Publications by authors named "Richard G Knowles"

17 Publications

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Urinary Leukotriene E and Prostaglandin D Metabolites Increase in Adult and Childhood Severe Asthma Characterized by Type 2 Inflammation. A Clinical Observational Study.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 01;203(1):37-53

The Center for Allergy Research.

New approaches are needed to guide personalized treatment of asthma. To test if urinary eicosanoid metabolites can direct asthma phenotyping. Urinary metabolites of prostaglandins (PGs), cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), and isoprostanes were quantified in the U-BIOPRED (Unbiased Biomarkers for the Prediction of Respiratory Diseases Outcomes) study including 86 adults with mild-to-moderate asthma (MMA), 411 with severe asthma (SA), and 100 healthy control participants. Validation was performed internally in 302 participants with SA followed up after 12-18 months and externally in 95 adolescents with asthma. Metabolite concentrations in healthy control participants were unrelated to age, body mass index, and sex, except for the PGE pathway. Eicosanoid concentrations were generally greater in participants with MMA relative to healthy control participants, with further elevations in participants with SA. However, PGE metabolite concentrations were either the same or lower in male nonsmokers with asthma than in healthy control participants. Metabolite concentrations were unchanged in those with asthma who adhered to oral corticosteroid treatment as documented by urinary prednisolone detection, whereas those with SA treated with omalizumab had lower concentrations of LTE and the PGD metabolite 2,3-dinor-11β-PGF. High concentrations of LTE and PGD metabolites were associated with lower lung function and increased amounts of exhaled nitric oxide and eosinophil markers in blood, sputum, and urine in U-BIOPRED participants and in adolescents with asthma. These type 2 (T2) asthma associations were reproduced in the follow-up visit of the U-BIOPRED study and were found to be as sensitive to detect T2 inflammation as the established biomarkers. Monitoring of urinary eicosanoids can identify T2 asthma and introduces a new noninvasive approach for molecular phenotyping of adult and adolescent asthma.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01976767).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201909-1869OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781128PMC
January 2021

Exhaled volatile organic compounds as markers for medication use in asthma.

Eur Respir J 2020 02 27;55(2). Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Dept of Respiratory Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Asthma is a heterogeneous condition, characterised by chronic inflammation of the airways, typically managed with inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids. In the case of uncontrolled asthma, oral corticosteroids (OCSs) are often prescribed. Good adherence and inhalation technique are associated with improved outcomes; however, it is difficult to monitor appropriate drug intake and effectiveness in individual patients. Exhaled breath contains thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that reflect changes in the body's chemistry and may be useful for monitoring drug pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics. We aimed to investigate the association of exhaled VOCs in severe asthma patients from the U-BIOPRED cohort (by gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry) with urinary levels of salbutamol and OCSs (by liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry).

Methods: Samples were collected at baseline and after 12-18 months of follow-up. Statistical analysis was based on univariate and multivariate modelling, followed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) calculation. Results were verified through longitudinal replication and independent validation.

Results: Data were available for 78 patients (baseline n=48, replication n=30 and validation n=30). Baseline AUC values were 82.1% (95% CI 70.4-93.9%) for salbutamol and 78.8% (95% CI 65.8-91.8%) for OCS. These outcomes could be adequately replicated and validated. Additional regression analysis between qualified exhaled VOCs and urinary concentrations of salbutamol and prednisone showed statistically significant correlations (p<0.01).

Conclusion: We have linked exhaled VOCs to urinary detection of salbutamol and OCSs. This merits further development of breathomics into a point-of-care tool for therapeutic drug monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00544-2019DOI Listing
February 2020

AsthmaMap: An expert-driven computational representation of disease mechanisms.

Clin Exp Allergy 2018 08;48(8):916-918

European Institute for Systems Biology and Medicine, CIRI UMR5308, CNRS-ENS-UCBL-INSERM, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cea.13211DOI Listing
August 2018

Translational models of lung disease.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2015 Feb;128(4):235-56

§Knowles Consulting, Stevenage Bioscience Catalyst, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage SG1 2FX, U.K.

The 2nd Cross Company Respiratory Symposium (CCRS), held in Horsham, U.K. in 2012, brought together representatives from across the pharmaceutical industry with expert academics, in the common interest of improving the design and translational predictiveness of in vivo models of respiratory disease. Organized by the respiratory representatives of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Federations (EFPIA) group of companies involved in the EU-funded project (U-BIOPRED), the aim of the symposium was to identify state-of-the-art improvements in the utility and design of models of respiratory disease, with a view to improving their translational potential and reducing wasteful animal usage. The respiratory research and development community is responding to the challenge of improving translation in several ways: greater collaboration and open sharing of data, careful selection of the species, complexity and chronicity of the models, improved practices in preclinical research, continued refinement in models of respiratory diseases and their sub-types, greater understanding of the biology underlying human respiratory diseases and their sub-types, and finally greater use of human (and especially disease-relevant) cells, tissues and explants. The present review highlights these initiatives, combining lessons from the symposium and papers published in Clinical Science arising from the symposium, with critiques of the models currently used in the settings of asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and COPD. The ultimate hope is that this will contribute to a more rational, efficient and sustainable development of a range of new treatments for respiratory diseases that continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality across the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20140373DOI Listing
February 2015

In vitro pharmacological characterization of vilanterol, a novel long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist with 24-hour duration of action.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2013 Jan 6;344(1):218-30. Epub 2012 Nov 6.

Respiratory TAU, GlaxoSmithKline, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, UK.

Vilanterol trifenatate (vilanterol) is a novel, long-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor (β(2)-AR) agonist with 24 h activity. In this study, we describe the preclinical pharmacological profile of vilanterol using radioligand binding and cAMP studies in recombinant assays as well as human and guinea pig tissue systems to characterize β(2)-AR binding and functional properties. Vilanterol displayed a subnanomolar affinity for the β(2)-AR that was comparable with that of salmeterol but higher than olodaterol, formoterol, and indacaterol. In cAMP functional activity studies, vilanterol demonstrated similar selectivity as salmeterol for β(2)- over β(1)-AR and β(3)-AR, but a significantly improved selectivity profile than formoterol and indacaterol. Vilanterol also showed a level of intrinsic efficacy that was comparable to indacaterol but significantly greater than that of salmeterol. In cellular cAMP production and tissue-based studies measuring persistence and reassertion, vilanterol had a persistence of action comparable with indacaterol and longer than formoterol. In addition, vilanterol demonstrated reassertion activity in both cell and tissue systems that was comparable with salmeterol and indacaterol but longer than formoterol. In human airways, vilanterol was shown to have a faster onset and longer duration of action than salmeterol, exhibiting a significant level of bronchodilation 22 h after treatment. From these investigations, the data for vilanterol are consistent, showing that it is a novel, potent, and selective β(2)-AR receptor agonist with a long duration of action. This pharmacological profile combined with clinical data is consistent with once a day dosing of vilanterol in the treatment of both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.112.198481DOI Listing
January 2013

A comparison of antiasthma drugs between acute and chronic ovalbumin-challenged guinea-pig models of asthma.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2012 Dec 23;25(6):453-64. Epub 2012 Aug 23.

Division of Pharmacology, Cardiff School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Technology, Cardiff University, Redwood Building, King Edward VII Avenue, Cathays Park, Cardiff CF1 3XF, United Kingdom.

Pre-clinical evaluation of asthma therapies requires animal models of chronic airways inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and lung remodelling that accurately predict drug effectiveness in human asthma. However, most animal models focus on acute allergen challenges where chronic inflammation and airway remodelling are absent. Chronic allergen challenge models have been developed in mice but few studies use guinea-pigs which may be more relevant to humans. We tested the hypothesis that a chronic rather than acute pulmonary inflammation model would best predict clinical outcome for asthma treatments. Guinea-pigs sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) received single (acute) or nine OVA inhalation challenges at 48 h intervals (chronic). Airways function was recorded as specific airways conductance (sG(aw)) in conscious animals for 12 h after OVA challenge. AHR to inhaled histamine, inflammatory cell influx and lung histology were determined 24 h after the single or 9th OVA exposure. The inhaled corticosteroid, fluticasone propionate (FP), the phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, roflumilast, and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, GW274150, orally, were administered 24 and 0.5 h before and 6 h after the single or final chronic OVA exposure. Both models displayed early (EAR) and late (LAR) asthmatic responses to OVA challenge, as falls in sG(aw), AHR, as increased histamine-induced bronchoconstriction, and inflammatory cell influx. Tissue remodelling, seen as increased collagen and goblet cell hyperplasia, occurred after multiple OVA challenge. Treatment with FP and roflumilast inhibited the LAR, cell influx and AHR in both models, and the remodelling in the chronic model. GW274150 also inhibited the LAR, AHR and eosinophil influx in the acute model, but not, together with the remodelling, in the chronic model. In the clinical setting, inhaled corticosteroids and phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors are relatively effective against most features of asthma whereas the iNOS inhibitor GW274150 was ineffective. Thus, while there remain certain differences between our data and clinical effectiveness of these antiasthma drugs, a chronic pulmonary inflammation guinea-pig model does appear to be a better pre-clinical predictor of potential asthma therapeutics than an acute model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2012.08.004DOI Listing
December 2012

Heteroalicyclic carboxamidines as inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase; the identification of (2R)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamidine as a potent and selective haem-co-ordinating inhibitor.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2011 May 21;21(10):3037-40. Epub 2011 Mar 21.

GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Medicines Research Centre, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, UK.

Heteroalicyclic carboxamidines were synthesised and evaluated as inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases. (2R)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxamidine, in particular, was shown to be a highly potent in vitro (IC(50)=0.12 μM) and selective iNOS inhibitor (>100-fold vs both eNOS and nNOS), with probable binding to the key anchoring glutamate residue and co-ordination to the haem iron.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.03.038DOI Listing
May 2011

Challenges for the development of new treatments for severe asthma: a pharmaceutical perspective.

Curr Pharm Des 2011 ;17(7):699-702

Refractory Respiratory Inflammation Biology, Respiratory Therapy Area Unit, GlaxoSmithKline R & D, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK.

The pharmaceutical industry is interested in developing new treatments for severe asthma (SA), recognising that there is a substantial unmet clinical need in this area. However, it faces a significant set of barriers in attempting to do so, including a) problems arising from the way SA is defined, b) the heterogeneity of this condition, c) poor understanding of its aetiology, d) the absence of validated animal and tissue or cellular models, e) the need for biomarkers and experimental clinical models of severe asthma and its sub-groups, and f) the length and size of the clinical trials likely to be required to obtain approval and reimbursement. The discovery and validation of novel biomarkers and surrogates is likely to be a crucial part of meeting these challenges, and many academic groups and pharmaceutical companies working in this area are increasingly turning to pre-competitive, highly collaborative ways of working to address them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161211795429019DOI Listing
March 2012

In vivo characterization of GSK256066, a high-affinity inhaled phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2011 Apr 4;337(1):137-44. Epub 2011 Jan 4.

UK Discovery Biology, Respiratory Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Ltd, Medicines Research Centre, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom SG1 2NY.

Oral phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitors have demonstrated clinical efficacy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Preclinical and clinical investigation of inhaled PDE4 inhibitors is ongoing. 6-({3-[(Dimethylamino)carbonyl]phenyl}sulfonyl)-8-methyl-4-{[3-methyloxy)phenyl]amino}-3-quinolinecarboxamide (GSK256066) is an exceptionally high-affinity and selective inhibitor of PDE4 designed for inhaled delivery. The aim of these studies was to investigate the potency, duration of action, and therapeutic index of GSK256066 in animal models of pulmonary inflammation. The effects of intratracheally administered GSK256066 were investigated in rat lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced models of acute pulmonary inflammation. In some studies, fluticasone propionate (FP) was included as a comparator. The therapeutic index (anti-inflammatory effect versus emesis) of GSK256066 was studied in ferrets where acute pulmonary inflammation was induced with inhaled LPS. In rats, GSK256066 and FP caused significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of LPS-induced pulmonary neutrophilia. The duration of action of GSK256066 at 10 × ED(50) dose (10 μg/kg) was 12 h. GSK256066 and FP also inhibited LPS-induced increases in exhaled nitric oxide (ED(50) 35 and 92 μg/kg, respectively). In addition, GSK256066 inhibited pulmonary eosinophilia in rats exposed to OVA (ED(50) 0.4 μg/kg). In ferrets, inhaled GSK256066 inhibited LPS-induced pulmonary neutrophilia (ED(50) 18 μg/kg), and no emetic episodes were observed. Thus, GSK256066 may have an improved therapeutic index compared with oral PDE4 inhibitors, e.g., cilomilast and roflumilast. In summary, GSK256066 demonstrates potent and long-lasting anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of pulmonary inflammation and does not induce emetic episodes in ferrets. GSK256066 has potential as an inhaled therapeutic for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.110.173641DOI Listing
April 2011

GSK256066, an exceptionally high-affinity and selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 suitable for administration by inhalation: in vitro, kinetic, and in vivo characterization.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2011 Apr 4;337(1):145-54. Epub 2011 Jan 4.

Drug Discovery Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Oral phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitors such as roflumilast have established the potential of PDE4 inhibition for the treatment of respiratory diseases. However, PDE4 inhibitor efficacy is limited by mechanism-related side effects such as emesis and nausea. Delivering the inhibitor by the inhaled route may improve therapeutic index, and we describe 6-({3-[(dimethylamino)carbonyl]phenyl}sulfonyl)-8-methyl-4-{[3-methyloxy) phenyl]amino}-3-quinolinecarboxamide (GSK256066), an exceptionally high-affinity inhibitor of PDE4 designed for inhaled administration. GSK256066 is a slow and tight binding inhibitor of PDE4B (apparent IC(50) 3.2 pM; steady-state IC(50) <0.5 pM), which is more potent than any previously documented compound, for example, roflumilast (IC(50) 390 pM), tofimilast (IC(50) 1.6 nM), and cilomilast (IC(50) 74 nM). Consistent with this, GSK256066 inhibited tumor necrosis factor α production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes with 0.01 nM IC(50) (compared with IC(50) values of 5, 22, and 389 nM for roflumilast, tofimilast, and cilomilast, respectively) and by LPS-stimulated whole blood with 126 pM IC(50). GSK256066 was highly selective for PDE4 (>380,000-fold versus PDE1, PDE2, PDE3, PDE5, and PDE6 and >2500-fold against PDE7), inhibited PDE4 isoforms A-D with equal affinity, and had a substantial high-affinity rolipram binding site ratio (>17). When administered intratracheally to rats, GSK256066 inhibited LPS-induced pulmonary neutrophilia with ED(50) values of 1.1 μg/kg (aqueous suspension) and 2.9 μg/kg (dry powder formulation) and was more potent than an aqueous suspension of the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate (ED(50) 9.3 μg/kg). Thus, GSK256066 has been demonstrated to have exceptional potency in vitro and in vivo and is being clinically investigated as a treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.110.173690DOI Listing
April 2011

The identification of a novel phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, 1-ethyl-5-{5-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl}-N-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-amine (EPPA-1), with improved therapeutic index using pica feeding in rats as a measure of emetogenicity.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2009 Sep 4;330(3):922-31. Epub 2009 Jun 4.

Respiratory Center of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406, USA.

Clinical utility of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents has, to date, been limited by adverse effects including nausea and emesis, making accurate assessment of emetic versus anti-inflammatory potencies critical to the development of inhibitors with improved therapeutic indices. In the present study we determined the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory potencies of the first-generation PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram, the second-generation inhibitors, roflumilast and cilomilast, and a novel third generation inhibitor, 1-ethyl-5-{5-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl}-N-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-amine (EPPA-1). The rank-order potency against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was roflumilast (IC(50) = 5 nM) > EPPA-1 (38) > rolipram (269) > cilomilast (389), and against LPS-induced pulmonary neutrophilia in the rat was EPPA-1 (D(50) = 0.042 mg/kg) > roflumilast (0.24) > rolipram (3.34) > cilomilast (4.54). Pica, the consumption of non-nutritive substances in response to gastrointestinal stress, was used as a surrogate measure for emesis, giving a rank-order potency of rolipram (D(50) = 0.495 mg/kg) > roflumilast (1.6) > cilomilast (6.4) > EPPA-1 (24.3). The low and high emetogenic activities of EPPA-1 and rolipram, respectively, detected in the pica model were confirmed in a second surrogate model of emesis, reversal of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated anesthesia in the mouse. The rank order of therapeutic indices derived in the rat [(pica D(50))/(neutrophilia D(50))] was EPPA-1 (578) > roflumilast (6.4) > cilomilast (1.4) > rolipram (0.15), consistent with the rank order derived in the ferret [(emesis D(50))/(neutrophilia D(50))]. These data validate rat pica feeding as a surrogate for PDE4 inhibitor-induced emesis in higher species, and identify EPPA-1 as a novel PDE4 inhibitor with an improved therapeutic index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.109.152454DOI Listing
September 2009

Selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition has no effect on allergen challenge in asthma.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007 Nov 23;176(10):988-93. Epub 2007 Aug 23.

Medicines Evaluation Unit, South Manchester University Hospitals Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Rationale: Exhaled breath nitric oxide (Fe(NO)) is increased in asthma. NO is produced predominantly by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).

Objectives: We evaluated the selective and potent iNOS inhibitor GW274150 in asthma.

Methods: Twenty-eight steroid-naive patients with asthma participated in a double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, three-period cross-over study. Subjects received GW274150 (90 mg), montelukast (10 mg), or placebo once daily for 14 days. Fe(NO) was assessed predose on Days 1, 7, 10, and 14. Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenge was performed on Day 10, allergen challenge on Day 14 followed by methacholine challenge (MCh) 24 hours later, and then bronchoscopy.

Measurements And Main Results: GW274150 reduced predose Fe(NO) by 73, 75, and 71% on Days 7, 10, and 14, respectively, compared with placebo. Montelukast did not reduce Fe(NO). GW274150 did not inhibit AMP reactivity whereas for montelukast there was a trend toward inhibition: the mean doubling dose difference versus placebo was 0.64 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0 to 1.28). GW274150 did not inhibit early (EAR) and late (LAR) asthmatic responses to allergen, or MCh reactivity, despite reduced Fe(NO) levels. Montelukast inhibited EAR and LAR FEV1; the mean difference versus placebo for minimal FEV1 was 0.37 L (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.55) and 0.18 L (95% CI, 0.04 to 0.32), respectively. MCh reactivity was inhibited by montelukast (mean doubling dose difference vs. placebo, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.02 to 1.01). GW271540 also had no effect on inflammatory cell numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after allergen challenge.

Conclusions: Selective iNOS inhibition effectively reduces Fe(NO) but does not affect airway hyperreactivity or airway inflammatory cell numbers after allergen challenge in subjects with asthma. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00273013).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200704-588OCDOI Listing
November 2007

GW274150, a novel and highly selective inhibitor of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), shows analgesic effects in rat models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

Pain 2006 Jan 19;120(1-2):170-181. Epub 2005 Dec 19.

Department of Respiratory Pharmacology, RI CEDD GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Medicines Research Centre, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, UK Department of Pain, Neurology+GI CEDD, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue. Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, DMPK, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 ODP, UK.

Nitric oxide (NO), synthesised by different isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), has been linked with the development and maintenance of nociception. We studied the role of the inducible isoform, iNOS, in two different rat pain models with an inflammatory component. iNOS was immunohistochemically detected locally in the paw 6h after Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) injection, showing a plateau at 24-72 h and falling slowly in the following weeks. This correlated with the late phase of the hypersensitivity to pain revealed in the behavioural tests. A highly selective iNOS inhibitor GW274150 (1-30 mg/kg orally, 24h after FCA) suppressed the accumulation of nitrite in the inflamed paw indicating substantial iNOS inhibition. At the same time it partially reversed FCA-induced hypersensitivity to pain and edema in a dose-dependent manner. After Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI) surgery to the sciatic nerve, iNOS presence was only detected locally in the region of the nerve (inflammatory cells). GW274150 (3-30 mg/kg orally, 21 days after surgery) also reversed significantly the CCI-associated hypersensitivity to pain. No iNOS was detectable in dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord or brain in either model. This study demonstrates a role for peripherally-expressed iNOS in pain conditions with an inflammatory component and the potential value of iNOS inhibitors in such conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2005.10.028DOI Listing
January 2006

GW274150 and GW273629 are potent and highly selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase in vitro and in vivo.

Br J Pharmacol 2005 Jun;145(3):301-12

Respiratory & Inflammation Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research, Medicines Research Centre, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Herts SG1 2NY, UK.

1 GW274150 ([2-[(1-iminoethyl) amino]ethyl]-L-homocysteine) and GW273629 (3-[[2-[(1-iminoethyl)amino]ethyl]sulphonyl]-L-alanine) are potent, time-dependent, highly selective inhibitors of human inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) vs endothelial NOS (eNOS) (>100-fold) or neuronal NOS (nNOS) (>80-fold). GW274150 and GW273629 are arginine competitive, NADPH-dependent inhibitors of human iNOS with steady state K(d) values of <40 and <90 nM, respectively. 2 GW274150 and GW273629 inhibited intracellular iNOS in J774 cells in a time-dependent manner, reaching IC(50) values of 0.2+/-0.04 and 1.3+/-0.16 microM, respectively. They were also acutely selective in intact rat tissues: GW274150 was >260-fold and 219-fold selective for iNOS against eNOS and nNOS, respectively, while GW273629 was >150-fold and 365-fold selective for iNOS against eNOS and nNOS, respectively. 3 The pharmacokinetic profile of GW274150 was biphasic in healthy rats and mice with a terminal half-life of approximately 6 h. That of GW273629 was also biphasic in rats, producing a terminal half-life of approximately 3 h. In mice however, elimination of GW273629 appeared monophasic and more rapid (approximately 10 min). Both compounds show a high oral bioavailability (>90%) in rats and mice. 4 GW274150 was effective in inhibiting LPS-induced plasma NO(x) levels in mice with an ED(50) of 3.2+/-0.7 mg kg(-1) after 14 h intraperitoneally (i.p.) and 3.8+/-1.5 mg kg(-1) after 14 h when administered orally. GW273629 showed shorter-lived effects on plasma NO(x) and an ED(50) of 9+/-2 mg kg(-1) after 2 h when administered i.p. 5 The effects of GW274150 and GW273629 in vivo were consistent with high selectivity for iNOS, as these inhibitors were of low potency against nNOS in the rat cerebellum and did not cause significant effects on blood pressure in instrumented mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0706168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1576141PMC
June 2005

Identification and characterization of PDE4A11, a novel, widely expressed long isoform encoded by the human PDE4A cAMP phosphodiesterase gene.

Mol Pharmacol 2005 Jun 28;67(6):1920-34. Epub 2005 Feb 28.

Molecular Pharmacology Group, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Wolfson Building, University Avenue, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK.

PDE4A11 is a novel cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase that is conserved in humans, mouse, rat, pig, and bat. Exon-1(4A11) encodes its unique, 81 amino acid N-terminal region. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction performed across the splice junction, plus identification of expressed sequence tags, identifies PDE4A11 as a long isoform possessing UCR1 and UCR2 regulatory domains. Transcript analysis shows that PDE4A11 is widely expressed compared with PDE4A10 and PDE4A4B long isoforms. Truncation analysis identifies a putative promoter in a 250-base pair region located immediately upstream of the start site in Exon-1(4A11). Recombinant PDE4A11, expressed in COS-7 cells, is a 126-kDa protein localized predominantly around the nucleus and in membrane ruffles. PDE4A11 exhibits a K(m) for cAMP hydrolysis of 4 microM, with relative V(max) similar to that of PDE4A10 and PDE4A4B. PDE4A11 is dose-dependently inhibited by rolipram, 4-[(3-butoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-methyl]-2-imidazolidinone (Ro 20-1724), cilomilast, roflumilast, and denbufylline, with IC(50) values of 0.7, 0.9, 0.03, 0.004, and 0.3 microM, respectively. Soluble and particulate PDE4A11 exhibit distinct rates of thermal inactivation (55 degrees C; T((0.5)) = 2.5 and 4.4 min, respectively). Elevating cAMP levels in COS-7 cells activates PDE4A11 concomitant with its phosphorylation at Ser119 by protein kinase A (PKA). PDE4A11 differs from PDE4A4 in sensitivity to cleavage by caspase-3, interaction with LYN SH3 domain, redistribution upon long-term rolipram challenge, and sensitivity to certain PDE4 inhibitors. PDE4A11, PDE4A10, and PDE4A4 all can interact with betaarrestin. PDE4A11 is a novel, widely expressed long isoform that is activated by PKA phosphorylation and shows a distinct intracellular localization, indicating that it may contribute to compartmentalized cAMP signaling in cells in which it is expressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/mol.104.009423DOI Listing
June 2005

Inhibition of iNOS activity by 1400W decreases glutamate release and ameliorates stroke outcome after experimental ischemia.

Neurobiol Dis 2005 Mar;18(2):375-84

Centro de Investigación, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Background And Purpose: It has been shown that the reversed operation of glutamate transporters when ATP levels fall accounts for most glutamate release induced by severe cerebral ischemia. Nitric oxide (NO) is formed after ischemia and causes ATP depletion. Our purpose is to test if NO release from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) after stroke may cause a delayed glutamate release due to ATP depletion that might underlie progression of the ischemic infarct. We have studied the effect of the highly selective inhibitor of iNOS activity 1400W on brain ATP levels, extracellular glutamate, and stroke outcome after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

Methods: To induce focal ischemia, the middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded by using the intraluminal thread technique (tMCAO). 1400W was administered, after tMCAO, by using an Alzet osmotic pump to yield a drug delivery rate of 2.5 mg/kg/h. Results. Postischemic treatment with 1400W induced a reduction in the neurofunctional impairment and in the total volume of brain infarct. Western blot analysis showed ischemia-induced expression of iNOS. Treatment with 1400W partially prevented delayed ATP reduction and produced inhibition of the subsequent delayed increase in glutamate levels caused by the ischemic insult.

Conclusions: Our data indicate that 1400W improves stroke outcome, an effect concomitant to the inhibition of both ischemia-induced decrease in brain ATP levels and increase in glutamate release. These results provide evidence indicating that the expression of iNOS induced by ischemia may contribute to the progression of the ischemic infarct and have important therapeutic implications for the management of stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2004.10.018DOI Listing
March 2005