Publications by authors named "Richard N Cornelussen"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Second heart sound splitting as an indicator of interventricular mechanical dyssynchrony using a novel splitting detection algorithm.

Physiol Rep 2021 Jan;9(1):e14687

Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Second heart sound (S2) splitting results from nonsimultaneous closures between aortic (A2) and pulmonic valves (P2) and may be used to detect timing differences (dyssynchrony) in relaxation between right (RV) and left ventricle (LV). However, overlap of A2 and P2 and the change in heart sound morphologies have complicated detection of the S2 splitting interval. This study introduces a novel S-transform amplitude ridge tracking (START) algorithm for estimating S2 splitting interval and investigates the relationship between S2 splitting and interventricular relaxation dyssynchrony (IRD). First, the START algorithm was validated in a simulated model of heart sound. It showed small errors (<5 ms) in estimating splitting intervals from 10 to 70 ms, with A2/P2 amplitude ratios from 0.2 to 5, and signal-to-noise ratios from 10 to 30 dB. Subsequently, the START algorithm was evaluated in a porcine model employing a wide range of paced RV-LV delays. IRD was quantified by the time difference between invasively measured LV and RV pressure downslopes. Between LV pre-excitation to RV pre-excitation, mean S2 splitting interval decreased from 47 ms to 23 ms (p < .001), accompanied by a decrease in mean IRD from 8 ms to -18 ms (p < .001). S2 splitting interval was significantly correlated with IRD in each experiment (p < .001). In conclusion, the START algorithm can accurately assess S2 splitting and may serve as a useful tool to assess interventricular dyssynchrony.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785055PMC
January 2021

Vagal nerve stimulation started just prior to reperfusion limits infarct size and no-reflow.

Basic Res Cardiol 2015 Sep 26;110(5):508. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Division of Experimental Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, PO Box 2040, 3000, CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) started prior to, or during, ischemia has been shown to reduce infarct size. Here, we investigated the effect of VNS when started just prior to, and continued during early, reperfusion on infarct size and no-reflow and studied the underlying mechanisms. For this purpose, swine (13 VNS, 10 sham) underwent 45 min mid-LAD occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion. VNS was started 5 min prior to reperfusion and continued until 15 min of reperfusion. Area at risk, area of no-reflow (% of infarct area) and infarct size (% of area at risk), circulating cytokines, and regional myocardial leukocyte influx were assessed after 120 min of reperfusion. VNS significantly reduced infarct size from 67 ± 2 % in sham to 54 ± 5 % and area of no-reflow from 54 ± 6 % in sham to 32 ± 6 %. These effects were accompanied by reductions in neutrophil (~40 %) and macrophage (~60 %) infiltration in the infarct area (all p < 0.05), whereas systemic circulating plasma levels of TNFα and IL6 were not affected. The degree of cardioprotection could not be explained by the VNS-induced bradycardia or the VNS-induced decrease in the double product of heart rate and left ventricular systolic pressure. In the presence of NO-synthase inhibitor LNNA, VNS no longer attenuated infarct size and area of no-reflow, which was paralleled by similarly unaffected regional leukocyte infiltration. In conclusion, VNS is a promising novel adjunctive therapy that limits reperfusion injury in a large animal model of acute myocardial infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00395-015-0508-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4549380PMC
September 2015

Electrical modalities beyond pacing for the treatment of heart failure.

Heart Fail Rev 2011 May;16(3):315-25

Research and Technology, Medtronic Bakken Research Center BV, Endepolsdomein 5, 6229 GW Maastricht, The Netherlands.

In this review, we report on electrical modalities, which do not fit the definition of pacemaker, but increase cardiac performance either by direct application to the heart (e.g., post-extrasystolic potentiation or non-excitatory stimulation) or indirectly through activation of the nervous system (e.g., vagal or sympathetic activation). The physiological background of the possible mechanisms of these electrical modalities and their potential application to treat heart failure are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10741-010-9206-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3074071PMC
May 2011

Left ventricular septal and left ventricular apical pacing chronically maintain cardiac contractile coordination, pump function and efficiency.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2009 Oct 25;2(5):571-9. Epub 2009 Aug 25.

Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Conventional right ventricular (RV) apex pacing can lead to adverse clinical outcome associated with asynchronous activation and reduced left ventricular (LV) pump function. We investigated to what extent alternate RV (septum) and LV (septum, apex) pacing sites improve LV electric activation, mechanics, hemodynamic performance, and efficiency over 4 months of pacing.

Methods And Results: After AV nodal ablation, mongrel dogs were randomized to receive 16 weeks of VDD pacing at the RV apex, RV septum, LV apex, or LV septum (transventricular septal approach). Electric activation maps (combined epicardial contact and endocardial noncontact) showed that RV apical and RV septal pacing induced significantly greater electric desynchronization than LV apical and LV septal pacing. RV apex and RV septal pacing also significantly increased mechanical dyssynchrony, discoordination (MRI tagging) and blood flow redistribution (microspheres) and reduced LV contractility, relaxation, and myocardial efficiency (stroke work/myocardial oxygen consumption). In contrast, LV apical and LV septal pacing did not significantly alter these parameters as compared with the values during intrinsic conduction. At 16 weeks, acute intrasubject comparison showed that single-site LV apical and LV septal pacing generally resulted in similar or better contractility, relaxation, and efficiency as compared with acute biventricular pacing.

Conclusions: Acute and chronic LV apical and LV septal pacing maintain regional cardiac mechanics, contractility, relaxation, and efficiency near native levels, whereas RV apical or RV septal pacing diminish these variables. Acute LV apical and LV septal pacing tend to maintain or improve contractility and efficiency compared with biventricular pacing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.109.882910DOI Listing
October 2009

Re-expression of alpha skeletal actin as a marker for dedifferentiation in cardiac pathologies.

J Cell Mol Med 2009 May;13(5):896-908

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Differentiation of foetal cardiomyocytes is accompanied by sequential actin isoform expression, i.e. down-regulation of the 'embryonic' alpha smooth muscle actin, followed by an up-regulation of alpha skeletal actin (alphaSKA) and a final predominant expression of alpha cardiac actin (alphaCA). Our objective was to detect whether re-expression of alphaSKA occurred during cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation, a phenomenon that has been observed in different pathologies characterized by myocardial dysfunction. Immunohistochemistry of alphaCA, alphaSKA and cardiotin was performed on left ventricle biopsies from human patients after coronary bypass surgery. Furthermore, actin isoform expression was investigated in left ventricle samples of rabbit hearts suffering from pressure- and volume-overload and in adult rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes during dedifferentiation in vitro. Atrial goat samples up to 16 weeks of sustained atrial fibrillation (AF) were studied ultrastructurally and were immunostained for alphaCA and alphaSKA. Up-regulation of alphaSKA was observed in human ventricular cardiomyocytes showing down-regulation of alphaCA and cardiotin. A patchy re-expression pattern of alphaSKA was observed in rabbit left ventricular tissue subjected to pressure- and volume-overload. Dedifferentiating cardiomyocytes in vitro revealed a degradation of the contractile apparatus and local re-expression of alphaSKA. Comparable alphaSKA staining patterns were found in several areas of atrial goat tissue during 16 weeks of AF together with a progressive glycogen accumulation at the same time intervals. The expression of alphaSKA in adult dedifferentiating cardiomyocytes, in combination with PAS-positive glycogen and decreased cardiotin expression, offers an additional tool in the evaluation of myocardial dysfunction and indicates major changes in the contractile properties of these cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1582-4934.2008.00523.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3823406PMC
May 2009

Cardiac resynchronization therapy cures dyssynchronopathy in canine left bundle-branch block hearts.

Eur Heart J 2007 Sep 4;28(17):2148-55. Epub 2007 Jul 4.

Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, PO Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Aims: We investigated to what extent biventricular pacing (BVP) can normalize LV function and remodeling, induced by isolated left bundle branch block (LBBB).

Methods And Results: In 16 dogs LBBB was induced. Eight animals were followed for 16 weeks and in 8 animals BVP was started after 8 weeks. LV pressure, LV geometry (2Dechocardiography), systolic circumferential shortening (CSsys, MRI tagging) and myocardial blood flow (MBF, microspheres) was measured. * and # indicate P < 0.05 compared to pre-LBBB and 8 weeks of LBBB, respectively. Data is presented relative to pre-LBBB values (mean +/- SEM). BVP increased LV dP/dt|max from 78 +/- 5%* to 86 +/- 5%*# (immediately) and 89 +/- 6%# (after 8 weeks) and normalized regional differences in CSsys and MBF. After 8 weeks of BVP, LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) was reduced from 123 +/- 3%* to 109 +/- 6%# and LV lateral wall mass was reduced from 128 +/- 5%* to 113 +/- 3%*#. The acute increase in LV dP/dt|max upon BVP correlated with LV EDV and LV wall mass after 8 weeks of BVP.

Conclusion: In canine hearts with long-term isolated LBBB, BVP largely reverses global and regional functional and structural abnormalities induced by LBBB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehm207DOI Listing
September 2007

Pacing-induced dyssynchrony during early reperfusion reduces infarct size.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2007 May 16;49(17):1813-9. Epub 2007 Apr 16.

Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Considering the recent discovery of postconditioning, we investigated whether intermittent dyssynchrony immediately upon reperfusion induces cardioprotection as well.

Background: Intermittent dyssynchrony, induced by ventricular pacing, preconditions myocardium.

Methods: Isolated ejecting rabbit hearts were subjected to 30-min coronary occlusion and 2-h reperfusion. Control, left ventricular (LV) pacing preconditioning (LVPpreC) (3 x 5-min LV pacing), and LV pacing postconditioning (LVPpostC) (10 x 30-s LV pacing during early reperfusion) groups were studied. Mechanical effects of LV pacing were determined using local pressure-length loops (sonomicrometry), whereas effects on myocardial lactate release and coronary flow were assessed from coronary effluent and fluorescent microspheres, respectively. Anesthetized pigs underwent 60-min coronary occlusion and 3-h reperfusion in control and right ventricular (RV) pacing postconditioning groups (RVPpostC) (10 x 30-s RV pacing during early reperfusion). In all hearts, area at risk and infarct size were determined with blue dye and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, respectively.

Results: Infarct size, normalized to area at risk, was 47.0 +/- 12.3% in control rabbit hearts, but significantly smaller in LVPpreC (17.8 +/- 6.4%) and LVPpostC hearts (17.9 +/- 4.4%). Left ventricular pacing significantly altered regional mechanical work, but did not affect coronary flow or lactate release. In pigs, infarct size was significantly smaller in RVPpostC (9.8 +/- 3.0%) than in control (20.6 +/- 2.2%) animals.

Conclusions: Intermittent dyssynchrony during early reperfusion reduces infarct size in 2 different animal models. Dyssynchrony-induced postconditioning cannot be attributed to graded reperfusion but may be induced by modulation of local myocardial workload. Dyssynchrony-induced postconditioning opens new possibilities for cardioprotection in the clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2007.01.070DOI Listing
May 2007

Regional sympathetic denervation affects the relation between canine local myocardial blood flow and oxygen consumption.

Exp Physiol 2007 May 15;92(3):541-8. Epub 2007 Feb 15.

Laboratory for Physiology, Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Myocardial blood flow and oxygen consumption are heterogeneously distributed. Perfusion and myocardial oxygen consumption are closely correlated in the normal heart. It is unknown how this metabolism-perfusion relation is influenced by sympathetic denervation. We investigated this question in seven chloralose-anaesthetized dogs, 3-4 weeks after regional sympathetic denervation of the left circumflex coronary artery area of supply of the left ventricle. Measurements were made of local myocardial blood flow (MBF, in ml min(-1) (g dry wt)(-1)), measured with microspheres, and myocardial oxygen consumption ( , in mumol min(-1) (g dry wt)(-1)) in the same location, calculated from the (13)C spectrum of tissue extracts after intracoronary infusion of 3-(13)C-lactate. Since both innervated and denervated regions are subject to the same arterial pressure, lower blood flow indicates higher resistance. Mean MBF was 5.56 ml min(-1) (g dry wt)(-1) (heterogeneity of 3.47 ml min(-1) (g dry wt)(-1)) innervated, 7.48 ml min(-1) (g dry wt)(-1) (heterogeneity of 3.62 ml min(-1) (g dry wt)(-1)) denervated (n.s.). Significant linear relations were found between MBF and M Vo2 of individual samples within the innervated and denervated regions. The slopes of these relations were not significantly different, but the adjusted mean was significantly higher in the denervated regions (+1.92 ml min(-1) (g dry wt)(-1), an increase of 38% of the mean MBF at the pooled mean M Vo2, P = 0.028, ANCOVA). The ratio MBF/M Vo2(in ml micromol(-1)) was significantly higher, being 0.296 +/- 0.167 ml micromol(-1) in the denervated region compared with the innervated region, 0.216 +/- 0.126 ml micromol(-1), P = 0.0182, Mann-Whitney U test. These results indicate that sympathetic tone under chloralose anaesthesia imposes a moderate vasoconstrictive effect in the myocardium that is not detected by comparison of the mean blood flow or resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2006.036228DOI Listing
May 2007

Calculation of effective VV interval facilitates optimization of AV delay and VV interval in cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Heart Rhythm 2007 Jan 9;4(1):75-82. Epub 2006 Sep 9.

Department of Physiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: In hearts with left bundle branch block (LBBB), both atrioventricular (AV) delay and interventricular (VV) interval determine left ventricular (LV) pump function in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The optimal combination of AV delay and VV interval currently is determined by extensive hemodynamic testing.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effective VV interval (VV(eff)) can be used to optimize AV delay and VV interval.

Methods: In eight canine hearts with chronic LBBB, LV pacing was performed at various AV delays as well as biventricular pacing at multiple AV delays and VV intervals. LV pump function was assessed from LVdP/dt(max) and stroke volume (conductance catheter). Interventricular asynchrony was calculated from the timing difference between upslope of LV and RV pressure curves. VV(eff) was defined as the time delay between activation of the RV apex and LV lateral wall, irrespective of the source of RV activation (RV pacing or intrinsic conduction). VV(eff) was determined from pacemaker settings and surface ECGs recorded during biventricular pacing at various AV delays (positive values denote LV preexcitation).

Results: For all animals, the relationship between VV(eff) and LVdP/dt(max) as well as LV stroke work was parabolic. Maximal improvement in LVdP/dt(max) was similar during LV pacing, simultaneous biventricular pacing, and sequential biventricular pacing and was obtained at similar values of VV(eff). VV(eff) was strongly correlated with interventricular asynchrony (R = 0.97 +/- 0.03). Optimum LVdP/dt(max) occurred at VV(eff) ranging from -24 to 12 ms (mean -6 +/- 13 ms). For each experiment, the optimal VV(eff) was virtually equal to the value halfway between its minimum (during LV pacing at short AV delay) and maximum (during LBBB) value (R = 0.91).

Conclusion: Use of VV(eff) facilitates determination of the best combination of AV delay and VV interval during biventricular pacing. For each individual heart, VV(eff), resulting in optimum LV pump function, can be estimated using surface ECGs recorded during biventricular pacing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2006.09.007DOI Listing
January 2007

Pacing-induced dys-synchrony preconditions rabbit myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Circulation 2006 Jul;114(1 Suppl):I264-9

Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Background: Because increased mechanical load induces preconditioning (PC) and dys-synchrony increases loading in late-activated regions, we investigated whether dys-synchrony induced by ventricular pacing (VP) at normal heart rate leads to cardioprotection.

Methods And Results: Isolated working rabbit hearts were subjected to 35 minutes of global ischemia and 2 hours of reperfusion. Seven hearts underwent VP PC (3 periods of 5 minutes VP at the posterior left ventricular [LV] wall), 7 hearts underwent ischemic preconditioning (IPC) (3 periods of 5 minutes of global ischemia), and 9 hearts served as control (C). LV pressure and sonomicrometry were used to assess global hemodynamics and segment work (SW) and end-diastolic segment length (EDSL) in anterior and posterior LV myocardium. Myocardial release of lactate and expression of proBNP mRNA were determined to gain insight in molecular processes involved in VP PC (*P<0.05). Infarct size (triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining) was 18.3+/-13.0% in group C, and was uniformly reduced in the VP PC and IPC groups (1.8+/-0.8%*, and 3.5+/-3.1%*, respectively; and not significant between VP PC and IPC). LV posterior wall pacing (VP PC group) increased EDSL (by 6.3+/-5.8%*) and SW (to 335+/-207%*) in the LV anterior wall, whereas posterior wall SW decreased to negative values (-23+/-63%*). LV pacing did not significantly change lactate release and coronary flow but significantly increased proBNP mRNA expression in both anterior and posterior myocardium as compared with controls.

Conclusions: Intermittent dys-synchrony is equally cardioprotective as "classical" IPC. Stretch-mediated signaling is a more likely trigger for VP PC than ischemia. VP PC is potentially applicable in cardiac surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.000893DOI Listing
July 2006

Left bundle branch block induces ventricular remodelling and functional septal hypoperfusion.

Eur Heart J 2005 Jan 29;26(1):91-8. Epub 2004 Nov 29.

Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Aims: Left ventricular (LV) dilatation, hypertrophy, and septal perfusion defects are frequently observed in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). We investigated whether isolated LBBB causes these abnormalities.

Methods And Results: In eight dogs, LBBB was induced by radio frequency ablation. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed that 16 weeks of LBBB decreased LV ejection fraction (by 23+/-14%) and increased LV cavity volume (by 25+/-19%) and wall mass (by 17+/-16%). The LV septal-to-lateral wall mass ratio decreased by 6+/-9%, indicating asymmetric hypertrophy. After onset of LBBB, myocardial blood flow (MBF, fluorescent microspheres) and systolic circumferential shortening [CS(sys), magnetic resonance (MR) tagging] decreased in the septum to 83+/-16% and -11+/-20% of baseline, respectively, and increased in LV lateral wall to 118+/-12% and 180+/-90% of baseline, respectively. MBF and CS(sys) values did not change over 16 weeks of LBBB. Changes in external mechanical work paralleled those in CS(sys). Glycogen content was not significantly different between septum and LV lateral wall of LBBB hearts (16 weeks) and control samples, indicating absence of hibernation.

Conclusions: The asynchronous ventricular activation during LBBB leads to redistribution of circumferential shortening and myocardial blood flow and, in the long run, LV remodelling. Septal hypoperfusion during LBBB appears to be primarily determined by reduced septal workload.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehi008DOI Listing
January 2005

Proteins involved in salvage of the myocardium.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2003 ;543:277-91

Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.

In the Western world, cardiac ischemic disease is still the most common cause of death despite significant improvements of therapeutic drugs and interventions. The fact that the heart possesses an intrinsic protection mechanism has been systematically overlooked before the 1980s. It has been clearly shown that the activation of this mechanism can reduce the infarct size after an ischemic insult. Prerequisite is the induction of the synthesis of such cardio-protective proteins as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and anti-oxidative enzymes. HSPs are involved in the maintenance of cell homeostasis by guiding the synthesis, folding and degradation of proteins. Besides, the various family members cover a broad spectrum of anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities. Although the major inducible HSP72 has received most attention, other HSPs are able to confer cardioprotection as well. In addition, it seems that there is a concerted action between the various cardio-protective proteins. One drawback is that the beneficial effects of HSPs seem to be less effective in the compromised than in the normal heart. Although clinical studies have shown that there is a therapeutic potential for HSPs in the compromised heart, major efforts are needed to fully understand the role of HSPs in these hearts and to find a safe and convenient way to activate these protective proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-8997-0_20DOI Listing
February 2004

Intra-ventricular resynchronization for optimal left ventricular function during pacing in experimental left bundle branch block.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2003 Aug;42(3):558-67

Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Objectives: We sought to investigate to what extent intra-ventricular asynchrony (intraVA) and inter-ventricular asynchrony (interVA) determine left ventricular (LV) function in canine hearts with left bundle branch block (LBBB) during ventricular pacing.

Background: Pacing therapy improves LV pump function in patients with heart failure and abnormal ventricular conduction supposedly due to resynchronization. However, the relationship between LV pump function and measures of asynchrony is not well established.

Methods: In 15 experiments, LV (various sites) and biventricular (BiV) pacing was performed at atrioventricular (AV) delays of 20 to 140 ms. Measured were the maximum rate of increase (dP/dt(max)) of LV pressure and LV stroke work (SW) (conductance catheter), interVA (time delay between the upslope of LV and RV pressures), and intraVA (from endocardial electrical activation maps).

Results: Induction of LBBB increased interVA (-6.4 +/- 8.6 to -28.4 +/- 8.5 ms [RV earlier]) and intraVA (4.9 +/- 2.4 to 18.0 +/- 3.3 ms), whereas LV dP/dt(max) and SW decreased (-13 +/- 18% and -39 +/- 24%, respectively). During LBBB, LV and BiV pacing increased LV dP/dt(max) and SW (mean increases 14% to 21% and 11% to 15%, respectively) without changing diastolic function or preload. Optimal improvement in LV function was obtained consistently when intraVA returned to pre-LBBB values, while interVA remained elevated. Normalization of intraVA required AV delays shorter than the baseline PQ time during LV apex and BiV pacing, thus excluding endogenous LV activation, but AV delays virtually equal to the baseline PQ time (difference 4 +/- 9 ms, p = NS) during pacing at (mid)lateral LV sites to obtain fusion between pacing-induced and endogenous activation.

Conclusions: In LBBB hearts, optimal restoration of LV systolic function by pacing requires intra-ventricular resynchronization. The optimal AV delay to achieve this depends on both the site of pacing and baseline PQ time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0735-1097(03)00641-7DOI Listing
August 2003