Publications by authors named "Richard J Hendrick"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mechatronic Design of a Two-Arm Concentric Tube Robot System for Rigid Neuroendoscopy.

IEEE ASME Trans Mechatron 2020 Jun 27;25(3):1432-1443. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Mechanical Engineering at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA.

Open surgical approaches are still often employed in neurosurgery, despite the availability of neuroendoscopic approaches that reduce invasiveness. The challenge of maneuvering instruments at the tip of the endoscope makes neuroendoscopy demanding for the physician. The only way to aim tools passed through endoscope ports is to tilt the entire endoscope; but, tilting compresses brain tissue through which the endoscope passes and can damage it. Concentric tube robots can provide necessary dexterity without endoscope tilting, while passing through existing ports in the endoscope and carrying surgical tools in their inner lumen. In this paper we describe the mechatronic design of a new concentric tube robot that can deploy two concentric tube manipulators through a standard neuroendoscope. The robot uses a compact differential drive and features embedded motor control electronics and redundant position sensors for safety. In addition to the mechatronic design of this system, this paper contributes experimental validation in the context of colloid cyst removal, comparing our new robotic system to standard manual endoscopy in a brain phantom. The robotic approach essentially eliminated endoscope tilt during the procedure (17.09° for the manual approach vs. 1.16° for the robotic system). The robotic system also enables a single surgeon to perform the procedure - typically in a manual approach one surgeon aims the endoscope and another operates the tools delivered through its ports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tmech.2020.2976897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971161PMC
June 2020

Transurethral Anastomosis after Transurethral Radical Prostatectomy: A Phantom Study on Intraluminal Suturing With Concentric Tube Robots.

IEEE Trans Med Robot Bionics 2020 Nov 29;2(4):578-581. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University.

Current surgical approaches to radical prostatectomy are associated with high rates of erectile dysfunction and incontinence. These complications occur secondary to the disruption of surrounding healthy tissue, which is required to expose the prostate. The urethra offers the least invasive access to the prostate, and feasibility has been demonstrated of enucleating the prostate with an endoscope using Holmium laser, which can itself be aimed by concentric tube robots. However, the transurethral approach to radical prostatectomy has thus far been limited by the lack of a suitable means to perform an anastomosis of the urethra to the bladder after prostate removal. Only a few intraluminal anastomotic devices currently exist, and none are small enough to pass through the urethra. In this paper we describe a new way to perform an anastomosis in the small luminal space of the urethra, harnessing the dexterity and customizability of concentric tube manipulators. We demonstrate a successful initial proof-of-concept anastomosis in an anthropomorphic phantom of the urethra and bladder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tmrb.2020.3034735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694552PMC
November 2020

Can Elastic Instability be Beneficial in Concentric Tube Robots?

IEEE Robot Autom Lett 2018 Jul 1;3(3):1624-1630. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Vanderbilt Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN USA.

Concentric tube manipulators exhibit elastic instability in which tubes snap from one configuration to another, rapidly releasing stored strain energy. While this has long been viewed as a negative phenomenon to be avoided at all costs, in this paper we explore for the first time whether the effect can be harnessed beneficially for certain applications. Specifically, we show that the energy released in an instability can be useful for challenging, high-force surgical tasks such as driving a needle through tissue. We use concentric tube models to define the energy released during elastic instability and experimentally evaluate a two-tube concentric manipulator that can drive suture needles through tissue by harnessing elastic instability beneficially.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LRA.2018.2800779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6176742PMC
July 2018

Hand-held transendoscopic robotic manipulators: A transurethral laser prostate surgery case study.

Int J Rob Res 2015 Nov 28;34(13):1559-1572. Epub 2015 Jul 28.

Vanderbilt Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Natural orifice endoscopic surgery can enable incisionless approaches, but a major challenge is the lack of small and dexterous instrumentation. Surgical robots have the potential to meet this need yet often disrupt the clinical workflow. Hand-held robots that combine thin manipulators and endoscopes have the potential to address this by integrating seamlessly into the clinical workflow and enhancing dexterity. As a case study illustrating the potential of this approach, we describe a hand-held robotic system that passes two concentric tube manipulators through a 5 mm port in a rigid endoscope for transurethral laser prostate surgery. This system is intended to catalyze the use of a clinically superior, yet rarely attempted, procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia. This paper describes system design and experiments to evaluate the surgeon's functional workspace and accuracy using the robot. Phantom and cadaver experiments demonstrate successful completion of the target procedure via prostate lobe resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0278364915585397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5001675PMC
November 2015

Elastic Stability of Concentric Tube Robots: A Stability Measure and Design Test.

IEEE Trans Robot 2016 Feb 17;32(1):20-35. Epub 2015 Dec 17.

Mechanical Engineering department at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA.

Concentric tube robots are needle-sized manipulators which have been investigated for use in minimally invasive surgeries. It was noted early in the development of these devices that elastic energy storage can lead to rapid snapping motion for designs with moderate to high tube curvatures. Substantial progress has recently been made in the concentric tube robot community in designing snap-free robots, planning stable paths, and characterizing conditions that result in snapping for specific classes of concentric tube robots. However, a general measure for how stable a given robot configuration is has yet to be proposed. In this paper, we use bifurcation and elastic stability theory to provide such a measure, as well as to produce a test for determining whether a given design is snap-free (i.e. whether snapping can occur anywhere in the unloaded robot's workspace). These results are useful in designing, planning motions for, and controlling concentric tube robots with high curvatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TRO.2015.2500422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4814113PMC
February 2016

Toward Improving Transurethral Prostate Surgery: Development and Initial Experiments with a Prototype Concentric Tube Robotic Platform.

J Endourol 2016 06 20;30(6):692-6. Epub 2016 May 20.

1 Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center , Nashville, Tennessee.

Introduction: Despite the potential clinical advantages of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP), there has been reluctance of the urologic community to adopt the procedure, as a result of a perceived steep learning curve. Thus, we sought to design and develop a transurethral endoscopic robotic platform for HoLEP.

Materials And Methods: We developed a novel transurethral, concentric tube robotic platform for HoLEP. We conducted magnetic tracking experiments to compare movements of the end effectors of the robot with those of a rigid endoscope. Additionally, we tested the robot on an HoLEP simulator and with a human cadaveric prostate to assess its ability to maneuver within a small working space.

Results: In the prostate scanning experiment, the area reached by the robot represents a 65% improvement vs the area accessible by a rigid endoscope without tissue deformation. Additionally, the robot performed well within the confines of the prostatic urethra and was able to successfully complete prostate lobe enucleation, on both the HoLEP simulator and with a human cadaveric prostate.

Conclusions: We have developed a concentric tube robotic platform that is passed through a standard endoscope that is capable of producing complex movements of the end effectors. We have shown that these movements of the concentric tube manipulators are capable of performing tasks that may eventually translate into improved ease of performing HoLEP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2016.0155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4913489PMC
June 2016

A Motion Planning Approach to Automatic Obstacle Avoidance during Concentric Tube Robot Teleoperation.

IEEE Int Conf Robot Autom 2015 May;2015:2361-2367

Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Concentric tube robots are thin, tentacle-like devices that can move along curved paths and can potentially enable new, less invasive surgical procedures. Safe and effective operation of this type of robot requires that the robot's shaft avoid sensitive anatomical structures (e.g., critical vessels and organs) while the surgeon teleoperates the robot's tip. However, the robot's unintuitive kinematics makes it difficult for a human user to manually ensure obstacle avoidance along the entire tentacle-like shape of the robot's shaft. We present a motion planning approach for concentric tube robot teleoperation that enables the robot to interactively maneuver its tip to points selected by a user while automatically avoiding obstacles along its shaft. We achieve automatic collision avoidance by precomputing a roadmap of collision-free robot configurations based on a description of the anatomical obstacles, which are attainable via volumetric medical imaging. We also mitigate the effects of kinematic modeling error in reaching the goal positions by adjusting motions based on robot tip position sensing. We evaluate our motion planner on a teleoperated concentric tube robot and demonstrate its obstacle avoidance and accuracy in environments with tubular obstacles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICRA.2015.7139513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4578310PMC
May 2015
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