responders, transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), development of second primary malignancy (SPM), and death. The model was used to estimate the expected lifetime costs of FL (in 2019 USD), including costs of drug acquisition and administration, transplant procedures, radiotherapy, adverse events, follow-up, DLBCL, SPM, end-of-life care, and indirect costs. Model inputs were based on published sources.

Results: In the US, patients with FL receiving treatment have a life expectancy of approximately 14.5 years from initiation of treatment and expected lifetime direct and indirect costs of US$515,884. Costs of drugs for induction therapy represent the largest expenditure (US$233,174), followed by maintenance therapy costs (US$88,971) and terminal care costs (US$57,065). Despite the relatively advanced age of these patients, indirect costs (due to patient morbidity and mortality and caregiver lost work time) represent a substantial share of total costs (US$40,280). Treated FL patients spend approximately 6.9 years in the health states associated with first-line therapy. Approximately 66 and 46% continue to second- and third-line therapies, respectively. The mean (95% credible interval) of expected lifetime costs based on the probabilistic sensitivity analyses was US$559,202 (421,997-762,553).

Conclusions: In the US, the expected lifetime costs of care for FL patients who receive treatment is high. The results highlight the potential economic benefits that might be achieved by treatments for FL that prevent or delay disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40273-021-01052-3DOI Listing
October 2021

Omidubicel Versus Standard Myeloablative Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation: Results of a Phase III Randomized Study.

Blood 2021 06 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain and CIBERONC, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain, Valencia, Spain.

Omidubicel is an ex vivo expanded hematopoietic progenitor cell, and non-expanded myeloid and lymphoid cell product derived from a single umbilical cord blood unit. We report results of a phase III trial to evaluate the efficacy of omidubicel compared to standard umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). Between January 2017 and January 2020, 125 patients aged 13-65 with hematologic malignancies were randomized to omidubicel versus standard UCBT. Patients received myeloablative conditioning and graft versus host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis with a calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate mofetil. The primary endpoint was time to neutrophil engraftment. The treatment arms were well balanced and racially diverse. Median time to neutrophil engraftment was 12 days (95% CI 10-14 days) and 22 days (95% CI 19-25 days) (p<0.001) for the omidubicel and control arms, respectively. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 96% and 89% for patients receiving omidubicel and control transplants, respectively. The omidubicel arm had faster platelet recovery (55% vs. 35% recovery by 42 days, p=0.028), a lower incidence of first grade 2/3 bacterial or invasive fungal infections (37% vs. 57%, p=0.027), and spent more time out of hospital during the first 100 days following transplant (median 61 vs. 48 days, p=0.005) than controls. Differences in GvHD and survival between the two arms were not statistically significant. Transplantation with omidubicel results in faster hematopoietic recovery and reduced early transplant-related complications as compared to standard UCBT. The results suggest that omidubicel may be considered as a new standard of care for adult patients eligible for UCBT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011719DOI Listing
June 2021

Biologic Assignment Trial of Reduced-Intensity Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Based on Donor Availability in Patients 50-75 Years of Age With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndrome.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Oct 9;39(30):3328-3339. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Purpose: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only potentially curative therapy for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), although it is infrequently offered to older patients. The relative benefits of HCT over non-HCT therapy in older patients with higher-risk MDS have not been defined.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter biologic assignment trial comparing reduced-intensity HCT to hypomethylating therapy or best supportive care in subjects 50-75 years of age with intermediate-2 or high-risk de novo MDS. The primary outcome was overall survival probability at 3 years. Between January 2014 and November 2018, we enrolled 384 subjects at 34 centers. Subjects were assigned to the Donor or No-Donor arms according to the availability of a matched donor within 90 days of study registration.

Results: The median follow-up time for surviving subjects was 34.2 months (range: 2.3-38 months) in the Donor arm and 26.9 months (range: 2.4-37.2 months) in the No-Donor arm. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the adjusted overall survival rate at 3 years in the Donor arm was 47.9% (95% CI, 41.3 to 54.1) compared with 26.6% (95% CI, 18.4 to 35.6) in the No-Donor arm ( = .0001) with an absolute difference of 21.3% (95% CI, 10.2 to 31.8). Leukemia-free survival at 3 years was greater in the Donor arm (35.8%; 95% CI, 29.8 to 41.8) compared with the No-Donor arm (20.6%; 95% CI, 13.3 to 29.1; = .003). The survival benefit was seen across all subgroups examined.

Conclusion: We observed a significant survival advantage in older subjects with higher-risk MDS who have a matched donor identified and underwent reduced-intensity HCT, when compared with those without a donor. HCT should be included as an integral part of MDS management plans in fit older adults with higher-risk MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03380DOI Listing
October 2021

Impact of Conditioning Intensity and Genomics on Relapse After Allogeneic Transplantation for Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome.

JCO Precis Oncol 2021 25;5. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Laboratory of Myeloid Malignancies, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Purpose: Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are at risk of relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The utility of ultra-deep genomic testing to predict and the impact of conditioning intensity to prevent MDS relapse are unknown.

Methods: Targeted error-corrected DNA sequencing was performed on preconditioning blood samples from patients with MDS (n = 48) from the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network 0901 phase III randomized clinical trial, which compared outcomes by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation conditioning intensity in adult patients with < 5% marrow myeloblasts and no leukemic myeloblasts in blood on morphological analysis at the time of pretransplant assessment. Clinical end points (53-month median follow-up) included transplant-related mortality (TRM), relapse, relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Of the 48 patients examined, 14 experienced TRM, 23 are relapse-free, and 11 relapsed, of which 7 died.

Results: Using a previously described set of 10 gene regions, 42% of patients (n = 20) had mutations detectable before random assignment to reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) or myeloablative conditioning (MAC). Testing positive was associated with increased rates of relapse (3-year relapse, 40% 11%; = .022) and decreased OS (3-year OS, 55% 79%, = .045). In those testing positive, relapse rates were higher (3-year relapse, 75% 17%; = .003) and RFS was lower (3-year RFS, 13% 49%; = .003) in RIC versus MAC arms. Testing additional genes, including those associated with MDS, did not improve prognostication.

Conclusion: This study provides evidence that targeted DNA sequencing in patients with MDS before transplant can identify those with highest post-transplant relapse rates. In those testing positive, random assignment to MAC lowered but did not eliminate relapse risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.20.00355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140814PMC
January 2021

Graft-versus-host disease after liver transplantation is associated with bone marrow failure, hemophagocytosis, and DNMT3A mutations.

Am J Transplant 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Surgery, Division of Abdominal Organ Transplantation, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Graft-versus-host disease after liver transplantation (LT-GVHD) is rare, frequently fatal, and associated with bone marrow failure (BMF), cytopenias, and hyperferritinemia. Given hyperferritinemia and cytopenias are present in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), and somatic mutations in hematopoietic cells are associated with hyperinflammatory responses (clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential, CHIP), we identified the frequency of hemophagocytosis and CHIP mutations in LT-GVHD. We reviewed bone marrow aspirates and biopsies, quantified blood/marrow chimerism, and performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) with a targeted panel of genes relevant to myeloid malignancies, CHIP, and BMF. In all, 12 marrows were reviewed from 9 LT-GVHD patients. In all, 10 aspirates were evaluable for hemophagocytosis; 7 had adequate DNA for NGS. NGS was also performed on marrow from an LT cohort (n = 6) without GVHD. Nine of 10 aspirates in LT-GVHD patients showed increased hemophagocytosis. Five (71%) of 7 with LT-GVHD had DNMT3A mutations; only 1 of 6 in the non-GVHD LT cohort demonstrated DNMT3A mutation (p = .04). Only 1 LT-GVHD patient survived. BMF with HLH features was associated with poor hematopoietic recovery, and DNMT3A mutations were over-represented, in LT-GVHD patients. Identification of HLH features may guide prognosis and therapeutics. Further studies are needed to clarify the origin and impact of CHIP mutations on the hyperinflammatory state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16635DOI Listing
May 2021

Engrafted Donor-Derived Clonal Hematopoiesis after Allogenic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation is Associated with Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Requiring Immunosuppressive Therapy, but no Adverse Impact on Overall Survival or Relapse.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08 24;27(8):662.e1-662.e9. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Pathology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon. Electronic address:

Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is an age-associated condition defined by the presence of a somatic mutation in a leukemia-associated gene in individuals who otherwise have no evidence of a hematologic malignancy. In the allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) setting, clonal hematopoiesis (CH) mutations present in donor stem cells can be transferred to recipients at the time of HCT. Given that the consequences of donor-derived CH in HCT recipients are not entirely clear, we sought to investigate clinical outcomes in patients with engrafted donor-derived CH using a matched cohort analysis of both related and unrelated donors. Of 209 patients with next-generation sequencing performed before and after HCT, donor-derived CH mutations were detected in 15 (5.2%). DNMT3A was the most commonly mutated gene (9 of 15; 60%); mutations in SF3B1, CSF3R, STAT3, CBLB, TET2, and ASXL1 were also identified. Donor-derived CH was not associated with delayed neutrophil or platelet engraftment, and there was no impact on conversion to full donor chimerism. No patients with donor-derived CH experienced relapse, in contrast to 15.6% (7 of 45) in the matched control cohort without CH (P = .176). Donor-derived CH was not associated with worse overall survival; however, patients with donor-derived CH were more likely to develop chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) necessitating systemic immunosuppressive therapy (IST) (P = .045) and less likely to discontinue IST (P = .03) compared with controls without donor-derived CH. We conclude that donor-derived CH does not have an adverse impact on relapse, survival, or engraftment outcomes but may potentiate a graft-versus-leukemia effect, as reflected by increased chronic GVHD necessitating IST.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.014DOI Listing
August 2021

Perspectives on outpatient administration of CAR-T cell therapy in aggressive B-cell lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 04;9(4)

BMT & Cell Therapy Program, Division of Hematology/Medical Oncology, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies that specifically target the CD19 antigen have emerged as a highly effective treatment option in patients with refractory B-cell hematological malignancies. Safety and efficacy outcomes from the pivotal prospective clinical trials of axicabtagene ciloleucel, tisagenlecleucel and lisocabtagene maraleucel and the retrospective, postmarketing, real-world analyses have confirmed high response rates and durable remissions in patients who had failed multiple lines of therapy and had no meaningful treatment options. Although initially administered in the inpatient setting, there has been a growing interest in delivering CAR-T cell therapy in the outpatient setting; however, this has not been adopted as standard clinical practice for multiple reasons, including logistic and reimbursement issues. CAR-T cell therapy requires a multidisciplinary approach and coordination, particularly if given in an outpatient setting. The ability to monitor patients closely is necessary and proper protocols must be established to respond to clinical changes to ensure efficient, effective and rapid evaluation either in the clinic or emergency department for management decisions regarding fever, sepsis, cytokine release syndrome and neurological events, specifically immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome. This review presents the authors' institutional experience with the preparation and delivery of outpatient CD19-directed CAR-T cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-002056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047987PMC
April 2021

Myeloablative versus Reduced-Intensity Conditioning for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes-Long-Term Follow-Up of the BMT CTN 0901 Clinical Trial.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 06 26;27(6):483.e1-483.e6. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Several prospective randomized trials comparing conditioning intensity before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have been performed, with conflicting results. Although reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) leads to lower treatment-related mortality (TRM), this is offset by higher rates of relapse. Long-term follow-up of randomized comparative trials are limited. Here we present long-term follow-up of a randomized comparison of myeloablative conditioning (MAC) compared with RIC before HCT for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplasia (MDS). Long-term comparative analyses of overall survival, relapse, and relapse-free survival were performed. Patients age 18 to 65 years with <5% marrow myeloblasts were randomized to receive MAC (n = 135) or RIC (n = 137), followed by HCT from an HLA-matched donor. The primary endpoint of the trial was an 18-month pointwise comparison of overall survival. The analyses were performed using a proportional hazards model. The median follow-up of the entire cohort was 51 months. At 4 years, the transplant-related mortality (TRM) was 25.1% for MAC, compared with 9.9% for RIC (P < .001). Patients who received RIC had a significantly higher risk of relapse compared to those who received MAC (hazard ratio [HR], 4.06; 95% CI, 2.59 to 6.35; P < 0.001). Among the patients who relapsed after HCT, postrelapse survival was similar at 3 years (24% for MAC and 26% for RIC). Overall survival was superior for patients who received MAC compared to those who received RIC (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.2; P = .03). Our data show that patients who received MAC were at higher risk of late TRM compared with those who received RIC; however, because of the exceedingly high rates of relapse in the RIC arm, overall survival remained significantly better for patients who received MAC. Among patients with MDS or AML eligible for either MAC or RIC regimens, long-term follow up demonstrates a survival advantage for patients who received MAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217373PMC
June 2021

Prolonged hematologic toxicity following treatment with chimeric antigen receptor T cells in patients with hematologic malignancies.

Am J Hematol 2021 04 24;96(4):455-461. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR T) is a novel intervention for relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (R/R DLBCL) and other hematologic malignancies. However, it is associated with prolonged hematologic toxicity (PHT) that is unpredictable and can significantly impair patients' quality of life. Reported here is a single-center experience with PHT in adult patients with R/R DLBCL who received commercial CAR T-cell therapy between March 1, 2018 and May 30, 2020. Prolonged hematologic toxicity was defined as ≥ grade 3 neutropenia or thrombocytopenia at day +30 after CAR T-cell therapy. Of the 31 patients identified, 18 patients (58%) developed PHT. Patients with PHT had a shorter 1-year overall survival (OS) than patients without PHT (36% vs. 81%, P < .05). There were no differences in the median time to ANC recovery for those with PHT compared to patients without PHT (16 days vs. 15 days). Several risk factors were identified to be associated with PHT including CRS (P = .002), receipt of tocilizumab (P = .002) or steroids (P = .033), peak ferritin >5000 ng/ml (P = .048), peak C-reactive protein (CRP) > 100 mg/L (P = .007), and ferritin greater than the upper limit of normal at day +30. Seven patients with PHT underwent a bone marrow biopsy after CAR T-cell therapy; all showed complete aplasia or were hypocellular with cellularity ranging from <5% to 10%. These findings identify PHT as a significant toxicity associated with CAR T-cell therapy and highlight the critical need for further investigations to describe PHT in larger cohorts and identify standards for management of this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26113DOI Listing
April 2021

Midostaurin after allogeneic stem cell transplant in patients with FLT3-internal tandem duplication-positive acute myeloid leukemia.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 05 7;56(5):1180-1189. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA.

We evaluated standard-of-care (SOC) treatment with or without midostaurin to prevent relapse following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring internal tandem duplication (ITD) in FLT3. Adults (aged 18-70 years) who received alloHSCT in first complete remission, had achieved hematologic recovery, and were transfusion independent were randomized to receive SOC with or without midostaurin (50 mg twice daily) continuously in twelve 4-week cycles. The primary endpoint was relapse-free survival (RFS) 18 months post-alloHSCT. Sixty patients were randomized (30/arm); 30 completed all 12 cycles (midostaurin + SOC, n = 16; SOC, n = 14). The estimated 18-month RFS (95% CI) was 89% (69-96%) in the midostaurin arm and 76% (54-88%) in the SOC arm (hazard ratio, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.12-1.86]; P = 0.27); estimated relapse rates were 11% and 24%, respectively. Inhibition of FLT3 phosphorylation to <70% of baseline (achieved by 50% of midostaurin-treated patients) was associated with improved RFS. The most common serious adverse events were diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Rates of graft-vs-host disease were similar between both arms (midostaurin + SOC, 70%; SOC, 73%). The addition of midostaurin maintenance therapy following alloHSCT may provide clinical benefit in some patients with FLT3-ITD AML. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01883362).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01153-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113057PMC
May 2021

Comparison of outcomes of HCT in blast phase of BCR-ABL1- MPN with de novo AML and with AML following MDS.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(19):4748-4757

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan.

Comparative outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for BCR-ABL1- myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in blast phase (MPN-BP) vs de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and AML with prior myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs; post-MDS AML), are unknown. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) database, we compared HCT outcomes in 177 MPN-BP patients with 4749 patients with de novo AML, and 1104 patients with post-MDS AML, using multivariate regression analysis in 2 separate comparisons. In a multivariate Cox model, no difference in overall survival (OS) or relapse was observed in patients with MPN-BP vs de novo AML with active leukemia at HCT. Patients with MPN-BP in remission had inferior OS in comparison with de novo AML in remission (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.76]) due to higher relapse rate (HR, 2.18 [95% CI, 1.69-2.80]). MPN-BP patients had inferior OS (HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.00-1.43]) and increased relapse (HR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.31-1.96]) compared with post-MDS AML. Poor-risk cytogenetics were associated with increased relapse in both comparisons. Peripheral blood grafts were associated with decreased relapse in MPN-BP and post-MDS AML (HR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.57-0.86]). Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was similar between MPN-BP vs de novo AML, and MPN-BP vs post-MDS AML. Total-body irradiation-based myeloablative conditioning was associated with higher NRM in both comparisons. Survival of MPN-BP after HCT is inferior to de novo AML in remission and post-MDS AML due to increased relapse. Relapse-prevention strategies are required to optimize HCT outcomes in MPN-BP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556156PMC
October 2020

Terumo spectra optia leukapheresis of cynomolgus macaques for hematopoietic stem cell and T cell collection.

J Clin Apher 2021 Feb 17;36(1):67-77. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Vaccine & Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA.

Macaques are physiologically relevant animal models of human immunology and infectious disease that have provided key insights and advanced clinical treatment in transplantation, vaccinology, and HIV/AIDS. However, the small size of macaques is a stumbling block for studies requiring large numbers of cells, such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for transplantation, antigen-specific lymphocytes for in-depth immunological analysis, and latently-infected CD4+ T-cells for HIV cure studies. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for collection of large numbers of HSCs and T-cells from cynomolgus macaques as small as 3 kg using the Terumo Spectra Optia apheresis system, yielding an average of 5.0 × 10 total nucleated cells from mobilized animals and 1.2 × 10 total nucleated cells from nonmobilized animals per procedure. This report provides sufficient detail to adapt this apheresis technique at other institutions, which will facilitate more efficient and detailed analysis of HSCs and their progeny blood cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jca.21842DOI Listing
February 2021

Autopsy among recipients of stem cell transplant for hematologic malignancies in the modern era.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 01 8;56(1):282-284. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Center for Hematologic Malignancies, OHSU Knight Cancer Institute, Portland, OR, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0992-4DOI Listing
January 2021

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with non-myeloablative conditioning for patients with hematologic malignancies: Improved outcomes over two decades.

Haematologica 2021 06 1;106(6):1599-1607. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

We have used a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for the past twenty years. During that period, changes in clinical practice have been aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality from infections, organ toxicity, and graft-versus-host disease. We hypothesized that improvements in clinical practice led to better transplantation outcomes over time. From 1997-2017, 1,720 patients with hematologic malignancies received low-dose total body irradiation +/- fludarabine or clofarabine before transplantation from HLA-matched sibling or unrelated donors, followed by mycophenolate mofetil and a calcineurin inhibitor ± sirolimus. We compared outcomes in three cohorts by year of transplantation: 1997 +/- 2003 (n=562), 2004 +/- 2009 (n=594), and 2010 +/- 2017 (n=564). The proportion of patients ≥60 years old increased from 27% in 1997 +/- 2003 to 56% in 2010-2017, and with scores from the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comborbidity Index of ≥3 increased from 25% in 1997 +/- 2003 to 45% in 2010 +/- 2017. Use of unrelated donors increased from 34% in 1997 +/- 2003 to 65% in 2010-2017. When outcomes from 2004 +/- 2009 and 2010-2017 were compared to 1997 +/- 2003, improvements were noted in overall survival (P=.0001 for 2004-2009 and P <.0001 for 2010-2017), profression-free survival (P=.002 for 2004-2009 and P <.0001 for 2010 +/- 2017), non-relapse mortality (P<.0001 for 2004 +/- 2009 and P <.0001 for 2010 +/- 2017), and in rates of grades 2 +/- 4 acute and chronic graft-vs.-host disease. For patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent transplantation with non-myeloablative conditioning, outcomes have improved during the past two decades. Trials reported are registered under ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00003145, NCT00003196, NCT00003954, NCT00005799, NCT00005801, NCT00005803, NCT00006251, NCT00014235, NCT00027820, NCT00031655, NCT00036738, NCT00045435, NCT00052546, NCT00060424, NCT00075478, NCT00078858, NCT00089011, NCT00104858, NCT00105001, NCT00110058, NCT00397813, NCT00793572, NCT01231412, NCT01252667, NCT01527045.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.248187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168504PMC
June 2021

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 07 14;26(7):1239-1246. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Hematopoietic Cellular Therapy Program, Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted the delivery of cellular therapeutics, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. This impact has extended beyond patient care to include logistics, administration, and distribution of increasingly limited health care resources. Based on the collective experience of the CAR T-cell Consortium investigators, we review and address several questions and concerns regarding cellular therapy administration in the setting of COVID-19 and make general recommendations to address these issues. Specifically, we address (1) necessary resources for safe administration of cell therapies; (2) determinants of cell therapy utilization; (3) selection among patients with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas and B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia; (4) supportive measures during cell therapy administration; (5) use and prioritization of tocilizumab; and (6) collaborative care with referring physicians. These recommendations were carefully formulated with the understanding that resource allocation is of the utmost importance, and that the decision to proceed with CAR T cell therapy will require extensive discussion of potential risks and benefits. Although these recommendations are fluid, at this time it is our opinion that the COVID-19 pandemic should not serve as reason to defer CAR T cell therapy for patients truly in need of a potentially curative therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194685PMC
July 2020

Grading and management of cytokine release syndrome in patients treated with tisagenlecleucel in the JULIET trial.

Blood Adv 2020 04;4(7):1432-1439

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy yields durable responses in patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (r/r DLBCL). Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a CAR-T therapy-related adverse event. To date, clinical trials of different CAR-T products have not been aligned on CRS grading scales and management algorithms. We assessed concordance between the Penn, Lee, and American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (ASTCT) grading systems by retrospectively regrading CRS events in the JULIET (A Phase 2, Single Arm, Multicenter Trial to Determine the Efficacy and Safety of CTL019 in Adult Patients With Relapsed or Refractory DLBCL) trial. Four medical experts with experience treating patients with 3 different CAR-T products independently regraded individual patient-level CRS events from the phase 2, global, pivotal JULIET trial (#NCT02445248). As of 8 December 2017, a total of 111 patients with r/r DLBCL underwent infusion with tisagenlecleucel. Sixty-four patients had CRS events graded per the Penn scale; on retrospective review, 63 and 61 patients had CRS events regraded per the Lee and ASTCT criteria, respectively. The Lee scale yielded concordance for 39, lower grade for 20, and higher grade for 5 events compared with the Penn scale. The ASTCT criteria provided concordance for 37, lower grade for 23, and higher grade for 4 events compared with the Penn scale. Sixteen (14%) of 111 patients in the JULIET trial received tocilizumab, all for severe events (Penn grade 3/4 CRS). This study is the first to assess concordance between 3 CRS grading scales using the same patient data set and to compare tocilizumab use according to the Lee scale in the JULIET trial and the ZUMA-1 (Long-Term Safety and Activity of Axicabtagene Ciloleucel in Refractory Large B-Cell Lymphoma) trial. This analysis describes key differences between grading scales and may inform CRS management practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160283PMC
April 2020

Grading of neurological toxicity in patients treated with tisagenlecleucel in the JULIET trial.

Blood Adv 2020 04;4(7):1440-1447

Department of Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL.

Chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T) cell therapy achieves durable responses in patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (r/r DLBCL), but may be associated with neurological toxicity (NT). We retrospectively assessed differences and concordance among 3 available grading scales (the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03 [CTCAE], modified CAR-T Related Encephalopathy Syndrome [mCRES], and American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy [ASTCT] scales) applied to the same set of NT data from the JULIET (A Phase 2, Single Arm, Multicenter Trial to Determine the Efficacy and Safety of CTL019 in Adult Patients With Relapsed or Refractory DLBCL) trial. Individual patient-level NT data from the phase 2, single-group, global, pivotal JULIET trial (NCT02445248) were retrospectively and independently graded, using CTCAE, ASTCT, and mCRES, by 4 medical experts with experience managing patients with 3 different CD19-targeted CAR constructs. According to the US Food and Drug Administration definition of NT using CTCAE, 62 of 106 patients infused with tisagenlecleucel had NT as of September 2017. Among 111 patients infused with tisagenlecleucel (as of December 2017), the 4 experts identified 50 patients (45%) who had any-grade NT per CTCAE, 19 (17%) per mCRES, and 19 (17%) per ASTCT. Reevaluation according to the mCRES/ASTCT criteria downgraded 31 events deemed NT by CTCAE to grade 0. This is the first study to retrospectively apply CTCAE, mCRES, and ASTCT criteria to the same patient data set. We conclude that CTCAE v4.03 was not designed for, and is suboptimal for, grading CAR-T cell therapy-associated NT. The CRES and ASTCT scales, which measure immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome, offer more accurate assessments of NT after CAR-T cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160265PMC
April 2020

The economic burden to payers of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma during the treatment period by line of therapy.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 07 9;61(7):1601-1609. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

We retrospectively analyzed treatment patterns and healthcare costs among patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) during each line of therapy (LOT) using data from the IBM MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental Databases from January 2011 to May 2017. Patients were included if they had a diagnosis of DLBCL, ≥12 months of disease-free continuous enrollment prediagnosis, and ≥1 month of postdiagnosis follow-up. Of 2066 eligible patients receiving first-line treatment, 17% ( = 340) received second-line treatment; of these, 23% ( = 77) received third-line treatment. Mean healthcare expenditures (treatment duration) for first, second, and third LOTs were $111,314 (124.5 days), $88,472 (80.8 days), and $103,365 (70.9 days), respectively. When adjusted to 30-day period costs, first, second, and third LOT healthcare expenditures increased to $26,825, $32,857, and $43,854, respectively. Patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory DLBCL incur a significant cost burden (for payers), and such costs increase as patients proceed through subsequent LOTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1734592DOI Listing
July 2020

Patient-reported long-term quality of life after tisagenlecleucel in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2020 02;4(4):629-637

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St Vincent's Hospital and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

The JULIET phase 2 trial evaluated a single infusion of tisagenlecleucel in adult patients with relapsed/refractory (r/r) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The objective of the current analysis was to evaluate patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with a median follow-up of 19.3 months among patients infused with a single dose of tisagenlecleucel. Patients enrolled were ≥18 years of age with r/r DLBCL after ≥2 lines of therapy and had either undergone a failed autologous stem cell transplant or were ineligible for the procedure. Two validated HRQoL instruments, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lymphoma (FACT-Lym) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey, were used to measure HRQoL at baseline and months 3, 6, 12, and 18. At data cutoff (21 May 2018), 115 patients had received tisagenlecleucel infusion. Among the 99 patients evaluated, overall response rate was 54%, and 40% of patients achieved complete response (CR). Initially, 108 patients completed the HRQoL assessments at baseline, including 57 patients who eventually achieved CR or partial response (PR). Further, 30 and 21 patients in clinical response who completed assessments at baseline also completed assessments at months 12 and 18, respectively. Patients who achieved CR or PR sustained HRQoL improvement in all FACT scores at all time points. SF-36 instruments showed improvement above the minimal clinically important differences on 5 of 8 subscales. Long-term follow-up in the phase 2 JULIET study demonstrated that patients with r/r DLBCL who respond to tisagenlecleucel therapy had sustained, clinically meaningful improvements in HRQoL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02445248.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042998PMC
February 2020

Tisagenlecleucel cellular kinetics, dose, and immunogenicity in relation to clinical factors in relapsed/refractory DLBCL.

Blood Adv 2020 02;4(3):560-572

Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplant Center, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

The anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy tisagenlecleucel was evaluated in the global, phase 2 JULIET study in adult patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We correlated tisagenlecleucel cellular kinetics with clinical/product parameters in 111 patients treated in JULIET. Tisagenlecleucel persistence in responders and nonresponders, respectively, was demonstrated for 554 and 400 days maximum by flow cytometry and for 693 and 374 days maximum by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). No relationships were identified between cellular kinetics (qPCR) and product characteristics, intrinsic/extrinsic factors, dose, or immunogenicity. Most patients with 3-month response had detectable transgene at time of response and continued persistence for ≥6 months. Expansion (maximal expansion of transgene/CAR-positive T-cell levels in vivo postinfusion [Cmax]) was potentially associated with response duration but this did not reach statistical significance (hazard ratio for a twofold increase in Cmax, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-1.01). Tisagenlecleucel expansion was associated with cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) severity and tocilizumab use; no relationships were observed with neurologic events. Transgene levels were associated with B-cell levels. Dose was associated with CRS severity, but this was not statistically significant after adjusting for baseline tumor burden. In contrast to the results from B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, similar exposure was observed in DLBCL in this study regardless of response and expansion was lower in DLBCL than B-ALL, likely from differences in cancer location and/or T-cell intrinsic factors. Relationships between expansion and CRS severity, and lack of relationships between dose and exposure, were similar between DLBCL and B-ALL. Tisagenlecleucel cellular kinetics in adult relapsed/refractory DLBCL improve current understanding of in vivo expansion and its relationships with safety/efficacy endpoints. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02445248.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7013261PMC
February 2020

Viral opportunistic infections in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation mirror human transplant infectious disease complications.

Xenotransplantation 2020 07 13;27(4):e12578. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and xenotransplantation are accompanied by viral reactivations and virus-associated complications resulting from immune deficiency. Here, in a Mauritian cynomolgus macaque model of fully MHC-matched allogeneic HSCT, we report reactivations of cynomolgus polyomavirus, lymphocryptovirus, and cytomegalovirus, macaque viruses analogous to HSCT-associated human counterparts BK virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human cytomegalovirus. Viral replication in recipient macaques resulted in characteristic disease manifestations observed in HSCT patients, such as polyomavirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis and tubulointerstitial nephritis or lymphocryptovirus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. However, in most cases, the reconstituted immune system, alone or in combination with short-term pharmacological intervention, exerted control over viral replication, suggesting engraftment of functional donor-derived immunity. Indeed, the donor-derived reconstituted immune systems of two long-term engrafted HSCT recipient macaques responded to live attenuated yellow fever 17D vaccine (YFV 17D) indistinguishably from untransplanted controls, mounting 17D-targeted neutralizing antibody responses and clearing YFV 17D within 14 days. Together, these data demonstrate that this macaque model of allogeneic HSCT recapitulates clinical situations of opportunistic viral infections in transplant patients and provides a pre-clinical model to test novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/xen.12578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7354885PMC
July 2020

Impact of Conditioning Intensity of Allogeneic Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Genomic Evidence of Residual Disease.

J Clin Oncol 2020 04 20;38(12):1273-1283. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Duke University, Durham, NC.

Purpose: Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in remission remain at risk for relapse even after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). AML measurable residual disease (MRD) status before alloHCT has been shown to be prognostic. Whether modulation of the intensity of the alloHCT conditioning regimen in patients with AML who test positive for MRD can prevent relapse and improve survival is unknown.

Methods: Ultra-deep, error-corrected sequencing for 13 commonly mutated genes in AML was performed on preconditioning blood from patients treated in a phase III clinical trial that randomly assigned adult patients with myeloid malignancy in morphologic complete remission to myeloablative conditioning (MAC) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC).

Results: No mutations were detected in 32% of MAC and 37% of RIC recipients; these groups had similar survival (3-year overall survival [OS], 56% 63%; = .96). In patients with a detectable mutation (next-generation sequencing [NGS] positive), relapse (3-year cumulative incidence, 19% 67%; < .001) and survival (3-year OS, 61% 43%; = .02) was significantly different between the MAC and RIC arms, respectively. In multivariable analysis for NGS-positive patients, adjusting for disease risk and donor group, RIC was significantly associated with increased relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 6.38; 95% CI, 3.37 to 12.10; < .001), decreased relapse-free survival (HR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.84 to 4.69; < .001), and decreased OS (HR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.30; = .01) compared with MAC. Models of AML MRD also showed benefit for MAC over RIC for those who tested positive.

Conclusion: This study provides evidence that MAC rather than RIC in patients with AML with genomic evidence of MRD before alloHCT can result in improved survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.03011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7164487PMC
April 2020

Rituximab-based allogeneic transplant for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with comparison to historical experience.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 01 3;55(1):172-181. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Relapse of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains a clinical challenge. We studied in a phase II trial whether the addition of peri-transplant rituximab would reduce the relapse risk compared with historical controls (n = 157). Patients (n = 55) received fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation combined with rituximab on days -3, + 10, + 24, + 36. Relapse rate at 3 years was significantly lower among rituximab-treated patients versus controls (17% versus 31%; P = 0.04). Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) were statistically similar: (53% versus 50%; P = 0.8), (44% versus 42%; P = 0.63), and (38% versus 28%; P = 0.2), respectively. In multivariate analysis, rituximab treatment was associated with lower relapse rates both in the overall cohort [hazard ratio (HR): 0.34, P = 0.006] and in patients with high-risk cytogenetics (HR: 0.21, P = 0.0003). Patients with no comorbidities who received rituximab conditioning had an OS rate of 100% and 75% at 1 and 3 years, respectively, with no NRM. Peri-transplant rituximab reduced relapse rates regardless of high-risk cytogenetics. HCT is associated with minimal NRM in patients without comorbidities and is a viable option for patients with high-risk CLL. Clinical trial information: NCT00867529.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0660-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6940535PMC
January 2020

Recipe for a Graft: T Cell Dose Remains Elusive.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 09 23;25(9):e275-e276. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Adult BMT and Cellular Therapy Section, Center for Hematologic Malignancies, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.07.023DOI Listing
September 2019

Tisagenlecleucel in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients without measurable disease at infusion.

Blood Adv 2019 07;3(14):2230-2236

Lymphoma Program, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Tisagenlecleucel demonstrated high rates of durable responses in adult patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (r/r DLBCL) in the JULIET trial. Most patients (92%) received bridging therapies to control disease after study entry and before tisagenlecleucel infusion. Here, we examine the efficacy and safety of tisagenlecleucel in the subset of 7 patients who achieved complete response (CR) after bridging therapy and before tisagenlecleucel infusion. Tisagenlecleucel rapidly expanded in all 7 patients, and the transgene levels were measurable for up to 2 years after infusion. After infusion, all 7 patients were still in CR at the month 3 evaluation, and 5 of 7 patients remained progression-free >12 months. Adverse events were similar to the overall JULIET population. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) was reported in 4 of 7 patients (grade 2 = 2 and grade 3 = 2 using the Penn grading scale), and 1 patient experienced grade 1 neurotoxicity. No patient required tocilizumab or steroids for CRS management. These data provide preliminary evidence of tisagenlecleucel efficacy in patients with r/r DLBCL without detectable disease after bridging or salvage therapies and warrant further investigation of tisagenlecleucel as consolidative therapy in future trials. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02445248.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6650727PMC
July 2019
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