Publications by authors named "Richard Latchaw"

34 Publications

Epidural Interventions in the Management of Chronic Spinal Pain: American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) Comprehensive Evidence-Based Guidelines.

Pain Physician 2021 01;24(S1):S27-S208

, Advanced Pain Institute, Covington, LA.

Background: Chronic spinal pain is the most prevalent chronic disease with employment of multiple modes of interventional techniques including epidural interventions. Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs), observational studies, systematic reviews, and guidelines have been published. The recent review of the utilization patterns and expenditures show that there has been a decline in utilization of epidural injections with decrease in inflation adjusted costs from 2009 to 2018. The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) published guidelines for interventional techniques in 2013, and guidelines for facet joint interventions in 2020. Consequently, these guidelines have been prepared to update previously existing guidelines.

Objective: To provide evidence-based guidance in performing therapeutic epidural procedures, including caudal, interlaminar in lumbar, cervical, and thoracic spinal regions, transforaminal in lumbar spine, and percutaneous adhesiolysis in the lumbar spine.

Methods: The methodology utilized included the development of objective and key questions with utilization of trustworthy standards. The literature pertaining to all aspects of epidural interventions was viewed with best evidence synthesis of available literature and  recommendations were provided.

Results: In preparation of the guidelines, extensive literature review was performed. In addition to review of multiple manuscripts in reference to utilization, expenditures, anatomical and pathophysiological considerations, pharmacological and harmful effects of drugs and procedures, for evidence synthesis we have included 47 systematic reviews and 43 RCTs covering all epidural interventions to meet the objectives.The evidence recommendations are as follows: Disc herniation: Based on relevant, high-quality fluoroscopically guided epidural injections, with or without steroids, and results of previous systematic reviews, the evidence is Level I for caudal epidural injections, lumbar interlaminar epidural injections, lumbar transforaminal epidural injections, and cervical interlaminar epidural injections with strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.The evidence for percutaneous adhesiolysis in managing disc herniation based on one high-quality, placebo-controlled RCT is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement in patients nonresponsive to conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections. For thoracic disc herniation, based on one relevant, high-quality RCT of thoracic epidural with fluoroscopic guidance, with or without steroids, the evidence is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.Spinal stenosis: The evidence based on one high-quality RCT in each category the evidence is Level III to II for fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural injections with moderate to strong recommendation and Level II for fluoroscopically guided lumbar and cervical interlaminar epidural injections with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.The evidence for lumbar transforaminal epidural injections is Level IV to III with moderate recommendation with fluoroscopically guided lumbar transforaminal epidural injections for long-term improvement. The evidence for percutaneous adhesiolysis in lumbar stenosis based on relevant, moderate to high quality RCTs, observational studies, and systematic reviews is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement after failure of conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections. Axial discogenic pain: The evidence for axial discogenic pain without facet joint pain or sacroiliac joint pain in the lumbar and cervical spine with fluoroscopically guided caudal, lumbar and cervical interlaminar epidural injections, based on one relevant high quality RCT in each category is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement, with or without steroids. Post-surgery syndrome: The evidence for lumbar and cervical post-surgery syndrome based on one relevant, high-quality RCT with fluoroscopic guidance for caudal and cervical interlaminar epidural injections, with or without steroids, is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement. For percutaneous adhesiolysis, based on multiple moderate to high-quality RCTs and systematic reviews, the evidence is Level I with strong recommendation for long-term improvement after failure of conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections.

Limitations: The limitations of these guidelines include a continued paucity of high-quality studies for some techniques and various conditions including spinal stenosis, post-surgery syndrome, and discogenic pain.

Conclusions: These epidural intervention guidelines including percutaneous adhesiolysis were prepared with a comprehensive review of the literature with methodologic quality assessment and determination of level of evidence with strength of recommendations.
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January 2021

Comprehensive Evidence-Based Guidelines for Facet Joint Interventions in the Management of Chronic Spinal Pain: American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) Guidelines Facet Joint Interventions 2020 Guidelines.

Pain Physician 2020 05;23(3S):S1-S127

Axis Spine Center, Coeur d'Alene, ID.

Background: Chronic axial spinal pain is one of the major causes of significant disability and health care costs, with facet joints as one of the proven causes of pain.

Objective: To provide evidence-based guidance in performing diagnostic and therapeutic facet joint interventions.

Methods: The methodology utilized included the development of objectives and key questions with utilization of trustworthy standards. The literature pertaining to all aspects of facet joint interventions, was reviewed, with a best evidence synthesis of available literature and utilizing grading for recommendations.Summary of Evidence and Recommendations:Non-interventional diagnosis: • The level of evidence is II in selecting patients for facet joint nerve blocks at least 3 months after onset and failure of conservative management, with strong strength of recommendation for physical examination and clinical assessment. • The level of evidence is IV for accurate diagnosis of facet joint pain with physical examination based on symptoms and signs, with weak strength of recommendation. Imaging: • The level of evidence is I with strong strength of recommendation, for mandatory fluoroscopic or computed tomography (CT) guidance for all facet joint interventions. • The level of evidence is III with weak strength of recommendation for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) . • The level of evidence is V with weak strength of recommendation for scintography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) .Interventional Diagnosis:Lumbar Spine: • The level of evidence is I to II with moderate to strong strength of recommendation for lumbar diagnostic facet joint nerve blocks. • Ten relevant diagnostic accuracy studies with 4 of 10 studies utilizing controlled comparative local anesthetics with concordant pain relief criterion standard of ≥80% were included. • The prevalence rates ranged from 27% to 40% with false-positive rates of 27% to 47%, with ≥80% pain relief.Cervical Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation. • Ten relevant diagnostic accuracy studies, 9 of the 10 studies with either controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks or placebo controls with concordant pain relief with a criterion standard of ≥80% were included. • The prevalence and false-positive rates ranged from 29% to 60% and of 27% to 63%, with high variability. Thoracic Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation. • Three relevant diagnostic accuracy studies, with controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks, with concordant pain relief, with a criterion standard of ≥80% were included. • The prevalence varied from 34% to 48%, whereas false-positive rates varied from 42% to 58%.Therapeutic Facet Joint Interventions: Lumbar Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for lumbar radiofrequency ablation with inclusion of 11 relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 2 negative studies and 4 studies with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for therapeutic lumbar facet joint nerve blocks with inclusion of 3 relevant randomized controlled trials, with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is IV with weak strength of recommendation for lumbar facet joint intraarticular injections with inclusion of 9 relevant randomized controlled trials, with majority of them showing lack of effectiveness without the use of local anesthetic. Cervical Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for cervical radiofrequency ablation with inclusion of one randomized controlled trial with positive results and 2 observational studies with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for therapeutic cervical facet joint nerve blocks with inclusion of one relevant randomized controlled trial and 3 observational studies, with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is V with weak strength of recommendation for cervical intraarticular facet joint injections with inclusion of 3 relevant randomized controlled trials, with 2 observational studies, the majority showing lack of effectiveness, whereas one study with 6-month follow-up, showed lack of long-term improvement. Thoracic Spine: • The level of evidence is III with weak to moderate strength of recommendation with emerging evidence for thoracic radiofrequency ablation with inclusion of one relevant randomized controlled trial and 3 observational studies. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for thoracic therapeutic facet joint nerve blocks with inclusion of 2 randomized controlled trials and one observational study with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is III with weak to moderate strength of recommendation for thoracic intraarticular facet joint injections with inclusion of one randomized controlled trial with 6 month follow-up, with emerging evidence. Antithrombotic Therapy: • Facet joint interventions are considered as moderate to low risk procedures; consequently, antithrombotic therapy may be continued based on overall general status. Sedation: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation to avoid opioid analgesics during the diagnosis with interventional techniques. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation that moderate sedation may be utilized for patient comfort and to control anxiety for therapeutic facet joint interventions.

Limitations: The limitations of these guidelines include a paucity of high-quality studies in the majority of aspects of diagnosis and therapy.

Conclusions: These facet joint intervention guidelines were prepared with a comprehensive review of the literature with methodologic quality assessment with determination of level of evidence and strength of recommendations.

Key Words: Chronic spinal pain, interventional techniques, diagnostic blocks, therapeutic interventions, facet joint nerve blocks, intraarticular injections, radiofrequency neurolysis.
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May 2020

CNS Vasculitis-An Overview of This Multiple Sclerosis Mimic: Clinical and MRI Implications.

Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2020 Jun 29;41(3):296-308. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA.

This article discusses central nervous system vasculitis, a clinical and MRI mimic of multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a paucity of discussion of vasculitis in the radiology literature, and many MS neurologists believe that vasculitis is underdiagnosed. Therefore, the authors hope that the readers will find this paper increases their knowledge about CNS vasculitis and improves their ability to differentiate MS from vasculitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.sult.2020.02.004DOI Listing
June 2020

What Can Mimic Multiple Sclerosis?

Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2020 Jun 29;41(3):284-295. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA.

This article discusses mimics of multiple sclerosis (MS). Excluded in this discussion are neuromyelitis optica and vasculitis, discussed in other articles in this journal. Covered entities include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, reversible vasoconstriction syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Sussac's Syndrome, and chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy. There are also multiple infectious entities that mimic MS including; progressive multi-focal leukoencephalopathy (PML), Toxoplasmosis, Tuberculosis, Herpes Simplex Virus, Cytomegalovirus, Varicella zoster virus, Epstein Barr virus, Cryptococcus and Human immunodeficiency virus. In addition, there are leukoencephalopathies that can present in adulthood including Adrenoleukodystrophy, Metachromatic leukodystrophy, Cerebral autosomal dominant idiopathic leukoencephalopathy, Leigh's and Alexanders disease that could be mistaken for MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.sult.2020.02.003DOI Listing
June 2020

Bone Marrow Concentrate (BMC) Therapy in Musculoskeletal Disorders: Evidence-Based Policy Position Statement of American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP).

Pain Physician 2020 03;23(2):E85-E131

Pain Management Centers of America.

Background: The use of bone marrow concentrate (BMC) for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders has become increasingly popular over the last several years, as technology has improved along with the need for better solutions for these pathologies. The use of cellular tissue raises a number of issues regarding the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) regulation in classifying these treatments as a drug versus just autologous tissue transplantation. In the case of BMC in musculoskeletal and spine care, this determination will likely hinge on whether BMC is homologous to the musculoskeletal system and spine.

Objectives: The aim of this review is to describe the current regulatory guidelines set in place by the FDA, specifically the terminology around "minimal manipulation" and "homologous use" within Regulation 21 CFR Part 1271, and specifically how this applies to the use of BMC in interventional musculoskeletal medicine.

Methods: The methodology utilized here is similar to the methodology utilized in preparation of multiple guidelines employing the experience of a panel of experts from various medical specialties and subspecialties from differing regions of the world. The collaborators who developed these position statements have submitted their appropriate disclosures of conflicts of interest. Trustworthy standards were employed in the creation of these position statements. The literature pertaining to BMC, its effectiveness, adverse consequences, FDA regulations, criteria for meeting the standards of minimal manipulation, and homologous use were comprehensively reviewed using a best evidence synthesis of the available and relevant literature. RESULTS/Summary of Evidence: In conjunction with evidence-based medicine principles, the following position statements were developed: Statement 1: Based on a review of the literature in discussing the preparation of BMC using accepted methodologies, there is strong evidence of minimal manipulation in its preparation, and moderate evidence for homologous utility for various musculoskeletal and spinal conditions qualifies for the same surgical exemption. Statement 2: Assessment of clinical effectiveness based on extensive literature shows emerging evidence for multiple musculoskeletal and spinal conditions. • The evidence is highest for knee osteoarthritis with level II evidence based on relevant systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized studies. There is level III evidence for knee cartilage conditions. • Based on the relevant systematic reviews, randomized trials, and nonrandomized studies, the evidence for disc injections is level III. • Based on the available literature without appropriate systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials, the evidence for all other conditions is level IV or limited for BMC injections. Statement 3: Based on an extensive review of the literature, there is strong evidence for the safety of BMC when performed by trained physicians with the appropriate precautions under image guidance utilizing a sterile technique. Statement 4: Musculoskeletal disorders and spinal disorders with related disability for economic and human toll, despite advancements with a wide array of treatment modalities. Statement 5: The 21st Century Cures Act was enacted in December 2016 with provisions to accelerate the development and translation of promising new therapies into clinical evaluation and use. Statement 6: Development of cell-based therapies is rapidly proliferating in a number of disease areas, including musculoskeletal disorders and spine. With mixed results, these therapies are greatly outpacing the evidence. The reckless publicity with unsubstantiated claims of beneficial outcomes having putative potential, and has led the FDA Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to issue multiple warnings. Thus the US FDA is considering the appropriateness of using various therapies, including BMC, for homologous use. Statement 7: Since the 1980's and the description of mesenchymal stem cells by Caplan et al, (now called medicinal signaling cells), the use of BMC in musculoskeletal and spinal disorders has been increasing in the management of pain and promoting tissue healing. Statement 8: The Public Health Service Act (PHSA) of the FDA requires minimal manipulation under same surgical procedure exemption. Homologous use of BMC in musculoskeletal and spinal disorders is provided by preclinical and clinical evidence. Statement 9: If the FDA does not accept BMC as homologous, then it will require an Investigational New Drug (IND) classification with FDA (351) cellular drug approval for use. Statement 10: This literature review and these position statements establish compliance with the FDA's intent and corroborates its present description of BMC as homologous with same surgical exemption, and exempt from IND, for use of BMC for treatment of musculoskeletal tissues, such as cartilage, bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons, and spinal discs.

Conclusions: Based on the review of all available and pertinent literature, multiple position statements have been developed showing that BMC in musculoskeletal disorders meets the criteria of minimal manipulation and homologous use.

Key Words: Cell-based therapies, bone marrow concentrate, mesenchymal stem cells, medicinal signaling cells, Food and Drug Administration, human cells, tissues, and cellular tissue-based products, Public Health Service Act (PHSA), minimal manipulation, homologous use, same surgical procedure exemption.
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March 2020

Responsible, Safe, and Effective Use of Antithrombotics and Anticoagulants in Patients Undergoing Interventional Techniques: American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) Guidelines.

Pain Physician 2019 01;22(1S):S75-S128

MGH Center for Pain Medicine, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Background: Interventional pain management involves diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain. This specialty utilizes minimally invasive procedures to target therapeutics to the central nervous system and the spinal column. A subset of patients encountered in interventional pain are medicated using anticoagulant or antithrombotic drugs to mitigate thrombosis risk. Since these drugs target the clotting system, bleeding risk is a consideration accompanying interventional procedures. Importantly, discontinuation of anticoagulant or antithrombotic drugs exposes underlying thrombosis risk, which can lead to significant morbidity and mortality especially in those with coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease. This review summarizes the literature and provides guidelines based on best evidence for patients receiving anti-clotting therapy during interventional pain procedures.

Study Design: Best evidence synthesis.

Objective: To provide a current and concise appraisal of the literature regarding an assessment of the bleeding risk during interventional techniques for patients taking anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic medications.

Methods: A review of the available literature published on bleeding risk during interventional pain procedures, practice patterns and perioperative management of anticoagulant and antithrombotic therapy was conducted. Data sources included relevant literature identified through searches of EMBASE and PubMed from 1966 through August 2018 and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles.

Results: 1. There is good evidence for risk stratification by categorizing multiple interventional techniques into low-risk, moderate-risk, and high-risk. Also, their risk should be upgraded based on other risk factors.2. There is good evidence for the risk of thromboembolic events in patients who interrupt antithrombotic therapy. 3. There is good evidence supporting discontinuation of low dose aspirin for high risk and moderate risk procedures for at least 3 days, and there is moderate evidence that these may be continued for low risk or some intermediate risk procedures.4. There is good evidence that discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy with warfarin, heparin, dabigatran (Pradaxa®), argatroban (Acova®), bivalirudin (Angiomax®), lepirudin (Refludan®), desirudin (Iprivask®), hirudin, apixaban (Eliquis®), rivaroxaban (Xarelto®), edoxaban (Savaysa®, Lixiana®), Betrixaban(Bevyxxa®), fondaparinux (Arixtra®) prior to interventional techniques with individual consideration of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drugs and individual risk factors increases safety.5. There is good evidence that diagnosis of epidural hematoma is based on severe pain at the site of the injection, rapid neurological deterioration, and MRI with surgical decompression with progressive neurological dysfunction to avoid neurological sequelae.6. There is good evidence that if thromboembolic risk is high, low molecular weight heparin bridge therapy can be instituted during cessation of the anticoagulant, and the low molecular weight heparin can be discontinued 24 hours before the pain procedure.7. There is fair evidence that the risk of thromboembolic events is higher than that of epidural hematoma formation with the interruption of antiplatelet therapy preceding interventional techniques, though both risks are significant.8. There is fair evidence that multiple variables including anatomic pathology with spinal stenosis and ankylosing spondylitis; high risk procedures and moderate risk procedures combined with anatomic risk factors; bleeding observed during the procedure, and multiple attempts during the procedures increase the risk for bleeding complications and epidural hematoma.9. There is fair evidence that discontinuation of phosphodiesterase inhibitors is optional (dipyridamole [Persantine], cilostazol [Pletal]. However, there is also fair evidence to discontinue Aggrenox [dipyridamole plus aspirin]) 3 days prior to undergoing interventional techniques of moderate and high risk. 10. There is fair evidence to make shared decision making between the patient and the treating physicians with the treating physician and to consider all the appropriate risks associated with continuation or discontinuation of antithrombotic or anticoagulant therapy.11. There is fair evidence that if thromboembolic risk is high antithrombotic therapy may be resumed 12 hours after the interventional procedure is performed.12. There is limited evidence that discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel [Plavix®], ticlopidine [Ticlid®], Ticagrelor [Brilinta®] and prasugrel [Effient®]) avoids complications of significant bleeding and epidural hematomas.13. There is very limited evidence supporting the continuation or discontinuation of most NSAIDs, excluding aspirin, for 1 to 2 days and some 4 to 10 days, since these are utilized for pain management without cardiac or cerebral protective effect.

Limitations: The continued paucity of the literature with discordant recommendations.

Conclusion: Based on the survey of current literature, and published clinical guidelines, recommendations for patients presenting with ongoing antithrombotic therapy prior to interventional techniques are variable, and are based on comprehensive analysis of each patient and the risk-benefit analysis of intervention.

Key Words: Perioperative bleeding, bleeding risk, practice patterns, anticoagulant therapy, antithrombotic therapy, interventional techniques, safety precautions, pain.
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January 2019

Responsible, Safe, and Effective Use of Biologics in the Management of Low Back Pain: American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) Guidelines.

Pain Physician 2019 01;22(1S):S1-S74

Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: Regenerative medicine is a medical subspecialty that seeks to recruit and enhance the body's own inherent healing armamentarium in the treatment of patient pathology. This therapy's intention is to assist in the repair, and to potentially replace or restore damaged tissue through the use of autologous or allogenic biologics. This field is rising like a Phoenix from the ashes of underperforming conventional therapy midst the hopes and high expectations of patients and medical personnel alike. But, because this is a relatively new area of medicine that has yet to substantiate its outcomes, care must be taken in its public presentation and promises as well as in its use.

Objective: To provide guidance for the responsible, safe, and effective use of biologic therapy in the lumbar spine. To present a template on which to build standardized therapies using biologics. To ground potential administrators of biologics in the knowledge of the current outcome statistics and to stimulate those interested in providing biologic therapy to participate in high quality research that will ultimately promote and further advance this area of medicine.

Methods: The methodology used has included the development of objectives and key questions. A panel of experts from various medical specialties and subspecialties as well as differing regions collaborated in the formation of these guidelines and submitted (if any) their appropriate disclosures of conflicts of interest. Trustworthy standards were employed in the creation of these guidelines. The literature pertaining to regenerative medicine, its effectiveness, and adverse consequences was thoroughly reviewed using a best evidence synthesis of the available literature. The grading for recommendation was provided as described by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ).

Summary Of Evidence: Lumbar Disc Injections: Based on the available evidence regarding the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), including one high-quality randomized controlled trial (RCT), multiple moderate-quality observational studies, a single-arm meta-analysis and evidence from a systematic review, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level III (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best-evidence synthesis. Based on the available evidence regarding the use of medicinal signaling/ mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) with a high-quality RCT, multiple moderate-quality observational studies, a single-arm meta-analysis, and 2 systematic reviews, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level III (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis. Lumbar Epidural Injections Based on one high-quality RCT, multiple relevant moderate-quality observational studies and a single-arm meta-analysis, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level IV (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis. Lumbar Facet Joint Injections Based on one high-quality RCT and 2 moderate-quality observational studies, the qualitative evidence for facet joint injections with PRP has been assessed as Level IV (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis. Sacroiliac Joint Injection Based on one high-quality RCT, one moderate-quality observational study, and one low-quality case report, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level IV (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis.

Conclusion: Based on the evidence synthesis summarized above, there is Level III evidence for intradiscal injections of PRP and MSCs, whereas the evidence is considered Level IV for lumbar facet joint, lumbar epidural, and sacroiliac joint injections of PRP, (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis.Regenerative therapy should be provided to patients following diagnostic evidence of a need for biologic therapy, following a thorough discussion of the patient's needs and expectations, after properly educating the patient on the use and administration of biologics and in full light of the patient's medical history. Regenerative therapy may be provided independently or in conjunction with other modalities of treatment including a structured exercise program, physical therapy, behavioral therapy, and along with the appropriate conventional medical therapy as necessary. Appropriate precautions should be taken into consideration and followed prior to performing biologic therapy. Multiple guidelines from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), potential limitations in the use of biologic therapy and the appropriate requirements for compliance with the FDA have been detailed in these guidelines.

Key Words: Regenerative medicine, platelet-rich plasma, medicinal signaling cells, mesenchymal stem cells, stromal vascular fraction, bone marrow concentrate, chronic low back pain, discogenic pain, facet joint pain, Food and Drug Administration, minimal manipulation, evidence synthesis.
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January 2019

Imaging the Cervical Vasculature.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2017 May - Jun;59(6):555-584. Epub 2017 May 22.

Radiology Research and Consultation, Sacramento, CA 95864.

There are many ways to image the cervical vasculature. Each of the imaging techniques will be discussed in detail, including the method of performance, the quality of the images, the advantages and disadvantages compared to other techniques, and the potential complications. The disease entities will be discussed and illustrated with pathologically and clinically proven case material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2017.05.007DOI Listing
July 2017

Ectopic Acromegaly Arising from a Pituitary Adenoma within the Bony Intersphenoid Septum of a Patient with Empty Sella Syndrome.

J Neurol Surg Rep 2016 Jul;77(3):e113-7

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, United States.

Objective: To describe the work-up and treatment of rare ectopic acromegaly caused by a biopsy-proven somatotroph pituitary adenoma located within the bony intersphenoid septum of a patient with empty sella syndrome (ESS).

Methods: We report the presentation, clinical course, diagnostic work-up, and lesion localization and treatment challenges encountered in a 55-year-old patient, with a brief review of relevant literature.

Results: A 55-year-old African-American man presented with acromegaly and ESS. Attempts to definitively localize the causative tumor were unsuccessful, though petrosal sinus sampling supported central growth hormone production and imaging suggested bone-enclosed subsellar pituitary tissue. Endoscopic endonasal transphenoidal exploration was undertaken with resection of a somatotroph pituitary microadenoma, and subsequent clinical improvement and biochemical remission. Retrospective review revealed the patient's pituitary to have been located ectopically within a unique bony intersphenoid septum.

Conclusion: This report describes the first known case of an ectopic pituitary adenoma located within the midline bony intersphenoid septum, which we postulate to have resulted from anomalous embryological pituitary migration. Intra-intersphenoid septal tumors should be considered in cases of apparent central acromegaly with ESS or absence of tumor tissue within the paranasal sinuses or other peripheral locations.

Indexing: Acromegaly, ESS, pituitary adenoma, sphenoid sinus septum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0036-1585091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4958022PMC
July 2016

Initial clinical use of a novel mechanical thrombectomy device, XCOILTM, in hemodialysis graft and fistula declot procedures.

Diagn Interv Radiol 2016 May-Jun;22(3):257-62

Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Radiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a novel catheter-based mechanical thrombectomy device, XCOILTM, as a first line therapy to restore patency of thrombosed dialysis grafts and fistulae.

Methods: In 2010, 18 consecutive/sequential patients (11 male, 7 female; median age, 52 years; age range, 32-69 years) with occluded arteriovenous grafts (n=15) or fistulae (n=3) were treated with XCOILTM (NexGen Medical Systems Inc.) without adjunctive thrombolytic drugs. XCOILTM was advanced distal to the thrombus within the outflow vein as well as distal to the arterial inflow platelet thrombin plug, using a 4F angiographic catheter. The percentage of thrombus cleared, primary patency, procedure time, and XCOILTM performance were documented.

Results: Thrombosis occurred 1-30 days prior to the procedure. Thrombosed segments of graft/fistula measured 10-50 cm. Pre- and postprocedure angiography demonstrated that in 15 of 18 cases (83%) XCOILTM removed 80%-100% of the venous outflow thrombus. In 11 of 14 cases (79%), the platelet thrombin plug was also removed. Thrombectomy procedure time averaged 8 min, with one to three passes with the XCOILTM required. No evidence of distal embolization or graft/vessel injury was found on angiography following clot removal. In four cases in whom patency was not restored with XCOILTM, subsequent use of other clot removal devices also failed to restore patency. In one case with severe venous stenosis, the device failed to deploy and the thrombus was not captured. No intraprocedural complications related to XCOILTM use occurred.

Conclusion: XCOILTM is an effective and safe first-line therapy option for the treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis grafts/fistulae. Rapid removal of intact thrombus and platelet thrombin plug can be achieved without adjunctive thrombolytics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/dir.2015.15158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4859742PMC
May 2017

Temporal evolution on MRI of successful treatment of rabies.

Clin Imaging 2015 Sep-Oct;39(5):893-6. Epub 2015 Apr 25.

Department of Radiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3100, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.

Rabies is a nearly uniformly fatal disease for individuals who develop clinical symptoms. We report a case of a patient with paralytic rabies who survived after being treated with what is now known as Milwaukee protocol. This is only the third known case of rabies survival after being treated with the protocol. We present sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the brain and lumbar spine throughout the course of her treatment. In doing so, we provide insight into the temporal evolution of MRI findings in the brain and lumbar spine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2015.04.013DOI Listing
May 2016

Antegrade rheolytic thrombectomy and thrombolysis for superior sagittal sinus thrombosis using burr hole access.

J Neurointerv Surg 2015 Mar 3;7(3):e11. Epub 2014 Apr 3.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California, USA.

Superior sagittal sinus (SSS) thrombosis has high morbidity and mortality, and urgent recanalization is critical for severe cases. Standard endovascular techniques for thrombolysis and thrombectomy use retrograde venous access, an approach that may be unsuccessful in cases with extensive firm clot burden involving the dural sinuses distal to the SSS. An anterior open transcranial approach to the SSS for catheter sheath placement to facilitate antegrade mechanical thrombectomy and thrombolysis of the SSS and more distal sinuses has not been previously described. Here we describe a case in which multiple unsuccessful attempts at retrograde endovascular access were attempted. Thus, a burr hole over the anterior SSS was performed for daily endovascular antegrade procedures using the Angiojet rheolytic catheter device and chemical thrombolysis. Near-complete recanalization of the SSS was achieved with venous outflow via dilated left transverse and left sigmoid sinuses, along with significant collateral flow in multiple cerebral veins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2013-011087.repDOI Listing
March 2015

Antegrade rheolytic thrombectomy and thrombolysis for superior sagittal sinus thrombosis using burr hole access.

BMJ Case Rep 2014 Apr 1;2014. Epub 2014 Apr 1.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California, USA.

Superior sagittal sinus (SSS) thrombosis has high morbidity and mortality, and urgent recanalization is critical for severe cases. Standard endovascular techniques for thrombolysis and thrombectomy use retrograde venous access, an approach that may be unsuccessful in cases with extensive firm clot burden involving the dural sinuses distal to the SSS. An anterior open transcranial approach to the SSS for catheter sheath placement to facilitate antegrade mechanical thrombectomy and thrombolysis of the SSS and more distal sinuses has not been previously described. Here we describe a case in which multiple unsuccessful attempts at retrograde endovascular access were attempted. Thus, a burr hole over the anterior SSS was performed for daily endovascular antegrade procedures using the Angiojet rheolytic catheter device and chemical thrombolysis. Near-complete recanalization of the SSS was achieved with venous outflow via dilated left transverse and left sigmoid sinuses, along with significant collateral flow in multiple cerebral veins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2013-011087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3987304PMC
April 2014

Formation and function of acute stroke-ready hospitals within a stroke system of care recommendations from the brain attack coalition.

Stroke 2013 Dec 12;44(12):3382-93. Epub 2013 Nov 12.

From the Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas (M.J.A.); Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, PA (L.R.W.); Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging (M.E.L.J.), Department of Neurology (D.G.), University of Virginia, Charlottesville; Department of Radiology, UC Davis Medical Center (R.E.L.); Department of Emergency Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown (T.J.C.); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (M.G.G.); National Stroke Association, Englewood, CO (J.B.); National Association of EMS Officials, Falls Church, VA (R.R.B.); Department of Neurology, VA Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (R.L.R.); Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (J.H.); Inova, Inc, San Diego, CA (B.M.); American Heart Association, Dallas, TX (T.G.); and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD (M.E., M.W., M.D.W.).

Background And Purpose: Many patients with an acute stroke live in areas without ready access to a Primary or Comprehensive Stroke Center. The formation of care facilities that meet the needs of these patients might improve their care and outcomes and guide them and emergency responders to such centers within a stroke system of care.

Methods: The Brain Attack Coalition conducted an electronic search of the English medical literature from January 2000 to December 2012 to identify care elements and processes shown to be beneficial for acute stroke care. We used evidence grading and consensus paradigms to synthesize recommendations for Acute Stroke-Ready Hospitals (ASRHs).

Results: Several key elements for an ASRH were identified, including acute stroke teams, written care protocols, involvement of emergency medical services and emergency department, and rapid laboratory and neuroimaging testing. Unique aspects include the use of telemedicine, hospital transfer protocols, and drip and ship therapies. Emergent therapies include the use of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator and the reversal of coagulopathies. Although many of the care elements are similar to those of a Primary Stroke Center, compliance rates of ≥67% are suggested in recognition of the staffing, logistical, and financial challenges faced by rural facilities.

Conclusions: ASRHs will form the foundation for acute stroke care in many settings. Recommended elements of an ASRH build on those proven to improve care and outcomes at Primary Stroke Centers. The ASRH will be a key component for patient care within an evolving stroke system of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.002285DOI Listing
December 2013

Anomalous vertebral artery injured during anterior cervical discectomy: a case report.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2013 Nov;38(24):E1567-70

*Department of Neurological Surgery, UC Davis Health System, Sacramento, CA; and †University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA.

Study Design: Case report.

Objective: To describe treatment and injury prevention from discectomy with a newly described vertebral artery anomaly.

Summary Of Background Data: Cervical segment vertebral artery (VA) anomalies of various types are described with the least common type involving erosion into the vertebral body medial to the uncinate process. The morphology of these includes return to the lateral position at the disc level where they have been immune to anterior cervical discectomy surgery. This case report demonstrates the first published account of a medial vertebral artery adjacent to a disc and injured by discectomy alone.VA injury is a serious complication with a significant percentage of neurological injury and death. The lesion was missed by a neuroradiologist reading the thin slice preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Subsequently, 6 additional specialists blinded to the study all missed the diagnosis. The difficulty of diagnosis is similar to another study where 6 neuroradiologists missed 100% of diagnosis of similar lesions on 49 MRI studies.

Methods: A 55-year-old female with left-sided weakness in the neck and shoulder and C5-C6 stenosis underwent anterior cervical microdiskectomy. When a fine-tipped drill bit was used to smoothen a slight convexity on the C6 endplate, high pressure and volume hemorrhage started. After tamponade, the patient was brought directly to angiography and CT scanning. Several days later, the patient underwent endovascular evaluation and stenting for a pseudoaneurysm.

Results: No neurological deficits occurred from the complication. Cervical discomfort and headache symptoms partially improved.

Conclusion: A previously undescribed medial vertebral artery anomaly involving the cervical disc level is documented with near disastrous hemorrhage from simple anterior discectomy. The rate of preoperative diagnosis from MRI scans is dismal. Preoperative studies should be scrutinized with suspicion and any questionable area studied further regardless of a negative diagnosis.

Level Of Evidence: N/A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0b013e3182a528e9DOI Listing
November 2013

Gadobutrol in the central nervous system at three doses: results from a phase II, randomized, multicenter trial.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2014 Feb 16;39(2):410-8. Epub 2013 May 16.

Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of three doses of gadobutrol and determine the minimum effective dose for contrast-enhanced MRI of the central nervous system (CNS).

Materials And Methods: This was a Phase II, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group controlled study in subjects referred for contrast-enhanced MRI of the CNS. Subjects were randomized to receive gadobutrol 0.03, 0.1, or 0.3 mmol/kg body weight, and underwent unenhanced, gadobutrol-enhanced, and comparator-enhanced MRI scans. Three blinded readers assessed the images. Primary efficacy variables were number of lesions detected, border delineation, contrast enhancement, and internal morphology.

Results: Of the 229 randomized subjects, 173 were evaluated for efficacy. Clinically meaningful improvements in lesion border delineation, contrast enhancement, and internal morphology were observed for 0.1 mmol/kg gadobutrol. Pair-wise comparisons of a composite score of the four primary variables showed the 0.1 mmol/kg dose to be statistically superior to the 0.03 mmol/kg dose (P = 0.003). The 0.3 mmol/kg dose showed no statistically significant difference with the 0.1 mmol/kg dose. Twenty-two (9.8%) subjects reported at least one treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE). No TEAE was reported at an incidence >3.5%.

Conclusion: The 0.1 mmol/kg dose of gadobutrol was effective and well tolerated for contrast-enhanced MRI of the CNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.24180DOI Listing
February 2014

Revised and updated recommendations for the establishment of primary stroke centers: a summary statement from the brain attack coalition.

Stroke 2011 Sep 25;42(9):2651-65. Epub 2011 Aug 25.

Northwestern University, 710 N Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Background And Purpose: The formation and certification of Primary Stroke Centers has progressed rapidly since the Brain Attack Coalition's original recommendations in 2000. The purpose of this article is to revise and update our recommendations for Primary Stroke Centers to reflect the latest data and experience.

Methods: We conducted a literature review using MEDLINE and PubMed from March 2000 to January 2011. The review focused on studies that were relevant for acute stroke diagnosis, treatment, and care. Original references as well as meta-analyses and other care guidelines were also reviewed and included if found to be valid and relevant. Levels of evidence were added to reflect current guideline development practices.

Results: Based on the literature review and experience at Primary Stroke Centers, the importance of some elements has been further strengthened, and several new areas have been added. These include (1) the importance of acute stroke teams; (2) the importance of Stroke Units with telemetry monitoring; (3) performance of brain imaging with MRI and diffusion-weighted sequences; (4) assessment of cerebral vasculature with MR angiography or CT angiography; (5) cardiac imaging; (6) early initiation of rehabilitation therapies; and (7) certification by an independent body, including a site visit and disease performance measures.

Conclusions: Based on the evidence, several elements of Primary Stroke Centers are particularly important for improving the care of patients with an acute stroke. Additional elements focus on imaging of the brain, the cerebral vasculature, and the heart. These new elements may improve the care and outcomes for patients with stroke cared for at a Primary Stroke Center.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.615336DOI Listing
September 2011

Risk factors for posttraumatic vasospasm.

J Neurosurg 2011 Sep 10;115(3):602-11. Epub 2011 Jun 10.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California 95817, USA.

Object: Posttraumatic vasospasm (PTV) is an underrecognized cause of ischemic damage after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) that independently predicts poor outcome. There are, however, no guidelines for PTV screening and management, partly due to limited understanding of its pathogenesis and risk factors.

Methods: A database review of 46 consecutive cases of severe TBI in pediatric and adult patients was conducted to identify risk factors for the development of PTV. Univariate analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors for PTV, which were subsequently analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Fever on admission was an independent risk factor for development of PTV (OR 22.2, 95% CI 1.9-256.8), and patients with hypothermia on admission did not develop clinically significant vasospasm during their hospital stay. The presence of small parenchymal contusions was also an independent risk factor for PTV (OR 7.8, 95% CI 0.9-69.5), whereas the presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage or other patterns of intracranial injury were not. Other variables, such as age, sex, ethnicity, degree of TBI severity, or admission laboratory values, were not independent predictors for the development of clinically significant PTV.

Conclusions: Independent risk factors for PTV include parenchymal contusions and fever. These results suggest that diffuse mechanical injury and activation of inflammatory pathways may be underlying mechanisms for the development of PTV, and that a subset of patients with these risk factors may be an appropriate population for aggressive screening. Further studies are needed to determine if treatments targeting fever and inflammation may be effective in reducing the incidence of vasospasm following severe TBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2011.5.JNS101667DOI Listing
September 2011

Metrics for measuring quality of care in comprehensive stroke centers: detailed follow-up to Brain Attack Coalition comprehensive stroke center recommendations: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

Stroke 2011 Mar 13;42(3):849-77. Epub 2011 Jan 13.

Background: Stroke is a major cause of disability and death. The Brain Attack Coalition has proposed establishment of primary and comprehensive stroke centers to provide appropriate care to stroke patients who require basic and more advanced interventions, respectively. Primary stroke centers have been designated by The Joint Commission since 2003, as well as by various states. The designation of comprehensive stroke centers (CSCs) is now being considered. To assist in this process, we propose a set of metrics and related data that CSCs should track to monitor the quality of care that they provide and to facilitate quality improvement.

Methods And Results: We analyzed available guideline statements, reviews, and other literature to identify the major features that distinguish CSCs from primary stroke centers, drafted a set of metrics and related data elements to measure the key components of these aspects of stroke care, and then revised these through an iterative process to reach a consensus. We propose a set of metrics and related data elements that cover the major aspects of specialized care for patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and nontraumatic subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhages at CSCs.

Conclusions: The metrics that we propose are intended to provide a framework for standardized data collection at CSCs to facilitate local quality improvement efforts and to allow for analysis of pooled data from different CSCs that may lead to development of national performance standards for CSCs in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STR.0b013e318208eb99DOI Listing
March 2011

A novel mechanical thrombectomy device for retrieval of intravascular thrombus.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2011 Apr 12;34(2):383-90. Epub 2010 Nov 12.

Department of Radiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.

Purpose: Thrombotic and embolic vascular occlusion represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Currently available thrombectomy devices have limitations, including difficulty removing organized thrombus and clot fragmentation with distal embolization. A novel mechanical thrombectomy device (MTD), designed to remove both hard and soft thrombus without trauma to the blood vessel, was tested in preclinical porcine models evaluating efficacy, safety, and ease of use.

Materials And Methods: A total of 26 vessels in 14 pigs underwent mechanical thrombectomy with MTD. Thrombectomy was performed in nine superficial femoral arteries, eight subclavian arteries, five primary branches of the subclavian artery, lateral thoracic artery or the thyrocervical trunk, and four external carotids. Subacute organized fibrin-laden thrombus was injected into the arteries producing vascular occlusion. The MTD was then used for thrombectomy to restore patency and blood flow.

Results: Intact thrombus was retrieved from 24 of 26 of the vessels with a single pass of the MTD, resulting in complete restoration of patency in 21 vessels and partial patency in 4 vessels. In 8 cases that used an early design, the embolic material fragmented during withdrawal from the access sheath. In 4 procedures that used an early design, the MTD failed to deploy fully and the embolus was not completely captured. No intraprocedural complications or vascular damage occurred.

Conclusions: The present pilot studies demonstrate basic safety and efficacy of a novel MTD with design attributes suitable for retrieval of intact acute and organized chronic thrombus. The device has potential intracranial and peripheral utility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-010-0024-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3058340PMC
April 2011

Dental hardware complicating diagnosis in refractory gelastic epilepsy secondary to hypothalamic hamartoma.

Clin EEG Neurosci 2010 Jul;41(3):151-4

Department of Neurology, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California, USA.

Hypothalamic hamartomas (HH) are developmental malformations of the hypothalamus associated with a potentially treatable epileptic encephalopathy, characterized by early onset gelastic seizures, the later development of multiple seizure types and progressive cognitive and behavioral decline. Surgical treatment of HH can lead to seizure control and improvement in the cognitive-behavioral syndrome. Video-EEG telemetry (VET) is often necessary to characterize the semiology of the seizures, but there are no specific interictal or ictal EEG pattems that will confirm the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can identify HH and define their anatomy, but the imaging findings may be subtle and susceptible to artifactual contamination. We present a patient with intractable gelastic epilepsy in whom the diagnosis of HH was initially missed due to failure to recognize the clinical syndrome and contamination of the MRI images with dental hardware artifact. VET confirmed the clinical diagnosis and the HH was identified on MRI after the dental hardware was removed. VET should be performed to confirm seizure semiology in patients with suspected gelastic epilepsy. Establishing this diagnosis can subsequently direct the appropriate neuroradiological evaluation for HH and surgical treatment of these lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/155005941004100309DOI Listing
July 2010

Delayed complication after embolotherapy of a vertebral arteriovenous fistula: spinal cord ischemia.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2010 Mar;21(3):392-3

Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Ste 3100, 4860 Y St, Sacramento CA 95618, USA.

Previous reports suggest a generally successful experience with embolotherapy of vertebral arteriovenous fistulas of the neck. However, potential complications do exist, as shown by this report documenting spinal cord ischemia secondary to compromise of a dominant spinal artery arising from the proximal aspect of the right vertebral artery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2009.11.008DOI Listing
March 2010

Posttraumatic vasospasm detected by continuous brain tissue oxygen monitoring: treatment with intraarterial verapamil and balloon angioplasty.

Neurocrit Care 2009 20;10(1):61-9. Epub 2008 Sep 20.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.

Introduction: Posttraumatic vasospasm (PTV) is a relatively common event following traumatic brain injury (TBI) that has been strongly correlated with worse neurological outcome in many studies. However, vasospasm continues to be an under-recognized source of secondary injury following TBI, and currently published guidelines do not address screening or management strategies for PTV. Brain tissue oxygen (P(bt)O(2)) monitoring probes allow for continuous screening for cerebral hypoxia following TBI, but their use as a monitor for PTV has not been previously described.

Methods: Case report and literature review.

Results: We present a case of PTV identified by persistent low P(bt)O(2) despite aggressive medical therapy. Computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography confirmed severe cerebral arterial vasospasm involving both anterior and posterior circulations. The patient was successfully treated with serial intraarterial therapy including balloon angioplasty and verapamil infusion.

Conclusion: Posttraumatic vasospasm should be included in the differential diagnosis of cerebral hypoxia (e.g., low P(bt)O(2)) following TBI. Management strategies for PTV may include early, aggressive intraarterial therapies including drug infusion and balloon angioplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-008-9138-zDOI Listing
March 2009

Bithalamic lesions of butane encephalopathy.

Pediatr Neurol 2006 Dec;35(6):439-41

Department of Neurology, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA.

Butane inhalation can cause serious medical complications and is particularly toxic to the nervous system. This is a report of an acutely encephalopathic youth with prominent abulia. MRI revealed severe bithalamic injury attributed to butane toxicity. Clinical issues, including particular radiologic findings, related to butane inhalation are reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2006.06.018DOI Listing
December 2006

Recommendations for comprehensive stroke centers: a consensus statement from the Brain Attack Coalition.

Stroke 2005 Jul 16;36(7):1597-616. Epub 2005 Jun 16.

Northwestern University Medical School, 710 N Lake Shore Dr, Room 1420, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Background And Purpose: To develop recommendations for the establishment of comprehensive stroke centers capable of delivering the full spectrum of care to seriously ill patients with stroke and cerebrovascular disease. Recommendations were developed by members of the Brain Attack Coalition (BAC), which is a multidisciplinary group of members from major professional organizations involved with the care of patients with stroke and cerebrovascular disease.

Summary Of Review: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from 1966 through December 2004 using Medline and Pub Med. Articles with information about clinical trials, meta-analyses, care guidelines, scientific guidelines, and other relevant clinical and research reports were examined and graded using established evidence-based medicine approaches for therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. Evidence was also obtained from a questionnaire survey sent to leaders in cerebrovascular disease. Members of BAC reviewed literature related to their field and graded the scientific evidence on the various diagnostic and treatment modalities for stroke. Input was obtained from the organizations represented by BAC. BAC met on several occasions to review each specific recommendation and reach a consensus about its importance in light of other medical, logistical, and financial factors.

Conclusions: There are a number of key areas supported by evidence-based medicine that are important for a comprehensive stroke center and its ability to deliver the wide variety of specialized care needed by patients with serious cerebrovascular disease. These areas include: (1) health care personnel with specific expertise in a number of disciplines, including neurosurgery and vascular neurology; (2) advanced neuroimaging capabilities such as MRI and various types of cerebral angiography; (3) surgical and endovascular techniques, including clipping and coiling of intracranial aneurysms, carotid endarterectomy, and intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy; and (4) other specific infrastructure and programmatic elements such as an intensive care unit and a stroke registry. Integration of these elements into a coordinated hospital-based program or system is likely to improve outcomes of patients with strokes and complex cerebrovascular disease who require the services of a comprehensive stroke center.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000170622.07210.b4DOI Listing
July 2005

The vertebral body fracture in osteoporosis: restoration of height using percutaneous vertebroplasty.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2005 Mar;26(3):489-92

Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA.

Background And Purpose: Percutaneous vertebroplasty is an effective tool for the relief of pain caused by osteoporotic spine fractures. Our purpose is to evaluate this technique and its effectiveness in restoring the height of such fractures.

Methods: Forty osteoporotic vertebral body fractures in 30 consecutive patients (24 female, six males; mean age, 70 years) were analyzed retrospectively, before and after percutaneous vertebroplasty, for changes in vertebral body height, kyphosis angle, and wedge angle. The ages of the fractures range from 1 to 5 months.

Results: Percutaneous vertebroplasty improved the pretreatment height of compression fractures in these patients by a mean of 47.6% (P < .001), with only 15% showing no improvement. These figures compare favorably with published results for kyphoplasty (47% mean improvement in height in 70% of fractures; no improvement in 30% of fractures). In addition, we achieved a mean improvement in kyphosis angle of 6 degrees and an improvement in the wedge angle of 3.5 degrees (as compared with published results for kyphoplasty of 7.4 and 4.3 degrees , respectively; P < .001).

Conclusion: Percutaneous vertebroplasty should be viewed not only as a pain-relieving procedure, but also an effective method for improving vertebral body height, kyphosis angle, and wedge angle.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976481PMC
March 2005

Simultaneous symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst and GH secreting pituitary adenoma: a case report.

Pituitary 2004 ;7(1):39-44

Department of Neurological Surgery, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA.

A case of symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst and growth hormone (GH) secreting pituitary adenoma is described. A patient presented with a visual field deficit and a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study demonstrated compression of the optic chiasm by a large suprasellar cyst and a small lesion in the sellar consistent with a microadenoma. Preoperative clinical evaluation revealed mild acromegalic features, glucose intolerance, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and carpel tunnel syndrome, and blood testing confirmed an elevated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). A modified transsphenoidal skull based approach was performed for selective transsphenoidal adenomectomy and decompression of the surprasellar cyst. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course with resolution of the visual field deficits and dysmenorrhea. Endocrine testing at two-month post procedure were normal. While there have been a small number of cases reported of concomitant pituitary adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts, there is no report known to these authors of coexisting symptomatic lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:pitu.0000044632.15978.44DOI Listing
April 2005

Cerebral perfusion imaging in acute stroke.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2004 Jan;15(1 Pt 2):S29-46

Department of Radiology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, California 95616, USA.

Herein, the author discusses four perfusion technologies, including the diffusible tracer methods-xenon-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission CT with various radioisotopes-and the nondiffusible tracer techniques-CT perfusion and magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion and diffusion. The methods for and important issues in the performance of each technique are presented, along with the accuracy of the data acquired with each technique, as demonstrated with experimental studies. In addition, the use of each technique in the evaluation of patients with acute stroke and their relative advantages and disadvantages are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.rvi.0000112976.88422.86DOI Listing
January 2004
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