Publications by authors named "Richard M Danilkowicz"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Intra-Articular Synovial Fluid With Hematoma After Ankle Fracture Promotes Cartilage Damage In Vitro Partially Attenuated by Anti-Inflammatory Agents.

Foot Ankle Int 2021 Oct 7:10711007211046952. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Intra-articular ankle fracture (IAF) causes posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA), but the exact mechanism is unknown. Proinflammatory mediators have been shown to be present in the synovial fluid fracture hematoma (SFFH) but have not been linked to cartilage damage. The purpose of this study was to determine if the SFFH causes cartilage damage and whether this damage can be attenuated by commercially available therapeutic agents.

Methods: Synovial fluid was obtained from 54 IAFs and cultured with cartilage discs from the dome of fresh allograft human tali and randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (A) control-media only, (B) SFFH from days 0 to 2 after fracture, (C) SFFH from days 3 to 9, (D) SFFH from days 10 to 14, (E) group B + interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and (F) group B + doxycycline. The cartilage discs underwent histological evaluation for cell survival and cartilage matrix components. The spent media were analyzed for inflammatory mediators.

Results: Cartilage discs cultured with SFFH in groups B, C, and D demonstrated significantly increased production of cytokines, metalloproteinases (MMPs), and extracellular matrix breakdown products. Safranin O staining was significantly decreased in group B. The negative effects on cartilage were partially attenuated with the addition of either IL-1RA or doxycycline. There was no difference in chondrocyte survival among the groups.

Conclusion: Exposure of uninjured cartilage to IAF SFFH caused activation of cartilage damage pathways evident through cartilage disc secretion of inflammatory cytokines, MMPs, and cartilage matrix fragments. The addition of IL-1Ra or doxycycline to SFFH culture partially attenuated this response.

Clinical Relevance: IAFs create an adverse intra-articular environment consisting of significantly increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and MMPs able to damage cartilage throughout the joint. These data suggest that the acute addition of specific inflammatory inhibitors may decrease the levels of these proinflammatory mediators.
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October 2021

Impact of Early Weightbearing After Ankle Arthroscopy and Bone Marrow Stimulation for Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Sep 13;9(9):23259671211029883. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT) may be caused by osteochondritis dissecans, osteochondral fractures, avascular necrosis, or focal arthritic changes. For certain focal cartilage defects, bone marrow stimulation (BMS) has been a widely used technique to restore a fibrocartilage substitute overlying the defect. There are various postoperative weightbearing protocols for this procedure, with no single gold standard method.

Purpose: To retrospectively review the outcomes of patients undergoing ankle arthroscopy with concomitant BMS to determine outcomes based on postoperative weightbearing status.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent ankle arthroscopy with BMS for OLTs between 2015 and 2018. Patients were placed into 2 cohorts based on postoperative immobilization status: the nonweightbearing (NWB) group and the weightbearing-as-tolerated (WBAT) group. Patient characteristics obtained included age, sex, comorbidities, and etiology of talar pathology. Outcomes included the pain visual analog scale (VAS), range of motion (ROM), complications, time to first weightbearing, and the method and length of immobilization. Patients who were lost to follow-up before 30 days were excluded. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables between cohorts, and the test was used for continuous variables.

Results: A total of 69 patients met the inclusion criteria for this study, 18 in the WBAT group and 51 in the NWB group. The mean lesion size was 9.48 × 9.21 mm (range, 3-15 mm × 2-20 mm) for the NWB group and 9.36 × 9.72 mm (range, 5-14 mm × 6-20 mm) for the WBAT group ( > .05). The VAS scores improved from 4.40 to 0.67 for the WBAT group and from 6.33 to 2.55 for the NWB group, with the difference in final values reaching statistical significance ( = .0002). Postoperative ROM was not significantly different between the groups. There were 4 repeat operations within the NWB cohort.

Conclusion: The surgical management of OLTs can be challenging, and the postoperative weightbearing protocol can be an extra obstacle for the patient to navigate. We found no difference in pain, ROM, or complications when allowing immediate, full WBAT.
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September 2021

Increase in Use of Medial Ulnar Collateral Ligament Repair of the Elbow: A Large Database Analysis.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2021 Apr 15;3(2):e527-e533. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A.

Purpose: To assess the current national rate of medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) repair of the elbow and delineate the patient demographics of those undergoing repair.

Methods: A retrospective review and analysis of a national private insurance database was conducted covering 2007-2017 using Pearl Diver technologies. All patients diagnosed with a MUCL injury and those who underwent repair were included using Clinical Modification and Current Procedural Terminology code 24345, referencing repair of the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow with local tissue. The extracted data included patient age at time of procedure, sex, race, region, year of surgery, insurance type, hospital setting, and any associated diagnoses with 90 days of the repair procedure. Standard descriptive methods characterized our study sample to calculate frequency counts and percentages. Means with respective standard deviations and/or standard errors, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and reported for continuous variables, whereas frequencies and percentages were reported for categorical variables. Pearson χ tests were used to determine differences between group proportion categorical variables. Significance was considered at a ≤ .05.

Results: From 2007 to 2014, MUCL injuries showed an upward trend in incidence per 100,000 from 4.59 to 7.19 (56% increase) within the database population. Accordingly, the incidence of MUCL repair rose from 0.016 to 0.49 (2962%). However, from 2015-2017 there was a drop in both categories, as injury incidence fell from 7.19 to 1.48 whereas repair rates dropped from 0.49 to 0.012. The ages undergoing repair show a significant peak in 15-24-year-olds. The incidence of MUCL repair was greatest in the West and South ( < .01). Male patients had a greater incidence of MUCL injury, and a greater incidence of MUCL repair per 100,000 persons compared to females ( < .01).

Conclusions: MUCL repair has emerged as a viable alternative to reconstruction in select indications. The impetus for this change may be to provide a quicker return to sport and fewer complications, largely due to recent improvements in surgical technique for MUCL repair. As anticipated, the incidence of MUCL repair had steadily increased in the United States from 2007 to 2014, with a subsequent relatively inexplicable decrease primarily in 2017, according to the database utilized in this study. The 15-24 year-old age group encompassing young athletes has the greatest incidence of repair by a significant margin.

Level Of Evidence: IV, Therapeutic Case Series.
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April 2021

Talonavicular Joint-Sparing 3D Printed Navicular Replacement for Osteonecrosis of the Navicular.

Foot Ankle Int 2021 09 31;42(9):1197-1204. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Pathology of the navicular can be a difficult entity to treat, particularly when the injury has progressed to osteonecrosis. While various nonoperative and operative modalities have been described, the emerging field of additive manufacturing has become a potential solution to this difficult problem in certain scenarios. While these implants have largely been used for fusion in the past, the concept of joint sparing with 3D printed implants is also emerging, and this case highlights a patient treated with a talonavicular joint-sparing, patient-specific 3D printed total navicular replacement.
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September 2021

Increasing age and modifiable comorbidities are associated with short-term complications after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, 4709 Creekstone Drive, Durham, NC, 27703, USA.

Background: Ankle fractures are common orthopedic injuries with complication rates fixation of up to 40%. Limited evidence exists in the literature regarding complications in the elderly population, and moreover, these studies frequently define elderly arbitrarily at 60-65 years old. The purpose of the present study was to utilize a large, validated database to evaluate whether there is an inflection point of age when postoperative complications after an ankle fracture significantly increase.

Methods: A retrospective review of all patients in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database who underwent fixation of an ankle fracture between 2012 and 2018 was performed. Patients were identified within the database using the Current Procedural Terminology codes. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed with p value less than 0.05 considered statistically significant.

Results: A total of 27,633 fractures were including and comprised of 221 posterior malleolar, 1567 medial malleolar, 8495 lateral malleolar, 10,175 bimalleolar, and 7175 trimalleolar. A total of 1545 complications were encountered (5.6%). There was a statistically significant association between increasing age and complications (OR = 1.03; p < 0.001). Further analysis shows the largest spike in complications within the age 78 + bracket. There were no overall interaction effects between age and fracture subtype (p = 0.223).

Conclusion: ORIF of ankle fractures is a common orthopedic procedure performed on patients of all ages, with complications ranging in severity. In order to best counsel patients on their individual postoperative risks, large datasets are often necessary to prognosticate. This study found that postoperative complications increase with advanced age. The incidence of complications did not spike for patients around the age of 65, but rather followed an incremental linear pattern with the largest increase in odds ratio occurring at age 78 and above. Complication rate was not associated with specific fracture type based off of ICD codes.
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March 2021

The Intrarater and Inter-rater Reliability of Radiographic Evaluation of the Posterior Tibial Slope in Pediatric Patients.

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Jul;41(6):e404-e410

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ortho Carolina, Durham, NC.

Background: In young athletes, an association exists between an increased posterior tibial slope (PTS) and the risk of primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, ACL graft rupture, contralateral ACL injury, and inferior patient reported outcomes after ACL reconstruction. In spite of this, there is no consensus on the optimal measurement method for PTS in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of previously described radiographic PTS measurement techniques.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 130 patients with uninjured knees between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The medial PTS was measured on lateral knee radiographs by four blinded reviewers using three previously described methods: the anterior tibial cortex (ATC), posterior tibial cortex (PTC), and the proximal tibia anatomic axis (PTAA). The radiographs were graded by each reviewer twice, performed 2 weeks apart. The intrarater and inter-rater reliability were assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Subgroup analyses were then performed stratifying by patient age and sex.

Results: The mean PTS were significantly different based on measurement method: 12.5 degrees [confidence interval (CI): 12.2-12.9 degrees] for ATC, 7.6 degrees (CI: 7.3-7.9 degrees) for PTC, and 9.3 degrees (CI: 9.0-9.6 degrees) for PTAA (P<0.0001). Measures of intrarater reliability was excellent among all reviewers across all 3 methods of measuring the PTS with a mean ICC of 0.87 (range: 0.82 to 0.92) for ATC, 0.83 (range: 0.82 to 0.87) for PTC, and 0.88 (range: 0.79 to 0.92) for PTAA. The inter-rater reliability was good with a mean ICC of 0.69 (range: 0.62 to 0.83) for the ATC, 0.63 (range: 0.52 to 0.83) for the PTC, and 0.62 (range: 0.37 to 0.84) for the PTAA. Using PTAA referencing, the PTS was greater for older patients: 9.9 degrees (CI: 7.7-9.4 degrees) vs 8.5 degrees (CI: 9.2-10.7 degrees) (P=0.0157) and unaffected by sex: 9.5 degrees (CI: 8.8-10.1 degrees) for females and 9.0 degrees (CI: 8.0-10.0) for males (P=0.4199). There were no major differences in intrarater or inter-rater reliability based on age or sex.

Conclusions: While the absolute PTS value varies by measurement technique, all methods demonstrated an intrarater reliability of 0.83 to 0.88 and inter-rater reliability of 0.61 to 0.69. However, this study highlights the need to identify PTS metrics in children with increased inter-rater reliability.

Level Of Evidence: IV, Case series.
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July 2021

Prosthetic Joint Infection After Dental Work: Is the Correct Prophylaxis Being Prescribed? A Systematic Review.

Arthroplast Today 2021 Feb 9;7:69-75. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) of total hip (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after dental procedures is uncommon, and antibiotic prophylaxis remains controversial. For high-risk patients, the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons recommends amoxicillin prophylaxis. However, no systematic review of the literature of PJIs associated with dental procedures explores if amoxicillin is suitable for the reported organisms.

Methods: A librarian-assisted search of the major databases (PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus) identified 954 articles. Only case reports, case series, and reviews with patient level data were included. After exclusions, 79 articles were fully reviewed.

Results: Forty-four PJIs after dental procedures were identified, 22 in primary THA, 20 in primary TKA, one in revision THA, and one in a hip resurfacing procedure. Antibiotic prophylaxis was documented for 5 patients. The dental procedure was invasive in 35 (79.5%). Comorbidities were present in 17 patients (38.7%). The organisms reported were . in 44%, other aerobic gram-positives in 27%, anaerobic gram-positives in 18%, and gram-negative organisms in 11%. An estimated 46% of organisms may be resistant to amoxicillin. The outcomes of treatment were reported for 35 patients (79.5%). Twenty-seven patients (61.4%) had no clinical signs of PJI at the final follow-up visit.

Conclusions: Lower extremity PJI associated with dental procedures is often caused by organisms unlikely to be prevented with amoxicillin. Additional studies are warranted to determine the choice and efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent dental-associated PJI in the highest risk patients. Insufficient data exist to recommend the optimal treatment for patients with PJI in THA and TKA associated with dental procedures.
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February 2021