Publications by authors named "Richard Mattes"

152 Publications

Effects of whole peanut within an energy-restricted diet on inflammatory and oxidative processes in obese women: a randomized controlled trial.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Nov 27. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Department of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Alegre, Brazil.

Background: Peanut consumption has little effect on body weight, despite its high energy density and is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that the consumption of whole peanut would be associated with greater improvements in body composition, lipid profile, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

Methodology: Twenty-four women with obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg m ], 33.1 ± 8.7 years old, were assigned to three groups and consumed 56 g of whole peanut (WP), skinned peanut (SP), and no peanut (NP) and consumed energy-restricted diets (250 kcal d less than their customary diet) for 8 weeks.

Results: WP group lost an average of 3.2 kg, while SP group lost 2.6 kg and the NP group 1.8 kg. However, only the groups that consumed peanuts showed a significant reduction in BMI. WP group presented lower body weight, BMI, waist circumference, total lean mass, and total body fat than the SP group in the eighth week. There was a significant reduction in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) after 4 weeks of intervention, which was maintained in week-8 for the WP and SP groups. In addition, there was an improvement in platelets and plasma homocysteine with WP group.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the regular intake of the whole peanut as part of an energy-restricted diet showed health benefits since it enhanced body weight loss, besides improving body composition and reducing cholesterol, platelets, and homocysteine concentrations. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11692DOI Listing
November 2021

No apparent effects of a viscous, superabsorbent hydrogel on appetite, energy intake, or fecal excretion in overweight adults.

Physiol Behav 2022 Jan 10;243:113643. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Department of Nutrition Science, Ingestive Behavior Research Center, Purdue University, 700W State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059, USA. Electronic address:

As the obesity epidemic continues, there is a great need for safe and effective weight loss aids. A superabsorbent hydrogel device administered as a capsule demonstrates potential for weight loss, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. The present study's goal was to determine the mechanisms of action of the hydrogel through the investigation of its effects on appetitive sensations, eating behavior, energy intake, and fecal excretion of energy. Overweight and obese adults (n = 18) participated in a double-blind, randomized, crossover-design study in which they were provided all meals for a week in a supervised setting (i.e., controlled-feeding) and were required to either consume the hydrogel or a placebo with 16-oz of water 20 min before lunch and dinner. No differences in appetite (all, p > 0.05), total fecal nitrogen excretion (p = 0.74), total fecal fat excretion (p = 0.54), or total fecal energy excretion (p = 0.76) were identified when comparing the hydrogel to a placebo. Affect towards food (i.e., mood, emotions) was more positive in the hydrogel group compared with the placebo group. A subset of the controlled-feeding group (n = 10) then participated in another double-blind, randomized, crossover-design study in which they provided their own food for a week (i.e., free-feeding) and were required to either consume the hydrogel or a placebo with 16-oz of water 20 min before lunch and dinner. No differences in appetite (all, p > 0.05), energy intake (p = 0.95), diet quality (all, p > 0.05), or eating behavior (all, p > 0.05) were determined when comparing the hydrogel to the placebo. Future studies with greater statistical power should confirm these findings and investigate other potential mechanisms of action of the hydrogel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2021.113643DOI Listing
January 2022

Effects of Concord grape juice flavor intensity and phenolic compound content on glycemia, appetite and cognitive function in adults with excess body weight: a randomized double-blind crossover trial.

Food Funct 2021 Nov 15;12(22):11469-11481. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Nutrition Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

: Concord grape () juice (CGJ) contains a unique combination of polyphenolic compounds with diverse effects on human health. It also has an intense sensory profile that may modify food choice. Daily consumption of CGJ over 8 weeks reduced fasting blood glucose. However, the impact on 24h-postprandial glucose response from CGJ is still not clear. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of CGJ flavor intensity and phenolic content on 24 h postprandial glucose concentrations, appetitive sensations, and cognitive function in adults with excess body weight when consumed alone or with a meal. : In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design study, participants consumed three types of beverages: 100% CGJ, a polyphenol-free grape flavored drink with the same flavor essence (LP) or a polyphenol-free grape flavored drink with reduced flavor essence (LPF) either without (trial I) or with (trial II) a meal. 24 h glucose was measured through continuous glucose monitoring. Phenolic metabolite excretion was assessed in 24 h urine samples. Appetite (hunger, thirst, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective consumption) and cognitive function (alertness, energetic, strength, calmness, and relaxation) were assessed hourly through visual analog scales. : Thirty-four adults completed trial I and 34 adults completed trial II. When consumed with a meal, beverages with customary flavor essence (CGJ and LP) reduced hunger, desire to eat, and prospective consumption and consumption of the polyphenol-free reduced flavor essence beverage was associated with higher 24 h glucose AUC. No consistent effects were observed for cognitive outcomes. When consumed alone, CGJ was related to lower glycemic responses by those excreting a higher concentration of the phenolic metabolite iso/ferulic-3'--glucuronide, but in beverages without CG phenolics and reduced flavor essence, glycemia was higher among those excreting higher concentrations of caffeic acid--sulfate. : Both natural phenolics and flavor essence of CGJ may help to moderate appetite and glycemia. Clinical Trials registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03409484 (trial I) and NCT03409497 (trial II).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo02049hDOI Listing
November 2021

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Effect of Portion Size and Ingestive Frequency on Energy Intake and Body Weight among Adults in Randomized Controlled Feeding Trials.

Adv Nutr 2021 Oct 23. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Public Health, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Energy intake is the product of portion size (PS)-the energy content of an ingestive event-and ingestive frequency (IF)-the number of ingestive events per unit time. An uncompensated alteration in either PS or IF would result in a change in energy intake and body weight if maintained over time. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the independent effects of PS and IF on energy intake and body weight among healthy adults in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A total of 9708 articles were identified in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases. The articles were divided among 10 researchers; each article was screened for eligibility by 2-3 independent reviewers. Exclusion criteria included: populations <19 y and >65 y, unhealthy populations (i.e. participants with an acute or chronic disease), assessments <24 h and <4 wk in duration for trials investigating energy intake or body weight, respectively. Controlled feeding trials (i.e. fixed energy intake) that manipulated IF and PS in the same study intervention (IF/PS) were evaluated separately and for the body weight outcome only. Twenty-two studies (IF = 4, PS = 14, IF/PS = 4) met the inclusion criteria. There was an insufficient number of studies to assess the effect of IF, PS, or IF/PS on body weight. There was heterogeneity in the effect sizes among all comparisons (I2 ≥75%). Consuming larger portion sizes was associated with higher daily energy intake [295 kcal (202, 388), n = 24; weighted mean differences (WMD) (95% CI), n = comparisons], and increased frequency of ingestive events was associated with higher energy intake [203 kcal (76, 330), n = 10]. Results from RCTs support that larger PS and greater IF are both associated with higher energy consumption. However, there is insufficient information to determine chronic effects on body weight. This protocol was registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) as CRD42018104757.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmab112DOI Listing
October 2021

Evaluation of Dietary Patterns and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 08 2;4(8):e2122277. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge.

Importance: The 2020 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee conducted a systematic review of existing research on diet and health to inform the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The committee answered this public health question: what is the association between dietary patterns consumed and all-cause mortality (ACM)?

Objective: To ascertain the association between dietary patterns consumed and ACM.

Evidence Review: Guided by an analytical framework and predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria developed by the committee, the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review (NESR) team searched PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase and dual-screened the results to identify articles that were published between January 1, 2000, and October 4, 2019. These studies evaluated dietary patterns and ACM in participants aged 2 years and older. The NESR team extracted data from and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Committee members synthesized the evidence, developed conclusion statements, and graded the strength of the evidence supporting the conclusion statements.

Findings: A total of 1 randomized clinical trial and 152 observational studies were included in the review. Studies enrolled adults and older adults (aged 17-84 years at baseline) from 28 countries with high or very high Human Development Index; 53 studies originated from the US. Most studies were well designed, used rigorous methods, and had low or moderate risks of bias. Precision, directness, and generalizability were demonstrated across the body of evidence. Results across studies were highly consistent. Evidence suggested that dietary patterns in adults and older adults that involved higher consumption of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, whole grains, unsaturated vegetable oils, fish, and lean meat or poultry (when meat was included) were associated with a decreased risk of ACM. These healthy patterns were also relatively low in red and processed meat, high-fat dairy, and refined carbohydrates or sweets. Some of these dietary patterns also included intake of alcoholic beverages in moderation. Results based on additional analyses with confounding factors generally confirmed the robustness of main findings.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this systematic review, consuming a nutrient-dense dietary pattern was associated with reduced risk of death from all causes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.22277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8408672PMC
August 2021

Perceptual Quality of Nonesterified Fatty Acids Varies with Fatty Acid Chain Length.

Chem Senses 2021 01;46

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, 812 W State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059, USA.

Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) are effective taste stimuli. The quality they impart has not been well characterized. Sourness, and "fattiness" have been reported, but an irritation component has also been described and how these transition with gradations of aliphatic chain length has not been systematically studied. This study examined intensity and quality ratings of NEFA ranging from C2 to C18. Oral sites and the time course of sensations were also monitored. Given all NEFA contain carboxylic acid moieties capable of donating hydrogen ions, the primary stimulus for sour taste, testing was conducted with and without sour adaptation to explore the contribution of sour taste across the range of NEFA. Short-chain NEFA (C2-C6) were rated as predominantly sour, and this was diminished in C2 and C4 by sour adaptation. Medium-chain NEFA (C8-C12) were rated as mainly irritating with long-chain NEFA (C18) described mostly as bitter. The latter may reflect the lack of "fatty" lexicon to describe the sensation. Short-chain NEFA were mostly localized to the anterior tongue and were of rapid onset. The sensation from medium-chain NEFA was attributed to the lateral tongue, whereas medium- and long-chain NEFA sensations were predominantly localized to the back of the tongue and throat and had a longer lag time. The findings indicate there is a systematic transition of NEFA taste quality and irritation with increments in chain length and this is consistent with multiple modes of transduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjab023DOI Listing
January 2021

Finding the Sweet Spot: Measurement, Modification, and Application of Sweet Hedonics in Humans.

Adv Nutr 2021 Dec;12(6):2358-2371

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Sweetness is a sensation that contributes to the palatability of foods, which is the primary driver of food choice. Thus, understanding how to measure the appeal (hedonics) of sweetness and how to modify it are key to effecting dietary change for health. Sweet hedonics is multidimensional so can only be captured by multiple approaches including assessment of elements such as liking, preference, and consumption intent. There are both innate and learned components to the appeal of sweet foods and beverages. These are responsive to various behavioral and biological factors, suggesting the opportunity to modify intake. Given the high amount of added sugar intake in the United States and recommendations from many groups to reduce this, further exploration of current hypothesized approaches to moderate sugar intake (e.g., induced hedonic shift, use of low-calorie sweeteners) is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmab055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8634475PMC
December 2021

Almond consumption decreases android fat mass percentage in adults with high android subcutaneous adiposity but does not change HbA1c in a randomised controlled trial.

Br J Nutr 2021 May 6:1-12. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine if the mixed evidence of almond consumption on HbA1c stems from testing people with different body fat distributions (BFD) associated with different risks of glucose intolerance. A 6-month randomised controlled trial in 134 adults was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to the almond (A) or control (C) group based on their BFD. Those in the almond group consumed 1·5 oz of almonds with their breakfast and as their afternoon snack daily. Those in the control group continued their habitual breakfast and afternoon snack routines. Body weight and composition were measured and blood samples were collected for determination of HbA1c, glycaemia and lipaemia at 0 and 6 months. Appetite ratings, energy intake and diet quality were collected at 0, 2, 4 and 6 months. Participants consuming almonds ingested 816 (sem 364) kJ/d more than participants in the control group (P = 0·03), but this did not result in any differences in body weight (A: -0·3 (sem 0·4), C: -0·4 (sem 0·4); P > 0·3). Participants in the almond, high android subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) group had a greater reduction in android fat mass percentage (A: -1·0 (sem 0·6), C: 1·1 (sem 0·6); P = 0·04), preserved android lean mass percentage (A: 0·9 (sem 0·6), C: -1 (sem 0·6); P = 0·04) and tended to decrease android visceral adipose tissue mass (A: -13 (sem 53) g, C: 127 (sem 53) g; P = 0·08) compared with those in the control, high SAT group. There were no differences in HbA1c between groups (A: 5·4 (sem 0·04), C: 5·5 (sem 0·04); P > 0·05). Thus, BFD may not explain the mixed evidence on almond consumption and HbA1c. Long-term almond consumption has limited ability to improve cardiometabolic health in those who are overweight and obese but otherwise healthy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521001495DOI Listing
May 2021

Proposed reductions in limits on added sugar and alcohol for the new dietary guidelines: our perspective.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 08;114(2):405-406

Departments of Nutrition Science and Public Health, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab092DOI Listing
August 2021

NIH Workshop Report: sensory nutrition and disease.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Dec 9. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

In November 2019, the NIH held the "Sensory Nutrition and Disease" workshop to challenge multidisciplinary researchers working at the interface of sensory science, food science, psychology, neuroscience, nutrition, and health sciences to explore how chemosensation influences dietary choice and health. This report summarizes deliberations of the workshop, as well as follow-up discussion in the wake of the current pandemic. Three topics were addressed: A) the need to optimize human chemosensory testing and assessment, B) the plasticity of chemosensory systems, and C) the interplay of chemosensory signals, cognitive signals, dietary intake, and metabolism. Several ways to advance sensory nutrition research emerged from the workshop: 1) refining methods to measure chemosensation in large cohort studies and validating measures that reflect perception of complex chemosensations relevant to dietary choice; 2) characterizing interindividual differences in chemosensory function and how they affect ingestive behaviors, health, and disease risk; 3) defining circuit-level organization and function that link and interact with gustatory, olfactory, homeostatic, visceral, and cognitive systems; and 4) discovering new ligands for chemosensory receptors (e.g., those produced by the microbiome) and cataloging cell types expressing these receptors. Several of these priorities were made more urgent by the current pandemic because infection with sudden acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the ensuing coronavirus disease of 2019 has direct short- and perhaps long-term effects on flavor perception. There is increasing evidence of functional interactions between the chemosensory and nutritional sciences. Better characterization of this interface is expected to yield insights to promote health, mitigate disease risk, and guide nutrition policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7779223PMC
December 2020

Perspective: Measuring Sweetness in Foods, Beverages, and Diets: Toward Understanding the Role of Sweetness in Health.

Adv Nutr 2021 03;12(2):343-354

Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Various global public health agencies recommend minimizing exposure to sweet-tasting foods or beverages. The underlying rationale is that reducing exposure to the perception of sweet tastes, without regard to the source of sweetness, may reduce preferences for sweetness, added sugar intake, caloric intake, and body weight. However, the veracity of this sequence of outcomes has yet to be documented, as revealed by findings from recent systematic reviews on the topic. Efforts to examine and document the effects of sweetness exposure are needed to support evidence-based recommendations. They require a generally agreed-upon methodology for measuring sweetness in foods, beverages, and the overall diet. Although well-established sensory evaluation techniques exist for individual foods in laboratory settings, they are expensive and time-consuming, and agreement on the optimal approach for measuring the sweetness of the total diet is lacking. If such a measure could be developed, it would permit researchers to combine data from different studies and populations and facilitate the design and conduct of new studies to address unresolved research questions about dietary sweetness. This narrative review includes an overview of available sensory techniques, their strengths and limitations, recent efforts to measure the sweetness of foods and diets across countries and cultures, and a proposed future direction for improving methods for measuring sweetness toward developing the data required to support evidence-based recommendations around dietary sweetness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmaa151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009737PMC
March 2021

Perspective: US Documentation and Regulation of Human Nutrition Randomized Controlled Trials.

Adv Nutr 2021 02;12(1):21-45

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Training to ensure good documentation practices and adherence to regulatory requirements in human nutrition randomized controlled trials has not been given sufficient attention. Furthermore, it is difficult to find this information conveniently organized or in a form relevant to nutrition protocols. Current gaps in training and research surveillance exist in clinical nutrition research because training modules emphasize drugs and devices, promote reliance on monitoring boards, and lack nutrition expertise on human nutrition research teams. Additionally, because eating is essential, ongoing, and highly individualized, it is difficult to distinguish risks associated with interventions from eating under free-living conditions. Controlled-feeding trials provide an option to gain more experimental control over food consumed, but at a price of less external validity, and may pose human behavior issues that are unrelated to the intervention. This paper covers many of the expected practices for documentation and regulation that may be encountered in planning and conducting nutrition intervention trials with examples and references that should be useful to clinical nutrition researchers, funders of research, and research institutions. Included are definitions and guidance on clinical nutrition research oversight (institutional review boards, data safety and monitoring boards, US FDA); participant safety; standard operating procedures; training of investigators, staff, and students; and local culture and reporting requirements relevant to diet-related clinical research conduct and documentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmaa118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850145PMC
February 2021

Strengthening federal nutrition research: request for stakeholder input.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 09;112(3):770

American Society for Nutrition, Rockville, MD.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa180DOI Listing
September 2020

Examination of different definitions of snacking frequency and associations with weight status among U.S. adults.

PLoS One 2020 17;15(6):e0234355. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Nutrition Science, College of Health and Human Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America.

Snacks, while widely consumed in the United States (U.S.), do not have a standard definition, complicating research to understand associations, if any, with weight status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between snacking frequency and weight status using various snacking definitions that exist in the scientific literature among U.S. adults (NHANES 2013-2016; ≥20y n = 9,711). Four event-based snacking definitions were operationalized including participant-defined snacks, eating events outside of meals, and operationally defined snacks based on absolute thresholds of energy consumed (>50 kcal). Weight status was examined using body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and sagittal abdominal diameter risk. Logistic regression models examined snacking frequency and associations with weight status. Outcomes varied by the definition of a snack employed, but the majority of findings were null. Mean energy from snacks was significantly higher among women with obesity compared to women with normal weight when a snack was defined as any event outside of a typical mealtime (i.e. other than breakfast, lunch, dinner, super, brunch), regardless of whether or not it contributed ≥50 kcal. Further investigation into ingestive behaviors that may influence the relationship between snacking frequency and weight status is needed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234355PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299329PMC
September 2020

Low Calorie Sweeteners Differ in Their Physiological Effects in Humans.

Nutrients 2019 Nov 9;11(11). Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Low calorie sweeteners (LCS) are prevalent in the food supply for their primary functional property of providing sweetness with little or no energy. Though tested for safety individually, there has been extremely limited work on the efficacy of each LCS. It is commonly assumed all LCS act similarly in their behavioral and physiological effects. However, each LCS has its own chemical structure that influences its metabolism, making each LCS unique in its potential effects on body weight, energy intake, and appetite. LCS may have different behavioral and physiological effects mediated at the sweet taste receptor, in brain activation, with gut hormones, at the microbiota and on appetitive responses. Further elucidation of the unique effects of the different commercially available LCS may hold important implications for recommendations about their use for different health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11112717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893706PMC
November 2019

A randomized controlled trial contrasting the effects of 4 low-calorie sweeteners and sucrose on body weight in adults with overweight or obesity.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 05;109(5):1288-1301

Departments of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Background: Low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) provide sweetness with little or no energy. However, each LCS's unique chemical structure has potential to elicit different sensory, physiological, and behavioral responses that affect body weight.

Objective: The purpose of this trial was to compare the effects of consumption of 4 LCSs and sucrose on body weight, ingestive behaviors, and glucose tolerance over a 12-wk intervention in adults (18-60 y old) with overweight or obesity (body mass index 25-40 kg/m2).

Methods: In a parallel-arm design, 154 participants were randomly assigned to consume 1.25-1.75 L of beverage sweetened with sucrose (n = 39), aspartame (n = 30), saccharin (n = 29), sucralose (n = 28), or rebaudioside A (rebA) (n = 28) daily for 12 wk. The beverages contained 400-560 kcal/d (sucrose treatments) or <5 kcal/d (LCS treatments). Anthropometric indexes, energy intake, energy expenditure, appetite, and glucose tolerance were measured at baseline. Body weight was measured every 2 wk with energy intake, expenditure, and appetite assessed every 4 wk. Twenty-four-hour urine collections were completed every 4 wk to determine study compliance via para-aminobenzoic acid excretion.

Results: Of the participants enrolled in the trial, 123 completed the 12-wk intervention. Sucrose and saccharin consumption led to increased body weight across the 12-wk intervention (Δweight = +1.85 ± 0.36 kg and +1.18 ± 0.36 kg, respectively; P ≤ 0.02) and did not differ from each other. There was no significant change in body weight with consumption of the other LCS treatments compared with baseline, but change in body weight for sucralose was negative and significantly lower compared with all other LCSs at week 12 (weight difference ≥ 1.37 ± 0.52 kg, P ≤ 0.008). Energy intake decreased with sucralose consumption (P = 0.02) and ingestive frequency was lower for sucralose than for saccharin (P = 0.045). Glucose tolerance was not significantly affected by any of the sweetener treatments.

Conclusions: Sucrose and saccharin consumption significantly increase body weight compared with aspartame, rebA, and sucralose, whereas weight change was directionally negative and lower for sucralose compared with saccharin, aspartame, and rebA consumption. LCSs should be categorized as distinct entities because of their differing effects on body weight. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02928653.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy381DOI Listing
May 2019

Potato product form impacts in vitro starch digestibility and glucose transport but only modestly impacts 24 h blood glucose response in humans.

Food Funct 2019 Apr;10(4):1846-1855

Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina State University, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA.

Potatoes are rich in phenolic compounds which have been reported to impact starch digestion and intestinal glucose transport in model systems through phenolic-starch interactions. While these effects are well documented for pigmented potatoes and in model systems, the relevance of phenolics to the glycemic properties of processed colorless potato-based foods under naturalistic conditions remains unclear. This study assessed impacts of processing on phenolic concentrations, resistant starch content and glycemic properties of Russet Burbank and Shepody potatoes. Product forms included French fries, shredded (hash browns) and diced (home fries) produced through commercial processing as well as parallel in-home techniques. Commercial products had significantly higher concentrations of resistant starch (p < 0.05, 1.48-6.57 vs. 1.23-2.22 g per 100 fresh weight) and resistant starch/total starch ratio (5.42-18.3% vs. 3.58-7.62%) compared to freshly prepared counterparts, while statistically lower total caffeoylquinic acid content (2.94-10.9 vs. 11.5-25.2 g per 100 fresh weight). Glucose release and intestinal transport assessed using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell monolayers model demonstrated a reduction in d7-glucose intestinal transport from commercially processed products relative to fresh prepared counterparts (p < 0.05, 31.3-61.2% vs. 79.3-110% at 60 min). Commercial Russet Burbank potato products including French fries, home fries and hash browns were then selected for clinical assessment of glycemic response and appetite rating by 23 participants (11 male and 12 female). The three products presented a subtle but discernable ascending trend (French fry ≥ home fry ≥ hash browns) for incremental area under the curve (IAUC, 95.2 ± 12 vs. 105 ± 10 vs. 107 ± 14 mM min, p < 0.05) at 2 h post breakfast and for appetite rating (45.2 ± 6.3 vs. 52.4 ± 4.1 vs. 57.7 ± 7.2 for hunger) at 4 h post breakfast with no significant difference from the control (whole wheat pancake). These results suggest that potato phenolics have only a modest influence on acute glycemic responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8fo02530dDOI Listing
April 2019

Nutrition and taste and smell dysfunction.

World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Mar 23;4(1):3-10. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Nutrition Science, 700 W State St, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Food selection plays a pivotal role in maintaining adequate nutrient intake, thus elucidating drivers of food choice is a meaningful strategy to maintain health and manage disease. Taste and smell are key determinants of food choice and warrant careful consideration. In this review, we first discuss how sensory stimulation influences food selection and metabolism. We then review the evidence regarding the relationship between taste and smell dysfunction and food preferences and selection, with attention given to contexts of certain chronic diseases. We conclude with brief recommendations for the management of chemosensory disorders. While sensory abilities influence food selection, the effect of taste and smell dysfunction on long-term consumption patterns and health status must be considered in light of environment, exposure, and culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wjorl.2018.02.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6051307PMC
March 2018

Multiple Reaction Monitoring Profiling to Assess Compliance with an Almond Consumption Intervention.

Curr Dev Nutr 2017 Sep 6;1(9):e001545. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Almonds are extremely rich sources of lipids and flavonoids, and their consumption is associated with several health benefits. However, there are no analytical methods available to document compliance with prescribed or self-reported chronic almond consumption. The aim was to use an analytical approach that identifies metabolic profiles associated with long-term almond consumption to ascertain compliance with prescribed consumption. A multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-profiling strategy was designed to isolate metabolic changes in erythrocytes after 12 wk of almond consumption. MRM-profiling data acquisition and analysis involve performing separate discovery and screening steps to detect molecular features related to metabolic changes between experimental groups. Samples used for this research were erythrocytes recovered at baseline, after 12 wk of almond consumption (W12-almond group), and after 12 wk of a nut-free diet (W12-control group). For the MRM-profiling discovery step, representative samples (pools) of erythrocytes from individuals of all groups were interrogated by precursor ion and neutral loss scan experiments on the basis of previous knowledge of chemical functional groups present in the samples. The outputs of the discovery phase were methods used for the MRM-profiling screening phase to interrogate individual samples on the basis of fast-MRM measurements. In addition, we screened the literature for flavonoids identified in almond skins and included them for individual sample screening. Of the 254 values monitored, 5 ratios and combinations of specific ions with receiver operating characteristic curve AUCs >0.89 provided a sensitivity of 74.2% and a specificity of 90% for blind samples presented in the model. Eight of the 31 participants (25.8%) in the W12-almond group and 3 of the 30 (10%) participants in the W12-control group were misclassified by all 5 ratios. Ratios and combinations of specific transitions were mainly related to membrane lipids. The misclassifications observed as a result of ratio performance evaluation may indicate noncompliance as supported by the dietary intake data. The parent trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02360787.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/cdn.117.001545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5998771PMC
September 2017

Mastication of Nuts under Realistic Eating Conditions: Implications for Energy Balance.

Nutrients 2018 Jun 1;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA.

The low digestibility and high satiety effects of nuts have been partly attributed to mastication. This work examines chewing forces and the bolus particle size of nuts (walnuts, almonds, pistachios) varying in physical properties under different conditions (with and without water, juice, sweetened yogurt and plain yogurt) along with satiety sensations and gut hormone concentrations following walnut consumption (whole or butter). In a randomized, cross-over design with 50 adults (25 males, 25 females; Body Mass Index (BMI) 24.7 ± 3.4 kg/m²; age: 18⁻52 years old (y/o), the chewing forces and particle size distribution of chewed nuts were measured under different chewing conditions. Appetite sensations were measured at regular intervals for 3 h after nut intake, and plasma samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, insulin and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The three nuts displayed different particle sizes at swallowing though no differences in chewing forces were observed. Walnuts with yogurt yielded larger particle sizes than the other treatments. Particle size was not correlated with either food palatability or flavor. Fullness sensations were higher after whole nut than nut butter consumption though there were no significant changes in glucose, insulin, or GLP-1 concentrations under any condition. Changing the conditions at swallowing might influence the release of energy from nuts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10060710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6024662PMC
June 2018

An introduction to an international conference on "The pace of life and feeding: Health implications".

Authors:
Richard D Mattes

Physiol Behav 2018 09 23;193(Pt B):187-189. Epub 2018 May 23.

Purdue University, Department of Nutrition Science, 700 W State Street, Stone Hall, Rm 113, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059, United States. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.05.021DOI Listing
September 2018

Session 5 discussion: Snacking.

Physiol Behav 2018 09 18;193(Pt B):288-290. Epub 2018 May 18.

Purdue University, United States. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.05.019DOI Listing
September 2018

Daily Dietary Intake Patterns Improve after Visiting a Food Pantry among Food-Insecure Rural Midwestern Adults.

Nutrients 2018 May 9;10(5). Epub 2018 May 9.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Emergency food pantries provide food at no cost to low-resource populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate single-day dietary intake patterns before and after visiting a food pantry among food-secure and food-insecure pantry clients. This observational cohort study comprised a paired, before-and-after design with a pantry visit as the intervention. Participants ( = 455) completed a demographic and food security assessment, and two 24-h dietary recalls. Adult food security was measured using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Dietary intake patterns were assessed using Automated Self-Administered 24-h Recall data and classified by Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) scores, dietary variety, number of eating occasions, and energy intake. Paired -tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared outcomes before and after a pantry visit. Mean dietary variety increased after the pantry visit among both food-secure ( = 0.02) and food-insecure ( < 0.0001) pantry clients. Mean energy intake ( = 0.0003), number of eating occasions ( = 0.004), and HEI-2010 component scores for total fruit ( < 0.001) and whole fruit ( < 0.0003) increased among food-insecure pantry clients only. A pantry visit may improve dietary intake patterns, especially among food-insecure pantry clients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10050583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986463PMC
May 2018

Aspartame Consumption for 12 Weeks Does Not Affect Glycemia, Appetite, or Body Weight of Healthy, Lean Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Nutr 2018 04;148(4):650-657

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Background: Low-calorie sweeteners are often used to moderate energy intake and postprandial glycemia, but some evidence indicates that they may exacerbate these aims.

Objective: The trial's primary aim was to assess the effect of daily aspartame ingestion for 12 wk on glycemia. Effects on appetite and body weight were secondary aims.

Methods: One hundred lean [body mass index (kg/m2): 18-25] adults aged 18-60 y were randomly assigned to consume 0, 350, or 1050 mg aspartame/d (ASP groups) in a beverage for 12 wk in a parallel-arm design. At baseline, body weight and composition were determined, a 240-min oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was administered, and measurements were made of appetite and selected hormones. Participants also collected a 24-h urine sample. During the intervention, the 0-mg/d ASP group consumed capsules containing 680 mg dextrose and 80 mg para-amino benzoic acid. For the 350-mg/d ASP group, the beverage contained 350 mg aspartame and the 1050-mg/d ASP group consumed the same beverage plus capsules containing 680 mg dextrose and 700 mg aspartame. Body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and waist circumference were measured weekly. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, participants collected 24-h urine samples and kept appetite logs. Baseline measurements were repeated at week 12.

Results: With the exception of the baseline OGTT glucose concentration at 60 min (and resulting area under the curve value), there were no group differences for glucose, insulin, resting leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1, or gastric inhibitory peptide at baseline or week 12. There also were no effects of aspartame ingestion on appetite, body weight, or body composition. Compliance with the beverage intervention was ∼95%.

Conclusions: Aspartame ingested at 2 doses for 12 wk had no effect on glycemia, appetite, or body weight among healthy, lean adults. These data do not support the view that aspartame is problematic for the management of glycemia, appetite, or body weight. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02999321.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy021DOI Listing
April 2018

Evidence on the "normalizing" effect of reducing food-portion sizes.

Authors:
Richard D Mattes

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 04;107(4):501-503

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy054DOI Listing
April 2018

Potato phenolics impact starch digestion and glucose transport in model systems but translation to phenolic rich potato chips results in only modest modification of glycemic response in humans.

Nutr Res 2018 04 12;52:57-70. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Dept of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Dept of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. Electronic address:

Beneficial effects of some phenolic compounds in modulation of carbohydrate digestion and glycemic response have been reported, however effects of phenolics from processed potato products on these endpoints are not well known. The aims of this study were to characterize phenolic profiles of fresh potatoes (purple, red, or white fleshed; 2 varieties each) and chips, and to examine the potential for potato phenolic extracts (PPE) to modulate starch digestion and intestinal glucose transport in model systems. Following in vitro assessment, a pilot clinical study (n=11) assessed differences in glycemic response and gastric emptying between chips from pigmented and white potatoes. We hypothesized that phenolics from pigmented potato chips would be recovered through processing and result in a reduced acute glycemic response in humans relative to chips made from white potatoes. PPEs were rich in anthocyanins (~98, 11 and ND mg/100 g dw) and chlorogenic acids (~519, 425 and 157 mg/100 g dw) for purple, red and white varieties respectively. While no significant effects were observed on starch digestion by α-amylase and the α-glucosidases, PPEs significantly (p<0.05) decreased the rate of glucose transport, measured following transport of 1,2,3,4,5,6,6-d7 -glucose (d7-glu) across Caco-2 human intestinal cell monolayers, by 4.5-83.9%. Consistent with in vitro results, consumption of purple potato chips modestly but significantly (p<0.05) decreased blood glucose at 30 and 60 minutes post consumption compared to white chips without impacting gastric emptying. These results suggest that potato phenolics may play a modest role in modulation of glycemic response and these effects may result in subtle differences between consumer products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2018.02.001DOI Listing
April 2018

Snacking: A cause for concern.

Authors:
Richard D Mattes

Physiol Behav 2018 09 5;193(Pt B):279-283. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47967, United States. Electronic address:

Snacking, like any dietary behavior, can be practiced in a manner that is healthful or not. The case presented in this critical review of the literature is that snacking is problematic, primarily due to its contribution to positive energy balance and promotion of overweight/obesity. There is strong evidence that snacking is associated with greater energy intake. How this translates to body weight is less clear, largely due to limitations of experimental measurement tools and research designs. Correction for these shortcomings reveals evidence implicating snacking in the high prevalence of overweight/obesity supported by multiple plausible mechanisms. Given the popularity of snacking and its potential to positively contribute to diet quality, it is recommended that efforts be made to better understand and harness snacking to a better purpose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.02.010DOI Listing
September 2018

A workshop on 'Dietary Sweetness-Is It an Issue?'

Int J Obes (Lond) 2018 04 13;42(4):934-938. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

This report summarises a workshop convened by ILSI Europe on 3 and 4 April 2017 to discuss the issue of dietary sweetness. The objectives were to understand the roles of sweetness in the diet, establish whether exposure to sweetness affects diet quality and energy intake, and consider whether sweetness per se affects health. Although there may be evidence for tracking of intake of some sweet components of the diet through childhood, evidence for tracking of whole diet sweetness, or through other stages of maturity are lacking. The evidence to date does not support adverse effects of sweetness on diet quality or energy intake, except where sweet food choices increase intake of free sugars. There is some evidence for improvements in diet quality and reduced energy intake where sweetness without calories replaces sweetness with calories. There is a need to understand the physiological and metabolic relevance of sweet taste receptors on the tongue, in the gut and elsewhere in the body, as well as possible differentiation in the effects of sustained consumption of individual sweeteners. Despite a plethora of studies, there is no consistent evidence for an association of sweetness sensitivity/preference with obesity or type 2 diabetes. A multifaceted integrated approach, characterising nutritive and sensory aspects of the whole diet or dietary patterns, may be more valuable in providing contextual insight. The outcomes of the workshop could be used as a scientific basis to inform the expert community and create more useful dialogue among health care professionals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2017.296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5984094PMC
April 2018

Taste Responses to Linoleic Acid: A Crowdsourced Population Study.

Chem Senses 2017 Oct;42(9):769-775

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, 700 W State St, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Dietary fats serve multiple essential roles in human health but may also contribute to acute and chronic health complications. Thus, understanding mechanisms that influence fat ingestion are critical. All sensory systems may contribute relevant cues to fat detection, with the most recent evidence supporting a role for the sense of taste. Taste detection thresholds for fat vary markedly between individuals and responses are not normally distributed. Genetics may contribute to these observations. Using crowdsourced data obtained from families visiting the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, our objective was to estimate the heritability of fat taste (oleogustus). A pedigree analysis was conducted with 106 families (643 individuals) who rated the fat taste intensity of graded concentrations of linoleic acid (LA) embedded in taste strips. The findings estimate that 19% (P = 0.043) of the variability of taste response to LA relative to baseline is heritable at the highest concentration tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjx058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5863569PMC
October 2017

The cephalic phase insulin response to nutritive and low-calorie sweeteners in solid and beverage form.

Physiol Behav 2017 Nov 9;181:100-109. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, 226 Stone Hall, 700 W State Street, West Lafayette 47907, IN, USA. Electronic address:

The purpose of the study was to examine the role of the cephalic phase insulin response (CPIR) following exposure to nutritive and low-calorie sweeteners in solid and beverage form in overweight and obese adults. In addition, the role of learning on the CPIR to nutritive and low-calorie sweetener exposure was tested. Sixty-four overweight and obese adults (age: 18-50years, BMI: 24-37kg/m, body fat percentage>25% for men and >32% for women) were sham-fed (at 2-minute intervals for 14min) a randomly assigned test load comprised of a nutritive (sucrose) or low-calorie sweetener (sucralose) in beverage or solid form in phase 1 of the study. A 2-3ml blood sample was collected before and 2, 6, 10, 14, 61, 91 and 121min after oral exposure for serum insulin and glucose analysis. During phase 2, participants underwent a 2-week training period to facilitate associative learning between the sensory properties of test loads and their post-ingestive effects. In phase 3, participants were retested for their cephalic phase responses as in phase 1. Participants were classified as responders if they demonstrated a positive insulin response (rise of serum insulin above baseline i.e. Δ insulin) 2min post-stimulus in phase 1. Among responders exposed to the same sweetener in Phases 1 and 3, the proportion of participants that displayed a rise of insulin with oral exposure to sucralose was significantly greater when the stimulus was in the solid form compared to the beverage form. Sucralose and sucrose exposure elicited similarly significant increases in serum insulin 2min after exposure and significant decreases after 2min in responders in both food forms. The solid food form elicited greater CPIR over 2, 6 and 10min than the beverage form. There was no effect of learning on insulin responses after training. The results indicate the presence of a significant CPIR in a subset of individuals with overweight or obesity after oral exposure to sucralose, especially when present in solid food form. Future studies must confirm the reliability of this response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.09.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5634742PMC
November 2017
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