Publications by authors named "Richard G Moore"

73 Publications

A Surgical Window Trial Evaluating Medroxyprogesterone Acetate with or without Entinostat in Patients with Endometrial Cancer and Validation of Biomarkers of Cellular Response.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa.

Purpose: This surgical window of opportunity (window) study assessed the short-term effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) alone versus MPA plus the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor entinostat on regulation of progesterone receptor (PR) in women with newly diagnosed endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma.

Patients And Methods: This multisite, randomized, open-label surgical window study treated women intramuscularly on day 1 with 400 mg MPA. Entinostat given 5 mg by mouth on days 1, 8, and 15 was randomly assigned with equal probability. Surgery followed on days 21-24. Pretreatment and posttreatment tissue was assessed for PR H-scores, Ki-67 levels, and histologic response.

Results: Fifty patients were accrued in 4 months; 22 and 20 participants had PR evaluable pretreatment and posttreatment slides in the MPA and MPA/entinostat arms, respectively. Median posttreatment PR H-scores were significantly lower than pretreatment H-scores in both arms but did not differ significantly (MPA: 247 vs. 27, MPA/entinostat 260 vs. 23, respectively, = 0.87). Decreased Ki-67 was shown in 90% treated with MPA/entinostat compared with 68% treated with MPA alone ( = 0.13). Median PR H-score decreases were larger when Ki-67 was decreased (208) versus not decreased (45). The decrease in PR pretreatment versus posttreatment was associated with loss of Ki-67 nuclear staining, consistent with reduced cellular proliferation ( < 0.008).

Conclusions: This surgical window trial rapidly accrued in a multisite setting and evaluated PR as its primary endpoint and Ki-67 as secondary endpoint. Despite no immediate effect of entinostat on PR in this short-term study, lessons learned can inform future window and treatment trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4618DOI Listing
March 2021

The biomarker HE4 (WFDC2) promotes a pro-angiogenic and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment via regulation of STAT3 target genes.

Sci Rep 2020 05 22;10(1):8558. Epub 2020 May 22.

Women and Infants Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Program in Women's Oncology, Providence, RI, USA.

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a highly lethal gynecologic malignancy arising from the fallopian tubes that has a high rate of chemoresistant recurrence and low five-year survival rate. The ovarian cancer biomarker HE4 is known to promote proliferation, metastasis, chemoresistance, and suppression of cytotoxic lymphocytes. In this study, we sought to examine the effects of HE4 on signaling within diverse cell types that compose the tumor microenvironment. HE4 was found to activate STAT3 signaling and promote upregulation of the pro-angiogenic STAT3 target genes IL8 and HIF1A in immune cells, ovarian cancer cells, and endothelial cells. Moreover, HE4 promoted increases in tube formation in an in vitro model of angiogenesis, which was also dependent upon STAT3 signaling. Clinically, HE4 and IL8 levels positively correlated in ovarian cancer patient tissue. Furthermore, HE4 serum levels correlated with microvascular density in EOC tissue and inversely correlated with cytotoxic T cell infiltration, suggesting that HE4 may cause deregulated blood vessel formation and suppress proper T cell trafficking in tumors. Collectively, this study shows for the first time that HE4 has the ability to affect signaling events and gene expression in multiple cell types of the tumor microenvironment, which could contribute to angiogenesis and altered immunogenic responses in ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65353-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244765PMC
May 2020

Role of trypsin and protease-activated receptor-2 in ovarian cancer.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(5):e0232253. Epub 2020 May 4.

The Wilmot Cancer Institute at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America.

Proteases have been implicated in the tumorigenesis and aggressiveness of a variety of cancer types. In fact, proteases have proven to be very clinically useful as tumor biomarkers in the blood of patients. Proteases are typically involved in complex systems of substrates, activators, and inhibitors, thus making our ability to establish their exact function in cancer more difficult. Trypsin, perhaps the most famous of proteases, has been shown to play a role in cancer progression, but its functional role in ovarian cancer has not been much studied. PAR2, a transmembrane receptor that is known to be activated by trypsin, has been reported to be associated with ovarian cancer. Here, we found that stimulation of ovarian cancer cell lines with trypsin or PAR2 activating peptide markedly increased MAPK signaling and cell proliferation. Additionally, HE4, a WAP-family glycoprotein and ovarian cancer biomarker, was found to inhibit trypsin degradation, thereby retaining its activity. Patient data seemed to support this phenomenon, as the serum of ovarian cancer patients with high HE4 expression, revealed significantly elevated trypsin levels. These data support the hypothesis that trypsin plays a tumorigenic role in ovarian cancer, which can be mediated by its receptor PAR2, and potentiated by HE4.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232253PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197761PMC
July 2020

Development of Potent Forchlorfenuron Analogs and Their Cytotoxic Effect in Cancer Cell Lines.

Sci Rep 2020 02 24;10(1):3241. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

The Wilmot Cancer Institute at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States.

Forchlorfenuron (FCF) is a synthetic plant cytokinin widely used in agriculture to promote fruit size, that paradoxically inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion in human cancer cell lines. FCF has also been shown to affect HIF-1α and HER2, which are both known to play a crucial role in cancer cell survival. In this study, we have developed potent FCF analogs through structural modification of FCF, coined UR214-1, UR214-7, and UR214-9. Compared to parental FCF, these analogs are more effective in decreasing viability and proliferation in both ovarian and endometrial cancer cell lines. These FCF analogs also suppress HER2 expression at a concentration lower than that of FCF. In addition, we found that treatment with either FCF or its analogs decreases the expression of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), which is commonly upregulated in ovarian and endometrial cancers. Given the association between cancer behavior and HE4 production in gynecologic cancers, our findings may provide insight useful in the development of new treatment strategies for gynecologic cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-59824-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039965PMC
February 2020

Niraparib in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Advanced Ovarian Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2019 12 28;381(25):2391-2402. Epub 2019 Sep 28.

From Grupo Español de Investigación en Cáncer de Ovario (GEICO) and the Medical Oncology Department, Clínica Universidad de Navarra (A.G.-M.) and GEICO and Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ (A.R.), Madrid, GEICO and Medical Oncology, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Girona Biomedical Research Institute, and the Department of Medical Sciences, Medical School University of Girona, Girona (P.B.-G.), and GEICO and Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Cordoba (M.J.R.-P.) - all in Spain; the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) and the Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Perlmutter Cancer Center, NYU Langone Health (B.P.), and GOG and the Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College (R.E.O.), New York, and US Oncology Research (USOR) and the Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Wilmot Cancer Institute, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester (R.G.M.) - all in New York; Belgium and Luxembourg Gynecologic Oncology Group (BGOG) and the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven Cancer Institute, Leuven (I.V.), BGOG and the Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, AZ Maria Middelares, Ghent (C.V.), and the Department of Molecular Imaging, Pathology, Radiotherapy, and Oncology, Center for Oncological Research, Antwerp University, Antwerp (C.V.) - all in Belgium; the Nordic Society of Gynecologic Oncology (NSGO) and the Research Unit of General Practice, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (R.D.C.), NSGO and Rigshospitalet-Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (M.R.M.), and NSGO and the Department of Oncology, Aalborg University, Aalborg (B.L.) - all in Denmark; GOG and Gynecologic Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (W.G.); GOG and Legacy Medical Group Gynecologic Oncology, Portland, OR (C.M.); Multicenter Italian Trials in Ovarian Cancer and Gynecologic Malignancies (MITO) and Fondazione IRCCS National Cancer Institute of Milan (D.L.), and MITO and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (G.M.) - both in Milan; USOR and the Department of Medical Oncology, BC Cancer, Vancouver, BC (P.H.), and GOG and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University, and the Department of Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Montreal (K.J.) - all in Canada; Groupe d'Investigateurs Nationaux pour l'Etude des Cancers Ovariens and Service d'Oncologie Médicale, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Lyon, France (G.F.); Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie and the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen, Ludwigshafen, Germany (K.B.); the Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus (F.B.); GOG and the Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (A.F.H.), and GOG and Hanjani Institute for Gynecologic Oncology, Asplundh Cancer Pavilion, Abington Jefferson Hospital, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Willow Grove (M.S.S.) - all in Pennsylvania; GOG and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (W.H.B.); Israeli Society of Gynecologic Oncology and Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel (I.B.); GlaxoSmithKline/Tesaro, Waltham, MA (K.S., I.A.M., Y.L., D.G.); and Arizona Oncology (US Oncology Network), University of Arizona College of Medicine, Creighton University School of Medicine, Phoenix (B.J.M.).

Background: Niraparib, an inhibitor of poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP), has been associated with significantly increased progression-free survival among patients with recurrent ovarian cancer after platinum-based chemotherapy, regardless of the presence or absence of mutations. The efficacy of niraparib in patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer after a response to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy is unknown.

Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer in a 2:1 ratio to receive niraparib or placebo once daily after a response to platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary end point was progression-free survival in patients who had tumors with homologous-recombination deficiency and in those in the overall population, as determined on hierarchical testing. A prespecified interim analysis for overall survival was conducted at the time of the primary analysis of progression-free survival.

Results: Of the 733 patients who underwent randomization, 373 (50.9%) had tumors with homologous-recombination deficiency. Among the patients in this category, the median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the niraparib group than in the placebo group (21.9 months vs. 10.4 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31 to 0.59; P<0.001). In the overall population, the corresponding progression-free survival was 13.8 months and 8.2 months (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.76; P<0.001). At the 24-month interim analysis, the rate of overall survival was 84% in the niraparib group and 77% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.11). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were anemia (in 31.0% of the patients), thrombocytopenia (in 28.7%), and neutropenia (in 12.8%). No treatment-related deaths occurred.

Conclusions: Among patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer who had a response to platinum-based chemotherapy, those who received niraparib had significantly longer progression-free survival than those who received placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of homologous-recombination deficiency. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; PRIMA/ENGOT-OV26/GOG-3012 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02655016.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1910962DOI Listing
December 2019

Septin-2 is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer and mediates proliferation via regulation of cellular metabolic proteins.

Oncotarget 2019 Apr 26;10(31):2959-2972. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI, USA.

Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) is associated with dismal survival rates due to the fact that patients are frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage and eventually become resistant to traditional chemotherapeutics. Hence, there is a crucial need for new and innovative therapies. Septin-2, a member of the septin family of GTP binding proteins, has been characterized in EOC for the first time and represents a potential future target. Septin-2 was found to be overexpressed in serous and clear cell human patient tissue compared to benign disease. Stable septin-2 knockdown clones developed in an ovarian cancer cell line exhibited a significant decrease in proliferation rates. Comparative label-free proteomic analysis of septin-2 knockdown cells revealed differential protein expression of pathways associated with the TCA cycle, acetyl CoA, proteasome and spliceosome. Further validation of target proteins indicated that septin-2 plays a predominant role in post-transcriptional and translational modifications as well as cellular metabolism, and suggested the potential novel role of septin-2 in promoting EOC tumorigenesis through these mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6508204PMC
April 2019

Novel Small Molecule MEK Inhibitor URML-3881 Enhances Cisplatin Sensitivity in Clear Cell Ovarian Cancer.

Transl Oncol 2019 Jul 10;12(7):917-924. Epub 2019 May 10.

The Wilmot Cancer Institute at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States.

Advanced clear cell ovarian cancer (CCOC) is a highly fatal malignancy with a scarcity of effective treatment options. CCOC is inherently chemotherapy resistance, but the exact mechanism of this resistance has yet to be established. Prosurvival signaling, such as through the MAPK cascade, is one way in which cancer cells can evade chemotherapy. We have determined that CCOC exhibits baseline elevated levels of MAPK activity, which increase further upon cisplatin exposure. We have developed a novel MEK inhibitor, URML-3881, to test the effect of MAPK inhibition in CCOC. URML-3881 was found to reduce in vitro CCOC viability through apoptosis and proliferation inhibition, yet it failed to induce in vivo tumor regression. Similarly, cisplatin alone had minimal impact on tumor growth, but remarkably, the combination of MEK inhibition and cisplatin led to a significant and prolonged tumor regression. These studies confirm that the combination of MEK inhibition with URML-3881 and cisplatin is superior to either agent alone in CCOC. Our data support the design of future preclinical and clinical studies into the combination of MEK inhibition and platinum-based chemotherapy as a treatment strategy for CCOC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2019.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6517847PMC
July 2019

Multiple biomarker algorithms to predict epithelial ovarian cancer in women with a pelvic mass: Can additional makers improve performance?

Gynecol Oncol 2019 07 13;154(1):150-155. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Center for Biomarkers and Emerging Technologies, Women and Infants Hospital/Brown University, RI 02905, USA; Department of Pathology, Women and Infants Hospital/Brown University, RI 02905, USA.

Introduction: Management of a woman with a pelvic mass is complicated by difficulty in discriminating malignant from benign disease. Many serum biomarkers have been examined to determine their sensitivity for detecting malignancy. This study was designed to evaluate if the addition of biomarkers to HE4 and CA125, as used in the Risk of Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA), can improve the detection of EOC.

Methods: This was an IRB approved, prospective clinical trial examining serum obtained from women diagnosed with a pelvic mass who subsequently underwent surgery. Serum biomarker levels for CA125, HE4, YKL-40, transthyretin, ApoA1, Beta-2-microglobulin, transferrin, and LPA were measured. Logistic regression analysis was performed for various marker combinations, ROC curves were generated, and the area under the curves (AUCs) were determined.

Results: A total of 184 patients met inclusion criteria with a median age of 56 years (Range 20-91). Final pathology revealed there were 103 (56.0%) benign tumors, 4 (2.2%) LMP tumors, 61 EOC (33.1%), 2 (1.1%) non-EOC ovarian cancers, 6 (3.3%) gynecologic cancers with metastasis to the ovary and 8 (4.3%) non-gynecologic cancers with metastasis to the ovary. The combination of HE4 and CA125 (i.e. ROMA) achieved an AUC of 91.2% (95% CI: 86.0-96.4) for the detection of EOC vs benign disease. The combination of CA125, HE4, YKL-40, transthyretin, ApoA1, Beta 2 microglobulin, transferrin, LPA and menopausal status achieved the highest AUC of 94.6% (95% CI: 90.1-99.2) but this combination was not significantly better than the HE4 and CA125 combination alone (p = 0.078).

Conclusions: The addition of select further serum biomarkers to HE4 and CA125 does not add to the performance of the dual marker combination for the detection of ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2019.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6666425PMC
July 2019

Human Epididymis Secretory Protein 4 (HE4) Compromises Cytotoxic Mononuclear Cells via Inducing Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6.

Front Pharmacol 2019 19;10:216. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Surgery, Roger Williams Medical Center, Boston University Medical School, Providence, RI, United States.

While selective overexpression of serum clinical biomarker Human epididymis secretory protein 4 (HE4) is indicative of ovarian cancer tumorigenesis, much is still known about the mechanistic role of the HE4 gene or gene product. Here, we examine the role of the secretory glycoprotein HE4 in ovarian cancer immune evasion. Through modified subtractive hybridization analyses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we have characterized gene targets of HE4 and established a preliminary mechanism of HE4-mediated immune failure in ovarian tumors. Dual specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) emerged as the most upregulated gene in PBMCs upon exposure to HE4. DUSP6 was found to be upregulated in CD8 cells and CD56 cells. HE4 exposure reduced Erk1/2 phosphorylation specifically in these cell populations and the effect was erased by co-incubation with a DUSP6 inhibitor, (E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (BCI). In co-culture with PBMCs, HE4-silenced SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells exhibited enhanced proliferation upon exposure to external HE4, while this effect was partially attenuated by adding BCI to the culture. Additionally, the reversal effects of BCI were erased in the co-culture with CD8 / CD56 cell deprived PBMCs. Taken together, these findings show that HE4 enhances tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer by compromising cytotoxic CD8 and CD56 cells through upregulation of self-produced DUSP6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433991PMC
March 2019

Receipt of adjuvant endometrial cancer treatment according to race: an NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group 210 Study.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 11 7;219(5):459.e1-459.e11. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Background: Black women with endometrial cancer are more likely to die of their disease compared with white women with endometrial cancer. These survival disparities persist even when disproportionately worse tumor characteristics among black women are accounted. Receipt of less complete adjuvant treatment among black patients with endometrial cancer could contribute to this disparity.

Objective: We assessed the hypothesis that black women with endometrial cancer are less likely than their white counterparts to receive adjuvant treatment within subgroups defined by tumor characteristics in the NRG Oncology/Gynecology Oncology Group 210 Study.

Study Design: Our analysis included 615 black and 4283 white women with endometrial cancer who underwent hysterectomy. Women completed a questionnaire that assessed race and endometrial cancer risk factors. Tumor characteristics were available from pathology reports and central review. We categorized women as low-, intermediate-, or high-risk based on the European Society for Medical Oncology definition. Adjuvant treatment was documented during postoperative visits and was categorized as no adjuvant treatment (54.3%), radiotherapy only (16.5%), chemotherapy only (15.2%), and radiotherapy plus chemotherapy (14.0%). We used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for multivariable-adjusted associations between race and adjuvant treatment in the overall study population and stratified by tumor subtype, stage, or European Society for Medical Oncology risk category.

Results: Overall, black women were more likely to have received chemotherapy only (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.86) or radiotherapy plus chemotherapy (odds ratio, 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-2.62) compared with white women in multivariable-adjusted models. No racial difference in the receipt of radiotherapy only was observed. In tumor subtype-stratified models, black women had higher odds of receiving radiotherapy plus chemotherapy than white women when diagnosed with low-grade endometrioid (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-3.93) or serous tumors (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-3.08). Race was not associated with adjuvant treatment among women who had been diagnosed with other tumor subtypes. In stage-stratified models, we observed no racial differences in the receipt of adjuvant treatment. In models that were stratified by European Society for Medical Oncology risk group, black women with high-risk cancer were more likely to receive radiotherapy plus chemotherapy compared with white women (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.94).

Conclusion: Contrary to our hypothesis, we observed higher odds of specific adjuvant treatment regimens among black women as compared with white women within specific subgroups of endometrial cancer characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2018.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6239903PMC
November 2018

Human Epididymis Protein 4 Promotes Events Associated with Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Regulation of the Extracelluar Matrix.

Front Oncol 2017 22;7:332. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Program in Women's Oncology, Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI, United States.

Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) has received much attention recently due to its diagnostic and prognostic abilities for epithelial ovarian cancer. Since its inclusion in the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA), studies have focused on its functional effects in ovarian cancer. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of HE4 in invasion, haptotaxis, and adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, we sought to gain an understanding of relevant transcriptional profiles and protein kinase signaling pathways mediated by this multifunctional protein. Exposure of OVCAR8 ovarian cancer cells to recombinant HE4 (rHE4) promoted invasion, haptotaxis toward a fibronectin substrate, and adhesion onto fibronectin. Overexpression of HE4 or treatment with rHE4 led to upregulation of several transcripts coding for extracellular matrix proteins, including , and . Gene ontology indicated an enrichment of terms related to extracellular matrix, cell migration, adhesion, growth, and kinase phosphorylation. LAMC2 and LAMB3 protein levels were constitutively elevated in cells overexpressing HE4 and were upregulated in a time-dependent manner in cells exposed to rHE4 in the media. Deposition of laminin-332, the heterotrimer comprising LAMC2 and LAMB3 proteins, was increased in OVCAR8 cells treated with rHE4 or conditioned media from HE4-overexpressing cells. Enzymatic activity of matriptase, a serine protease that cleaves laminin-332 and contributes to its pro-migratory functional activity, was enhanced by rHE4 treatment . Proteomic analysis revealed activation of focal adhesion kinase signaling in OVCAR8 cells treated with conditioned media from HE4-overexpressing cells. Focal adhesions were increased in cells treated with rHE4 in the presence of fibronectin. These results indicate a direct role for HE4 in mediating malignant properties of ovarian cancer cells and validate the need for HE4-targeted therapies that will suppress activation of oncogenic transcriptional activation and signaling cascades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2017.00332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5786890PMC
January 2018

Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Endometrial Carcinoma Mortality and Recurrence.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2017 03;109(3):1-10

Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Recent data suggest that the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be associated with reductions in endometrial cancer risk, yet very few have examined whether their use is related to prognosis among endometrial cancer patients.

Methods: Study subjects comprised 4374 participants of the NRG Oncology/Gynecology Oncology Group 210 Study with endometrial carcinoma who completed a presurgical questionnaire that assessed history of regular prediagnostic NSAID use and endometrial cancer risk factors. Recurrences, vital status, and causes of death were obtained from medical records and cancer registries. Fine-Gray semiproportional hazards regression estimated adjusted subhazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of NSAID use with endometrial carcinoma-specific mortality and recurrence. Models were stratified by endometrial carcinoma type (ie, type I [endometrioid] vs type II [serous, clear cell, or carcinosarcoma]) and histology.

Results: Five hundred fifty endometrial carcinoma-specific deaths and 737 recurrences occurred during a median of five years of follow-up. NSAID use was associated with 66% (HR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.30) increased endometrial carcinoma-specific mortality among women with type I cancers. Associations were statistically significant for former and current users, and strongest among former users who used NSAIDs for 10 years or longer (HR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.19 to 4.18, two-sided P trend = .01). NSAID use was not associated with recurrence or endometrial carcinoma-specific mortality among women with type II tumors.

Conclusions: In this study, use of NSAIDs was associated with increased endometrial carcinoma-specific mortality, especially in patients with type I tumors. Barring a clear biologic mechanism by which NSAIDs would increase the risk of cause-specific mortality, cautious interpretation is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djw251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5161320PMC
March 2017

Predictors for lymph nodes involvement in low risk endometrial cancer.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 May 24;37(4):514-518. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

e Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology , University of Rochester , NY , USA.

Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and BMI were examined as pre-operative predictors for lymph node metastases in patients with low-risk endometrial cancer. The study was a retrospective analysis of 534 endometrial cancer patients that underwent hysterectomy and lymph node dissection. Included subjects had a preoperative diagnosis of a grade 1 or 2 endometrioid carcinoma and no macroscopic extrauterine disease. We compared node-negative to node-positive patients to identify correlates of node-positive disease. The node-positive group presented with lower BMI than the node-negative group, 31.5 and 34.4, respectively (p = .03). The mean NLR was higher in the node-positive group 3.4 vs 2.9 (p = .08), showing a trend towards significance on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, lower BMI was found to be an independent predictor for nodal metastasis. Our data suggest that lower BMI is a risk factor for lymph nodes involvement in low-risk endometrial cancer. Impact statement Most endometrial cancer patients have low-risk disease with low risk for lymph nodes metastasis. In order to reduce the number of patients that will undergo unnecessary lymph node dissection, different types of preoperative predictors for lymph node involvement were studied. CA 125 and different imaging modalities were found as useful predictors for more advanced disease. Less studied predictors are the systemic inflammatory response markers and patient's BMI. This study suggests that lower BMI is a risk factor for lymph node involvement in low-risk endometrial cancer. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was close to significance as a predictor for lymph node involvement. In practice, physicians might favour comprehensive lymph node dissection when there is a doubt regarding the procedure but the patient is lean. The study's conclusion can be utilised for triaging patients to general gynaecologist vs gynaecologic oncologist. Further research should focus on combining predictors such as age, BMI, NLR, CA 125 and imaging to better predict lymph nodes involvement in low-risk endometrial cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2017.1281895DOI Listing
May 2017

Assessment of serum HE4 levels throughout the normal menstrual cycle.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 07 22;217(1):53.e1-53.e9. Epub 2017 Feb 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital, Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence RI; Departments of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Biomarkers and Emerging Technologies, Women and Infants Hospital, Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence RI.

Background: Human epididymis protein 4 is a serum biomarker to aid in differentiating benign and malignant disease in women with a pelvic mass. Interpretation of human epididymis protein 4 results relies on robust normative data.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether human epididymis protein 4 levels are variable in women during the normal menstrual cycle.

Study Design: Healthy women, 18-45 years old, with regular menstrual cycles were recruited from community gynecologic practices in Rhode Island. Women consented to enroll and to participate by the donation of blood and urine samples at 5 specific times over the course of each cycle. Levels of reproductive hormones and human epididymis protein 4 were determined. Data were analyzed with the use of linear regression after log transformation.

Results: Among 74 enrolled cycles, 53 women had confirmed ovulation during the menstrual cycle and completed all 5 sample collections. Levels of estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone displayed the expected menstrual cycle patterns. Levels of human epididymis protein 4 in serum were relatively stable across the menstrual cycle, except for a small ovulatory (median, 37.0 pM) increase. Levels of human epididymis protein 4 in urine, after correction for creatinine, displayed the same pattern of secretion observed in serum.

Conclusion: Serum human epididymis protein 4 levels are relatively stable across the menstrual cycle of reproductive-aged women and can be determined on any day to evaluate risk of ovarian malignancy. A slight increase is expected at ovulation; but even with this higher human epididymis protein 4 level, results are well within the healthy reference range for women (<120 pM). Levels of human epididymis protein 4 in urine warrant further investigation for use in clinical practice as a simple and convenient sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2017.02.029DOI Listing
July 2017

Tetrathiomolybdate mediates cisplatin-induced p38 signaling and EGFR degradation and enhances response to cisplatin therapy in gynecologic cancers.

Sci Rep 2015 Nov 16;5:15911. Epub 2015 Nov 16.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Cisplatin and its analogs are among the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents against various types of cancer. It is known that cisplatin can activate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which may provide a survival benefit in cancers. Tetrathiomolybdate (TM) is a potent anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic agent and has been investigated in a number of clinical trials for cancer. In this study, we explore the therapeutic potential of TM on cisplatin-mediated EGFR regulation. Our study shows that TM is not cytotoxic, but exerts an anti-proliferative effect in ECC-1 cells. However, TM treatment prior to cisplatin markedly improves cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. TM suppressed cisplatin-induced activation of EGFR while potentiating activation of p38; the activation of p38 signaling appeared to promote cisplatin-induced EGFR degradation. These results are in contrast to what we saw when cells were co-treated with cisplatin plus an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, where receptor activation was inhibited but receptor degradation was also blocked. Our current study is in agreement with previous findings that TM may have a therapeutic benefit by inhibiting EGFR activation. We furthermore provide evidence that TM may provide an additional benefit by potentiating p38 activation following cisplatin treatment, which may in turn promote receptor degradation by cisplatin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep15911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4644948PMC
November 2015

Antitumor Activity of 3-Indolylmethanamines 31B and PS121912.

Anticancer Res 2015 Nov;35(11):6001-7

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, U.S.A. Milwaukee Institute of Drug Discovery, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, U.S.A.

Aim: To investigate the in vivo effects of 3-indolylmethanamines 31B and PS121912 in treating ovarian cancer and leukemia, respectively.

Materials And Methods: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and western blotting were applied to demonstrate the induction of apoptosis. Xenografted mice were investigated to show the antitumor effects of 3-indolylmethanamines. (13)C-Nuclear magnetic resource (NMR) and western blotting were used to demonstrate inhibition of glucose metabolism.

Results: 31B inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation and activated caspase-3, cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), and phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), JUN N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) and p38. 31B reduced ovarian cancer xenograft tumor growth and PS121912 inhibited the growth of HL-60-derived xenografts without any sign of toxicity. Compound 31B inhibited de novo glycolysis and lipogenesis mediated by the reduction of fatty acid synthase and lactate dehydrogenase-A expression.

Conclusion: 3-Indolylmethanamines represent a new class of antitumor agents. We have shown for the first time the in vivo anticancer effects of 3-indolylmethanamines 31B and PS121912.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4633305PMC
November 2015

Levels of antimüllerian hormone in serum during the normal menstrual cycle.

Fertil Steril 2016 Jan 23;105(1):208-13.e1. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infant's Hospital, Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Center for Biomarkers and Emerging Technology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infant's Hospital, Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Objective: To determine whether levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) in serum vary during the normal menstrual cycle, using the most recently developed immunoassay method.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Local community.

Patient(s): Women with normal menstrual cycles and between the ages of 18 and 45 years were recruited (n = 45). Blood samples were collected on 5 days within each cycle: two in the follicular phase and three after confirmed ovulation. Exclusion criteria were anovulatory cycles, incomplete sample collection, insufficient blood volume, or non-Caucasian ethnicity.

Intervention(s): None.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Serum samples were tested for levels of AMH using a new immunoassay method (Ansh Labs). The effects of body mass index (BMI) and smoking on serum AMH levels were considered.

Result(s): Serum AMH levels varied significantly during the menstrual cycle, with the highest levels in the follicular phase. When the analysis was stratified by age, AMH variation during the menstrual cycle was significant only for women older than 30 years. Serum AMH levels were not significantly altered by BMI or smoking.

Conclusion(s): The new AMH immunoassay revealed a follicular phase rise in serum levels, particularly in women over the age of 30 years. This is consistent with other reports finding an interaction of menstrual cycle variation in AMH and chronological age. Nonetheless, the extent of variation is small, and sampling on any day of the menstrual cycle is expected to adequately reflect ovarian reserve.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01337999.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.09.033DOI Listing
January 2016

Tetrathiomolybdate inhibits mitochondrial complex IV and mediates degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in cancer cells.

Sci Rep 2015 Oct 15;5:14296. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that triggers adaptive responses upon low oxygen conditions and plays a crucial role in cancer metabolism and therapy resistance. Tetrathiomolybdate (TM), a therapy option for copper overload disorder, has also been shown to be capable of limiting tumor angiogenesis, although its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Using ovarian and endometrial cancer cell lines, we observed that TM downregulates HIF-1α protein levels and HIF-transcriptional targets involved in tumor angiogenesis and glycolysis, but did not affect HIF-1α protein synthesis. TM-mediated HIF-1α downregulation was suppressed when HIF-prolyl hydroxylase activity was pharmacologically inhibited using deferoxamine or dimethyloxaloylglycine, and also when the oxygen-dependent degradation domains of HIF-1α, which are responsible for the interaction with HIF-prolyl hydroxylase, were deleted. These findings suggest that TM causes HIF-1α downregulation in a HIF-prolyl hydroxylase-dependent manner. Our studies showed that TM inhibits the activity of the copper-dependent mitochondrial complex IV and reduces mitochondrial respiration, thereby possibly increasing oxygen availability, which is crucial for HIF-prolyl hydroxylase activity. Pimonidazole staining also showed that TM elevates oxygen tension in hypoxic cells. Our studies provide mechanistic evidence for TM-mediated HIF-1α regulation and suggest its therapeutic potential as a method of blocking angiogenesis in ovarian and endometrial tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep14296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4606568PMC
October 2015

Templated polymers enable selective capture and release of lysophosphatidic acid in human plasma via optimization of non-covalent binding to functional monomers.

Analyst 2015 Nov;140(22):7572-7

Department of Chemistry, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97201, USA.

The first solid phase extraction materials for selective lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) enrichment from human plasma are described. Molecularly imprinted polymers were designed, synthesized and evaluated as cartridge fillings. They enabled a relatively rapid and simple extraction protocol for LPA without any need for multiple liquid-liquid extraction steps. The five major subspecies of lysophosphatidic acid are readily separated from all other native plasma phospholipids, including those well-known to interfere with LPA quantitation, such as phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine. Outstanding LPA purity is obtained via these solid phase materials in a tandem extraction setup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5an01597aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4642816PMC
November 2015

Assessing the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm for the conservative management of women with a pelvic mass.

Gynecol Oncol 2015 Nov 11;139(2):248-52. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital, Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, RI 02905, USA; Center for Biomarkers and Emerging Technology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital, Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, RI 02905, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the use of as an aid in the identification of women who can safely undergo conservative, non-surgical management.

Methods: All patients referred to the Program in Women's Oncology for surgery with a pelvic mass are evaluated at a prospective multidisciplinary tumor board (TB) where ROMA and imaging are used for management recommendations. This study evaluated women presented to TB with a pelvic mass between 2009 and 2013 who had either surgical or conservative management.

Results: Of the 498 patients assessed, 392 (79%) had benign disease, 22 (4%) had LMP tumors, 28 (6%) had stage I-II epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), 36 (7%) had stage III-IV EOC and 20 (4%) had non-EOC. Using clinical assessment in conjunction with ROMA, the TB recommended observation in 188 (37.8%) women. All patients diagnosed with an invasive malignancy were recommended for surgery by the TB. In the 315 patients managed surgically, 212 were found to have benign disease and 84 women were diagnosed with an invasive malignancy. The sensitivity for the initial TB recommendations using ROMA in conjunction with clinical judgment for detecting malignancy was 100% with a specificity of 47.7% and a NPV of 100%. When including low malignant potential tumors the sensitivity was 99.1%. For stage I-IV EOC ROMA alone had a sensitivity of 95.3%.

Conclusions: ROMA in conjunction with clinical assessment can safely identify women for conservative management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2015.09.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4868067PMC
November 2015

Associations between etiologic factors and mortality after endometrial cancer diagnosis: the NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group 210 trial.

Gynecol Oncol 2015 Oct 1;139(1):70-6. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Few studies have analyzed relationships between risk factors for endometrial cancer, especially with regard to aggressive (non-endometrioid) histologic subtypes, and prognosis. We examined these relationships in the prospective NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group 210 trial.

Methods: Prior to surgery, participants completed a questionnaire assessing risk factors for gynecologic cancers. Pathology data were derived from clinical reports and central review. We used the Fine and Gray subdistribution hazards model to estimate subhazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between etiologic factors and cause-specific subhazards in the presence of competing risks. These models were stratified by tumor subtype and adjusted for stage and socioeconomic status indicators.

Results: Median follow-up was 60months after enrollment (range: 1day-118months). Among 4609 participants, a total of 854 deaths occurred, of which, 582 deaths were attributed to endometrial carcinoma. Among low-grade endometrioid cases, endometrial carcinoma-specific subhazards were significantly associated with age at diagnosis (HR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01-1.06 per year, P-trend) and BMI (class II obesity vs. normal BMI: HR=2.29, 95% CI=1.06-4.98, P-trend=0.01). Among high-grade endometrioid cases, endometrial carcinoma-specific subhazards were associated with age at diagnosis (HR=1.05, 95% CI=1.02-1.07 per year, P-trend<0.001). Among non-endometrioid cases, endometrial carcinoma-specific subhazards were associated with parity relative to nulliparity among serous (HR=0.55, 95% CI=0.36-0.82) and carcinosarcoma cases (HR=2.01, 95% CI=1.00-4.05).

Discussion: Several endometrial carcinoma risk factors are associated with prognosis, which occurs in a tumor-subtype specific context. If confirmed, these results would suggest that factors beyond histopathologic features and stage are related to prognosis. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00340808.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2015.08.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4587355PMC
October 2015

Relationships of Tubal Ligation to Endometrial Carcinoma Stage and Mortality in the NRG Oncology/ Gynecologic Oncology Group 210 Trial.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2015 Sep 18;107(9). Epub 2015 Jun 18.

: Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (ASF, LAB) and Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program, Division of Cancer Prevention (ASF), National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK (SM, JLW); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (WTC); Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (DM); Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH (DEC); Women and Infants Hospital/Brown University, Providence, RI (RGM); University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (LSD); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (RAS); Anatomic Pathology, Penn State Milton S. Hersey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (RZ); Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (MES).

Background: Stage is a critical determinant of treatment among endometrial carcinoma patients; understanding patterns of tumor spread may suggest approaches to improve staging. Specifically, the importance of exfoliation of endometrial carcinoma cells through the fallopian tubes into the peritoneum is ill defined. We assessed the hypothesis that tubal ligation (TL), which should impede transtubal passage of cells, is associated with lower endometrial carcinoma stage at presentation and, consequently, lower mortality.

Methods: The NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 210 Trial included 4489 endometrial carcinoma patients who completed a risk factor questionnaire that included TL history. Pathology data were derived from clinical reports and central review. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between TL with stage and peritoneal metastasis, overall and by tumor subtype. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for TL and mortality. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: Compared with stage I, TL was inversely associated with stage III (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.78) and stage IV carcinomas (OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.24) overall and among individual tumor subtypes. TL was inversely related to peritoneal metastasis overall (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.68) and among serous carcinomas (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.68). In multivariable models unadjusted for stage, TL was associated with lower endometrial carcinoma-specific mortality (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.91); however, adjustment for stage eliminated the survival advantage. Similar relationships with all-cause mortality were observed.

Conclusions: TL is associated with lower stage and mortality among women with aggressive endometrial carcinomas, suggesting transtubal spread is clinically important. Future studies should evaluate whether detection of intraluminal tumor cells is prognostically relevant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djv158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4836803PMC
September 2015

The cranberry flavonoids PAC DP-9 and quercetin aglycone induce cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest and increase cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer cells.

Int J Oncol 2015 May 17;46(5):1924-34. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.

Cranberry flavonoids (flavonols and flavan-3-ols), in addition to their antioxidant properties, have been shown to possess potential in vitro activity against several cancers. However, the difficulty of isolating cranberry compounds has largely limited anticancer research to crude fractions without well-defined compound composition. In this study, individual cranberry flavonoids were isolated to the highest purity achieved so far using gravity and high performance column chromatography and LC-MS characterization. MTS assay indicated differential cell viability reduction of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cells treated with individual cranberry flavonoids. Treatment with quercetin aglycone and PAC DP-9, which exhibited the strongest activity, induced apoptosis, led to caspase-3 activation and PARP deactivation, and increased sensitivity to cisplatin. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy and western blot study revealed reduced expression and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in PAC DP-9 treated SKOV-3 cells. In addition, quercetin aglycone and PAC DP-9 deactivated MAPK-ERK pathway, induced downregulation of cyclin D1, DNA-PK, phospho-histone H3 and upregulation of p21, and arrested cell cycle progression. Overall, this study demonstrates promising in vitro cytotoxic and anti-proliferative properties of two newly characterized cranberry flavonoids, quercetin aglycone and PAC DP-9, against ovarian cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2015.2931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4383025PMC
May 2015

Predictive factors for the presence of malignant transformation of pelvic endometriosis.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2015 Feb 2;185:23-7. Epub 2014 Dec 2.

Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital, Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, RI, United States.

Objectives: To determine predictive factors for the presence of malignant transformation in ovarian endometriotic cysts.

Study Design: This was an IRB approved, case control study analyzing patient data from 2004 to 2013. Pathology database records were searched to identify patients with benign endometrioma and ovarian carcinoma arising in the background of endometriosis. Inclusion criteria required each patient to have a preoperative diagnosis of adnexal mass and no other findings concerning for malignancy. Patient clinical records were queried for preoperative symptoms, serum CA125 levels and radiologic findings. Pathologic data were collected including histology, tumor grade and stage.

Results: A total of 138 patients met inclusion criteria; 42 women with ovarian cancer arising in the background of endometriosis and 96 women with benign endometrioma. Women diagnosed with ovarian cancer were significantly older than women with endometriosis (53.6 vs. 39.2 years). There was no difference in presence of symptoms between the two groups. Women with malignant tumors were found to have significantly larger cysts (14 cm vs. 7.5 cm; p<0.0001) that were more often multilocular (45.7% vs. 12.2%; p<0.0001), and contained solid components (77.1% vs. 14.5%; p<0.0001). Among patients that were observed prior to surgery there was a significant difference in the change in size of the mass over time with 4.2 cm increase for cases vs. 1.0 cm increase for controls (p=0.02). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that for every 5 years increase in age there was an adjusted OR of 2.17 (p=0.003). An age of 49 years or greater had an 80.6% sensitivity (95% CI: 62.5-92.5%) and an 82.9% specificity (95% CI: 67.9-92.8%) for malignancy, and solid component on imaging had an adjusted OR of 23.7 (p<0.0001). Serum CA125 levels tended to be higher in patients with malignant tumors but did not reach statistical significance with a mean of 204.9 vs. 66.9 (p=0.1).

Conclusions: Significant predictors for malignant transformation of endometriosis include cyst characteristics and age. Women above the age of 49 with multilocular cysts and solid components are at high risk for malignant transformation of endometriosis. Serum CA125 level is not a significant predictor of malignant transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.11.029DOI Listing
February 2015

Spiroguanidine rhodamines as fluorogenic probes for lysophosphatidic acid.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2015 Jan;51(9):1697-700

Department of Chemistry, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97201, USA.

Direct determination of total lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was accomplished using newly developed spiroguanidines derived from rhodamine B as universal fluorogenic probes. Optimum conditions for the quantitative analysis of total LPA were investigated. The linear range for the determination of total LPA is up to 5 μM with a limit of detection of 0.512 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4cc08818bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4320994PMC
January 2015

Combining clinical assessment and the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm for the prediction of ovarian cancer.

Gynecol Oncol 2014 Dec 23;135(3):547-51. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objectives: ACOG guidelines for the evaluation of women with a pelvic mass employ a combination of physical exam, imaging, and CA125 to guide physicians in the triage of women to gynecologic oncologists. We studied the use of ROMA with clinical assessment for cancer risk assessment in women with a pelvic mass.

Methods: This was a prospective, multicenter trial evaluating women with a pelvic mass who had an initial clinical risk assessment (ICRA) performed by a generalist. ROMA scores were calculated and sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were determined for ICRA and ICRA+ROMA.

Results: A total of 461 women were entered into the study. There were 375 benign tumors, 48 EOC, 18 LMP tumors and 20 non-ovarian malignancies. For detection of ovarian cancer alone, ICRA had a sensitivity of 85.4%, a specificity of 84.3%, and a NPV of 97.8%. Adding ROMA to ICRA produced a significant improvement of 8.4% in sensitivity, achieving a sensitivity of 93.8% with a specificity of 67.2% and a NPV of 98.8%. Examination of all malignancies (ovarian & non-ovarian) provided a sensitivity of 89.7% for ROMA+ICRA in comparison to 77.9% for ICRA alone, a significant increase in sensitivity of 11.8%. The NPV also significantly increased from 95.5% to 97.3%. Overall, ROMA detected 13 additional malignancies missed by ICRA.

Conclusions: Adjunctive use of ROMA with clinical assessment improves the stratification of women with a pelvic mass into low and high risk groups for ovarian cancer. The combination is particularly effective in ruling out malignant disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.10.017DOI Listing
December 2014

HE4 expression is associated with hormonal elements and mediated by importin-dependent nuclear translocation.

Sci Rep 2014 Jun 30;4:5500. Epub 2014 Jun 30.

Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital, Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, RI, 02905, USA.

Antiestrogens including tamoxifen and fulvestrant have been evaluated as chemotherapeutics for ovarian cancer, particularly in cases of platinum resistant disease. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is highly overexpressed in women with ovarian cancer and overexpression of HE4 has been found to correlate with platinum resistance. However, the role of HE4 in modulating responses to hormones and hormonal therapy has not been characterized in ovarian cancer. Here we demonstrate that 17β-estradiol, tamoxifen, and fulvestrant induce nuclear and nucleolar translocation of HE4 and that HE4 overexpression induces resistance to antiestrogens. HE4 was found to interact with estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), and HE4 overexpression resulted in ER-α downregulation in vitro and in human ovarian cancers. We identified a novel role for importin-4 in governing the nuclear transport of HE4. Treatment with ivermectin, an importin inhibitor, blocked HE4/importin-4 nuclear accumulation and sensitized HE4-overexpressing ovarian cancer cells to fulvestrant and tamoxifen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep05500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4074789PMC
June 2014

Long-term follow-up of vulvar cancer patients evaluated with sentinel lymph node biopsy alone.

Gynecol Oncol 2014 Jun 11;133(3):416-20. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Program in Women's Oncology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Women and Infants Hospital, 101 Dudley Street, Providence, RI, USA.

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine SLN evaluation alone in women with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the vulva and evaluate the inguinal recurrence and complication rates.

Methods: An IRB approved prospective study enrolled patients with SCC of the vulva. Peritumoral injection of Tc-99 sulfur colloid and blue dye was used to identify SLNs intraoperatively. Patients with negative SLN for metastasis were followed clinically without further treatment. Patients with metastasis to a SLN underwent full groin node dissection followed by standard treatment protocols.

Results: A total of 73 women were enrolled onto protocol with 69 patients undergoing SLN dissection. Mean age was 66.9years (range: 29-91) with 47 stage I, 12 stage II, 9 stage III, 2 stage IV and 3 unstaged patients. SLN dissections were successful in 63 patients. Of the 111 groins evaluated with a SLN dissection 93% had a SLN identified with an average of 2 SLN per groin. There were 92 groins with negative SLN and 11 groins with positive SLN. 57 patients had negative SLN and underwent conservative management with the median follow-up of 58.3months. Three patients experienced groin recurrences (2 unilateral, 1 bilateral) for a recurrence rate of 5.2% (3/57). The complication rate for the inguinal incisions was 17.5% (1 cellulitis, 1 abscess, 2 lymphoceles, 5 lymphedema and leg pain).

Conclusions: Isolated SLN dissection alone has a low inguinal recurrence rate with decreased complications and should be considered as an option for women with SCC of the vulva.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.03.010DOI Listing
June 2014

A chemoresponse assay for prediction of platinum resistance in primary ovarian cancer.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2014 Jul 12;211(1):68.e1-8. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital, Brown University, Providence, RI.

Objective: Recurrence following primary platinum-based chemotherapy remains a challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. This study examines whether a chemoresponse assay can identify patients who are platinum-resistant prior to treatment.

Study Design: Women (n = 276) with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III-IV ovarian, fallopian, and peritoneal cancer were enrolled in an observational study, and the responsiveness of their tumors was evaluated using a chemoresponse assay. All patients were treated with a platinum/taxane regimen following cytoreductive surgery. Assay responses to carboplatin or paclitaxel were classified as sensitive, intermediate sensitive (IS), or resistant. Association of assay response with progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and a Cox regression model.

Results: Patients whose tumors were resistant to carboplatin were at increased risk of disease progression compared to those with nonresistant (sensitive + IS) tumors (median PFS: 11.8 vs 16.6 months, respectively, P < .001), and the association was confirmed after adjusting for other clinical factors (hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.62; P = .013). Association of assay response to paclitaxel with PFS trended in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.95; P = .245). For tumors resistant to carboplatin, 59% were sensitive or IS to at least 1 other commonly used agent, demonstrating the ability of the assay to inform treatment decisions beyond the standard platinum/taxane regimen.

Conclusion: Assay resistance to carboplatin is strongly associated with shortened PFS among advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated with carboplatin + paclitaxel therapy, supporting use of this assay to identify patients likely to experience early recurrence on standard platinum-based therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2014.02.009DOI Listing
July 2014

HE4 (WFDC2) gene overexpression promotes ovarian tumor growth.

Sci Rep 2014 Jan 6;4:3574. Epub 2014 Jan 6.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Women and Infants' Hospital of Rhode Island, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

Selective overexpression of Human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4) points to a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis but little is known about the role the HE4 gene or the gene product plays. Here we show that elevated HE4 serum levels correlate with chemoresistance and decreased survival rates in EOC patients. HE4 overexpression promoted xenograft tumor growth and chemoresistance against cisplatin in an animal model resulting in reduced survival rates. HE4 displayed responses to tumor microenvironment constituents and presented increased expression as well as nuclear translocation upon EGF, VEGF and Insulin treatment and nucleolar localization with Insulin treatment. HE4 interacts with EGFR, IGF1R, and transcription factor HIF1α. Constructs of antisense phosphorothio-oligonucleotides targeting HE4 arrested tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively these findings implicate increased HE4 expression as a molecular factor in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. Selective targeting directed towards the HE4 protein demonstrates therapeutic benefits for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep03574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3880958PMC
January 2014