Publications by authors named "Richard H Stephens"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genotype of a historic strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Nov 22;109(45):18511-6. Epub 2012 Oct 22.

Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M1 7DN, United Kingdom.

The use of ancient DNA in paleopathological studies of tuberculosis has largely been restricted to confirmation of disease identifications made by skeletal analysis; few attempts at obtaining genotype data from archaeological samples have been made because of the need to perform different PCRs for each genetic locus being studied in an ancient DNA extract. We used a next generation sequencing approach involving hybridization capture directed at specific polymorphic regions of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome to identify a detailed genotype for a historic strain of M. tuberculosis from an individual buried in the 19th century St. George's Crypt, Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. We obtained 664,500 sequencing by oligonucleotide ligation and detection (SOLiD) reads that mapped to the targeted regions of the M. tuberculosis genome; the coverage included 218 of 247 SNPs, 10 of 11 insertion/deletion regions, and the repeat elements IS1081 and IS6110. The accuracy of the SOLiD data was checked by conventional PCRs directed at 11 SNPs and two insertion/deletions. The data placed the historic strain of M. tuberculosis in a group that is uncommon today, but it is known to have been present in North America in the early 20th century. Our results show the use of hybridization capture followed by next generation sequencing as a means of obtaining detailed genotypes of ancient varieties of M. tuberculosis, potentially enabling meaningful comparisons between strains from different geographic locations and different periods in the past.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1209444109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3494915PMC
November 2012

Type 2 diabetes whole-genome association study in four populations: the DiaGen consortium.

Am J Hum Genet 2007 Aug 26;81(2):338-45. Epub 2007 Jun 26.

Oy Jurilab, and Research Institute of Public Health, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland, and Hope Hospital, Salford, UK.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a common, polygenic chronic disease with high heritability. The purpose of this whole-genome association study was to discover novel T2D-associated genes. We genotyped 500 familial cases and 497 controls with >300,000 HapMap-derived tagging single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) markers. When a stringent statistical correction for multiple testing was used, the only significant SNP was at TCF7L2, which has already been discovered and confirmed as a T2D-susceptibility gene. For a replication study, we selected 10 SNPs in six chromosomal regions with the strongest association (singly or as part of a haplotype) for retesting in an independent case-control set including 2,573 T2D cases and 2,776 controls. The most significant replicated result was found at the AHI1-LOC441171 gene region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/520599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1950819PMC
August 2007

Polymorphisms in IGF-binding protein 1 are associated with impaired renal function in type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes 2005 Dec;54(12):3547-53

Vascular Research Group, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK.

The dysregulation of the IGF system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes, and diabetes complications such as nephropathy, but little is known about the genomics of the IGF system in health and disease. We genotyped 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IGFBP1 gene in 732 representative type 2 diabetic patients from the Salford Diabetes Register. Of the 13 SNPs, 8 were polymorphic and 7 of those had minor allele frequencies >0.1, one of which was in the gene promoter and one of which was nonsynonymous in exon 4. The minor alleles of these SNPs and two others were associated with a reduced prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. Haplotype analysis revealed that 97% of the genetic variation for IGFBP1 in the population sample could be accounted for using two of the "reno-protective" SNPs, with other SNPs adding little extra information. One of these two SNPs was the nonsynonymous mutation in exon 4, lying close to the integrin-binding RGD motif, which is thought to affect tissue delivery of IGF-I by IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), possibly suggesting a "reno-protective" effect via altered IGFBP-1 binding. In conclusion, we have described the first genomic markers to be associated with diabetic microvascular complications within the human IGFBP1 gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.54.12.3547DOI Listing
December 2005
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