Publications by authors named "Richard Sewell"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Meningococcal carriage in periods of high and low invasive meningococcal disease incidence in the UK: comparison of UKMenCar1-4 cross-sectional survey results.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 05 19;21(5):677-687. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, UK.

Background: The incidence of invasive meningococcal disease in the UK decreased by approximately four times from 1999 to 2014, with reductions in serogroup C and serogroup B disease. Lower serogroup C invasive meningococcal disease incidence was attributable to implementation of the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in 1999, through direct and indirect protection, but no vaccine was implemented against serogroup B disease. UK Meningococcal Carriage surveys 1-3 (UKMenCar1-3), conducted in 1999, 2000, and 2001, were essential for understanding the impact of vaccination. To investigate the decline in invasive meningococcal disease incidence, we did a large oropharyngeal carriage survey in 2014-15, immediately before the changes to meningococcal vaccines in the UK national immunisation schedule.

Methods: UKMenCar4 was a cross-sectional survey in adolescents aged 15-19 years who were enrolled from schools and colleges geographically local to one of 11 UK sampling centres between Sept 1, 2014, and March 30, 2015. Participants provided an oropharyngeal swab sample and completed a questionnaire on risk factors for carriage, including social behaviours. Samples were cultured for putative Neisseria spp, which were characterised with serogrouping and whole-genome sequencing. Data from this study were compared with the results from the UKMenCar1-3 surveys (1999-2001).

Findings: From the 19 641 participants (11 332 female, 8242 male, 67 not stated) in UKMenCar4 with culturable swabs and completed risk-factor questionnaires, 1420 meningococci were isolated, with a carriage prevalence of 7·23% (95% CI 6·88-7·60). Carriage prevalence was substantially lower in UKMenCar4 than in the previous surveys: carriage prevalence was 16·6% (95% CI 15·89-17·22; 2306/13 901) in UKMenCar1 (1999), 17·6% (17·05-18·22; 2873/16 295) in UKMenCar2 (2000), and 18·7% (18·12-19·27; 3283/17 569) in UKMenCar3 (2001). Carriage prevalence was lower for all serogroups in UKMenCar4 than in UKMenCar1-3, except for serogroup Y, which was unchanged. The prevalence of carriage-promoting social behaviours decreased from 1999 to 2014-15, with individuals reporting regular cigarette smoking decreasing from 2932 (21·5%) of 13 650 to 2202 (11·2%) of 19 641, kissing in the past week from 6127 (44·8%) of 13 679 to 7320 (37·3%) of 19 641, and attendance at pubs and nightclubs in the past week from 8436 (62·1%) of 13 594 to 7662 (39·0%) of 19 641 (all p<0·0001).

Interpretation: We show that meningococcal carriage prevalence in adolescents sampled nationally during a low incidence period (2014-15) was less than half of that in an equivalent population during a high incidence period (1999-2001). Disease and carriage caused by serogroup C was well controlled by ongoing vaccination. The prevalence of behaviours associated with carriage declined, suggesting that public health policies aimed at influencing behaviour might have further reduced disease.

Funding: Wellcome Trust, UK Department of Health, and National Institute for Health Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30842-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064914PMC
May 2021

Safety and Immunogenicity of Novel Adenovirus Type 26- and Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Vectored Ebola Vaccines: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2016 Apr;315(15):1610-23

Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom7National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Importance: Developing effective vaccines against Ebola virus is a global priority.

Objective: To evaluate an adenovirus type 26 vector vaccine encoding Ebola glycoprotein (Ad26.ZEBOV) and a modified vaccinia Ankara vector vaccine, encoding glycoproteins from Ebola virus, Sudan virus, Marburg virus, and Tai Forest virus nucleoprotein (MVA-BN-Filo).

Design, Setting, And Participants: Single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, observer-blind, phase 1 trial performed in Oxford, United Kingdom, enrolling healthy 18- to 50-year-olds from December 2014; 8-month follow-up was completed October 2015.

Interventions: Participants were randomized into 4 groups, within which they were simultaneously randomized 5:1 to receive study vaccines or placebo. Those receiving active vaccines were primed with Ad26.ZEBOV (5 × 10(10) viral particles) or MVA-BN-Filo (1 × 10(8) median tissue culture infective dose) and boosted with the alternative vaccine 28 or 56 days later. A fifth, open-label group received Ad26.ZEBOV boosted by MVA-BN-Filo 14 days later.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcomes were safety and tolerability. All adverse events were recorded until 21 days after each immunization; serious adverse events were recorded throughout the trial. Secondary outcomes were humoral and cellular immune responses to immunization, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme-linked immunospot performed at baseline and from 7 days after each immunization until 8 months after priming immunizations.

Results: Among 87 study participants (median age, 38.5 years; 66.7% female), 72 were randomized into 4 groups of 18, and 15 were included in the open-label group. Four participants did not receive a booster dose; 67 of 75 study vaccine recipients were followed up at 8 months. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. No participant became febrile after MVA-BN-Filo, compared with 3 of 60 participants (5%; 95% CI, 1%-14%) receiving Ad26.ZEBOV in the randomized groups. In the open-label group, 4 of 15 Ad26.ZEBOV recipients (27%; 95% CI, 8%-55%) experienced fever. In the randomized groups, 28 of 29 Ad26.ZEBOV recipients (97%; 95% CI, 82%- 99.9%) and 7 of 30 MVA-BN-Filo recipients (23%; 95% CI, 10%-42%) had detectable Ebola glycoprotein-specific IgG 28 days after primary immunization. All vaccine recipients had specific IgG detectable 21 days postboost and at 8-month follow-up. Within randomized groups, at 7 days postboost, at least 86% of vaccine recipients showed Ebola-specific T-cell responses.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this phase 1 study of healthy volunteers, immunization with Ad26.ZEBOV or MVA-BN-Filo did not result in any vaccine-related serious adverse events. An immune response was observed after primary immunization with Ad26.ZEBOV; boosting by MVA-BN-Filo resulted in sustained elevation of specific immunity. These vaccines are being further assessed in phase 2 and 3 studies.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02313077.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.4218DOI Listing
April 2016

Indoleamine Hallucinogens in Cluster Headache: Results of the Clusterbusters Medication Use Survey.

J Psychoactive Drugs 2015 Nov-Dec;47(5):372-81. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

d Department of Psychiatry , West Haven Veterans Affairs Hospital , West Haven, CT, and Department of Neurology Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven , CT .

Cluster headache is one of the most debilitating pain syndromes. A significant number of patients are refractory to conventional therapies. The Clusterbusters.org medication use survey sought to characterize the effects of both conventional and alternative medications used in cluster headache. Participants were recruited from cluster headache websites and headache clinics. The final analysis included responses from 496 participants. The survey was modeled after previously published surveys and was available online. Most responses were chosen from a list, though others were free-texted. Conventional abortive and preventative medications were identified and their efficacies agreed with those previously published. The indoleamine hallucinogens, psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide, and lysergic acid amide, were comparable to or more efficacious than most conventional medications. These agents were also perceived to shorten/abort a cluster period and bring chronic cluster headache into remission more so than conventional medications. Furthermore, infrequent and non-hallucinogenic doses were reported to be efficacious. Findings provide additional evidence that several indoleamine hallucinogens are rated as effective in treating cluster headache. These data reinforce the need for further investigation of the effects of these and related compounds in cluster headache under experimentally controlled settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2015.1107664DOI Listing
March 2016

Fatty acids and sleep in UK children: subjective and pilot objective sleep results from the DOLAB study--a randomized controlled trial.

J Sleep Res 2014 Aug 8;23(4):364-88. Epub 2014 Mar 8.

Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Sleep problems in children are associated with poor health, behavioural and cognitive problems, as are deficiencies of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid. Theory and some evidence support a role for these fatty acids in sleep regulation, but this issue has received little formal investigation. We examined associations between blood fatty acid concentrations (from fingerstick blood samples) and subjective sleep (using an age-standardized parent questionnaire) in a large epidemiological sample of healthy children aged 7-9 years (n = 395) from mainstream UK schools. In a randomized controlled trial, we then explored whether 16-week supplementation (600 mg day(-1) ) with algal docosahexaenoic acid versus placebo might improve sleep in a subset of those children (n = 362) who were underperforming in reading. In a randomly selected subsample (n = 43), sleep was also assessed objectively via actigraphy. In 40% of the epidemiological sample, Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire scores indicated clinical-level sleep problems. Furthermore, poorer total sleep disturbance scores were associated weakly but significantly with lower blood docosahexaenoic acid (std coeff. -0.105*) and a lower docosahexaenoic acid : arachidonic acid ratio (std coeff. -0.119**). The treatment trial showed no significant effects on subjective sleep measures. However, in the small actigraphy subsample, docosahexaenoic acid supplementation led on average to seven fewer wake episodes and 58 min more sleep per night. Cautiously, we conclude that higher blood levels of docosahexaenoic acid may relate to better child sleep, as rated by parents. Exploratory pilot objective evidence from actigraphy suggests that docosahexaenoic acid supplementation may improve children's sleep, but further investigations are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4263155PMC
August 2014

Low blood long chain omega-3 fatty acids in UK children are associated with poor cognitive performance and behavior: a cross-sectional analysis from the DOLAB study.

PLoS One 2013 24;8(6):e66697. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), especially DHA (docosahexaenonic acid) are essential for brain development and physical health. Low blood Omega-3 LC-PUFA have been reported in children with ADHD and related behavior/learning difficulties, as have benefits from dietary supplementation. Little is known, however, about blood fatty acid status in the general child population. We therefore investigated this in relation to age-standardized measures of behavior and cognition in a representative sample of children from mainstream schools.

Participants: 493 schoolchildren aged 7-9 years from mainstream Oxfordshire schools, selected for below average reading performance in national assessments at age seven.

Method: Whole blood fatty acids were obtained via fingerstick samples. Reading and working memory were assessed using the British Ability Scales (II). Behaviour (ADHD-type symptoms) was rated using the revised Conners' rating scales (long parent and teacher versions). Associations were examined and adjusted for relevant demographic variables.

Results: DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), accounted for only 1.9% and 0.55% respectively of total blood fatty acids, with DHA showing more individual variation. Controlling for sex and socio-economic status, lower DHA concentrations were associated with poorer reading ability (std. OLS coeff. = 0.09, p = <.042) and working memory performance (0.14, p = <.001). Lower DHA was also associated with higher levels of parent rated oppositional behavior and emotional lability (-0.175, p = <.0001 and -0.178, p = <.0001).

Conclusions: In these healthy UK children with below average reading ability, concentrations of DHA and other Omega-3 LC-PUFA were low relative to adult cardiovascular health recommendations, and directly related to measures of cognition and behavior. These findings require confirmation, but suggest that the benefits from dietary supplementation with Omega-3 LC-PUFA found for ADHD, Dyspraxia, Dyslexia, and related conditions might extend to the general school population.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0066697PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3691187PMC
March 2014

Docosahexaenoic acid for reading, cognition and behavior in children aged 7-9 years: a randomized, controlled trial (the DOLAB Study).

PLoS One 2012 6;7(9):e43909. Epub 2012 Sep 6.

Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Omega-3 fatty acids are dietary essentials, and the current low intakes in most modern developed countries are believed to contribute to a wide variety of physical and mental health problems. Evidence from clinical trials indicates that dietary supplementation with long-chain omega-3 may improve child behavior and learning, although most previous trials have involved children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Here we investigated whether such benefits might extend to the general child population.

Objectives: To determine the effects of dietary supplementation with the long-chain omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the reading, working memory, and behavior of healthy schoolchildren.

Design: Parallel group, fixed-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (RCT).

Setting: Mainstream primary schools in Oxfordshire, UK (n = 74).

Participants: Healthy children aged 7-9 years initially underperforming in reading (≤ 33(rd) centile). 1376 invited, 362 met study criteria.

Intervention: 600 mg/day DHA (from algal oil), or taste/color matched corn/soybean oil placebo.

Main Outcome Measures: Age-standardized measures of reading, working memory, and parent- and teacher-rated behavior.

Results: ITT analyses showed no effect of DHA on reading in the full sample, but significant effects in the pre-planned subgroup of 224 children whose initial reading performance was ≤ 20(th) centile (the target population in our original study design). Parent-rated behavior problems (ADHD-type symptoms) were significantly reduced by active treatment, but little or no effects were seen for either teacher-rated behaviour or working memory.

Conclusions: DHA supplementation appears to offer a safe and effective way to improve reading and behavior in healthy but underperforming children from mainstream schools. Replication studies are clearly warranted, as such children are known to be at risk of low educational and occupational outcomes in later life.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01066182 and Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN99771026.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0043909PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3435388PMC
May 2013

Naltrexone does not attenuate the effects of intravenous Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy humans.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2012 Oct 16;15(9):1251-64. Epub 2012 Jan 16.

Yale University, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT, USA.

Although a wealth of preclinical evidence indicates an interplay between the μ-opioid (MOR) and cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) systems, the precise nature of the cross modulation in humans is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of pretreatment with the MOR antagonist, naltrexone, on the subjective, behavioural and cognitive effects of the CB1R agonist, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in healthy human subjects. Healthy human subjects, screened carefully for any medical or psychiatric illness, were administered either placebo or active naltrexone (25 mg) orally on each test day, followed 45 min later by placebo and 165 min later by active i.v. THC (0.025 mg/kg) in a randomized, fixed-order, double-blind manner. Subjective, behavioural and cognitive effects were assessed before and at several points after each drug administration. THC produced expected effects, including euphoria, anxiety, transient perceptual alterations, transient psychotomimetic effects and cognitive impairments. However, naltrexone did not produce any effects alone, nor did it attenuate any of THC's effects. Thus, in healthy human subjects who use cannabis intermittently, MOR antagonism does not modulate the common acute subjective, behavioural and cognitive effects of THC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1461145711001830DOI Listing
October 2012

Probing GABA receptor function in schizophrenia with iomazenil.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2011 Feb 10;36(3):677-83. Epub 2010 Nov 10.

Psychiatry Service, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT 06516, USA.

Several lines of evidence from post-mortem, brain imaging, and genetic studies in schizophrenia patients suggest that Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) deficits may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Pharmacological induction of a transient GABA-deficit state has been shown to enhance vulnerability of healthy subjects to the psychotomimetic effects of various drugs. Exacerbating or creating a GABA deficit was hypothesized to induce or unmask psychosis in schizophrenia patients, but not in healthy controls. To test this hypothesis, a transient GABA deficit was pharmacologically induced in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls using iomazenil, an antagonist and partial inverse agonist of the benzodiazepine receptor. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, clinically stable chronic schizophrenia patients (n=13) received iomazenil (3.7 μg administered intravenously over 10 min). Psychosis was measured using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and perceptual alterations were measured using the Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale before and after iomazenil administration. These data were compared with the effects of iomazenil in healthy subjects (n=20). Iomazenil produced increases in psychotic symptoms and perceptual alterations in schizophrenia patients, but not in healthy controls. The greater vulnerability of schizophrenia patients to the effects of iomazenil relative to controls provides further support for the GABA-deficit hypothesis of schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2010.198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3055690PMC
February 2011

Cannabis and psychosis/schizophrenia: human studies.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2009 Oct 16;259(7):413-31. Epub 2009 Jul 16.

Schizophrenia Biological Research Center, Psychiatry Service, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, 116A, 950 Campbell Avenue, West Haven, CT 06516, USA.

The association between cannabis use and psychosis has long been recognized. Recent advances in knowledge about cannabinoid receptor function have renewed interest in this association. Converging lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoids can produce a full range of transient schizophrenia-like positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms in some healthy individuals. Also clear is that in individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. The mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce transient psychotic symptoms, while unclear may involve dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurotransmission. However, only a very small proportion of the general population exposed to cannabinoids develop a psychotic illness. It is likely that cannabis exposure is a "component cause" that interacts with other factors to "cause" schizophrenia or a psychotic disorder, but is neither necessary nor sufficient to do so alone. Nevertheless, in the absence of known causes of schizophrenia, the role of component causes remains important and warrants further study. Dose, duration of exposure, and the age of first exposure to cannabinoids may be important factors, and genetic factors that interact with cannabinoid exposure to moderate or amplify the risk of a psychotic disorder are beginning to be elucidated. The mechanisms by which exposure to cannabinoids increase the risk for developing a psychotic disorder are unknown. However, novel hypotheses including the role of cannabinoids on neurodevelopmental processes relevant to psychotic disorders are being studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00406-009-0024-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2864503PMC
October 2009

Kupffer cell function during the erythocytic stage of malaria.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006 Jan;21(1 Pt 2):313-8

Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Austin and Repatriation Medical Center, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background And Aim: Previous studies using isolated perfused rat liver in vivo have suggested that during the erythrocytic phase of malaria infection, overall phagocytosis by Kupffer cells is enhanced. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the individual phagocytic capacity and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) secretion of isolated Kupffer cells in vitro, and the immunohistochemical characteristics of Kupffer cells in vivo.

Methods: Malaria was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) by inoculation with parasitized red cells containing Plasmodium berghei. Kupffer cells were isolated by centrifugal elutriation.

Results: A significantly increased yield of Kupffer cells was obtained from malaria-infected livers compared to controls (36.7 +/- 4.5 vs 11.8 +/- 1.1 x10(6) cells, P < 0.0001, n = 12). There was an increased internalization by phagocytosis of [(3)H]-BSA latex microspheres after 60 min in malaria-infected Kupffer cells compared to controls (65.05 +/- 1.5 vs 48.6 +/- 0.7, P < 0.001, n = 12). PGE(2) secretion into the cell culture medium was significantly suppressed in malaria-infected Kupffer cells compared to controls (1167 +/- 88 vs 4537 +/- 383 pg per 10(6) cells, P < 0.001, n = 5). Staining of ED1, ED2 and PCNA was greater in malaria-infected livers compared to control.

Conclusion: The results indicate that the number of Kupffer cells is significantly increased and their phagocytic activity on a cell-by-cell basis is enhanced during the erythrocytic stage of malaria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2006.04192.xDOI Listing
January 2006

Immune complex deposition in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats chronically immunized with GnRH.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2005 Nov;54(5):292-310

Population Council, Center for Biomedical Research, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA.

Problem: This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the anti-GnRH antibodies and immune complexes (IC) generated by immunization with GnRH-TT cause cellular damage within the animal.

Method Of Study: Chronic immunization of rats with GnRH-TT injected i.m. was followed by tissue/organ analysis for immune complex deposition by immunofluorescence microscopy. Two groups were studied: (1) those immunized throughout the experiment until their ultimate demise, and (2) those given a chance to recover from the effects of chronic immunization before final analysis.

Results: GnRH-TT was effective in stopping spermatogenesis, which resumed after withdrawal of the immunogen. Most tissues from chronically immunized animals were not significantly different than controls, however the kidneys of treated animals exhibited a higher accumulation of IC. Despite increased IC deposition, pathologic effects were not detected at the cellular level.

Conclusions: GnRH-TT is an effective immunocontraceptive although the accumulation of glomerular IC represents a potential deleterious side effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0897.2005.00310.xDOI Listing
November 2005

Hepatic Kupffer cell phagocytotic function in rats with erythrocytic-stage malaria.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002 May;17(5):598-605

Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.

Background: In the erythrocytic phase of malaria, Kupffer cells show marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia and are filled with malarial pigment. However, phagocytic function in this state has not been well characterized. The aim of the present study was to use mouse Plasmodium berghei to infect rats with malaria and study the phagocytic function and morphology of Kupffer cells.

Methods: We used a recirculating isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) to quantitate Kupffer cell phagocytic clearance of radiolabeled albumin-latex over 120 min in high parasitemia (53 +/- 6%; n = 7) and low parasitemia (approximately 1%; n = 4) malaria-infected rats and littermate controls (n = 7 and n = 4, respectively). In a further group of high-parasitemic rats, perfusion was ceased after 7 min and liver radioactivity also measured. Electron microscopy was performed after perfusions.

Results: In high-parasitemia malaria rats, clearance of radiolabeled latex from IPRL perfusate over 120 min was significantly (P < 0.01) faster than in controls, with a lower area under the curve (0.19 +/- 0.02 vs 0.43 +/- 0.07 /mL per min, respectively) and shorter half-life (t1/2k; 2.4 +/- 0.6 vs 10.0 +/- 2.3 min, respectively). Low-parasitemia rats were identical to controls. After 7 min perfusion in high-parasitemic rats (n = 4), total radioactivity in liver homogenates was higher than in controls (n = 4; 33.1 +/- 6.2 vs 18.4 +/- 1.9% of injected radiolabel; P < 0.05). Electron microscopy showed latex in Kupffer cells, more abundantly seen in high-parasitemic animals.

Conclusions: Total Kupffer cell phagocytic activity of the liver is markedly increased in rats with a high parasitemic load of malarial P. berghei infection. This is presumed to reflect an upregulation of scavenger activity phagocytosing erythrocytes and their breakdown products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1746.2002.02742.xDOI Listing
May 2002

Randomized comparison of nasojejunal and nasogastric feeding in critically ill patients.

Crit Care Med 2002 Mar;30(3):586-90

Department of Intensive Care, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: Critically ill patients often develop large gastric residual volumes during nasogastric feeding as a result of poor gastroduodenal motility. Nasojejunal feeding may decrease the severity of this complication. The aim of this study was to determine whether nasojejunal feeding improved tolerance of enteral nutrition by reducing gastric residual volumes.

Design: Randomized, prospective, clinical study.

Setting: Intensive care unit of a university-affiliated hospital.

Patients: Seventy-three intensive care unit patients expected to require nutritional support for at least 3 days.

Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive enteral nutrition via a nasojejunal tube (placed endoscopically) (34 patients) or a nasogastric tube (39 patients). A strict protocol was followed, which included regular gastric residual volume measurement (in both groups), the use of predetermined criteria for intolerance, and an attempt at nasojejunal feeding for those nasogastrically fed patients who were intolerant of enteral nutrition.

Measurements And Main Results: Endoscopic placement of nasojejunal tubes was successful in 98% with no complications of insertion. Patients fed via a nasojejunal tube had 1) a reduced total gastric residual volume in both the first 24 (197 vs. 491 mL, p = .02) and 48 hrs (517 vs. 975 mL, p = .02); 2) a reduced incidence of a single gastric residual volume >150 mL (32% vs. 74%, p = .001); and 3) a trend toward a reduced incidence of intolerance of enteral nutrition (13% vs. 31%, p = .09). Only 13% of those nasogastrically fed patients who were initially intolerant of enteral nutrition remained intolerant once fed via a nasojejunal tube, and only 1.4% of all patients met criteria for commencement of parenteral nutrition.

Conclusions: Enteral nutrition delivered via a nasojejunal tube is associated with a significant reduction in gastric residual volume, a strong trend toward improved tolerance of enteral nutrition, and an extremely low requirement for parenteral nutrition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00003246-200203000-00016DOI Listing
March 2002