Publications by authors named "Richard Fahey"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Rosiglitazone and a β-Adrenoceptor Agonist Are Both Required for Functional Browning of White Adipocytes in Culture.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 30;9:249. Epub 2018 May 30.

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

The recruitment of brite (or beige) adipocytes has been advocated as a means to combat obesity, due to their ability to phenotypically resemble brown adipocytes (BA). Lineage studies indicate that brite adipocytes are formed by differentiation of precursor cells or by direct conversion of existing white adipocytes, depending on the adipose depot examined. We have systematically compared the gene expression profile and a functional output (oxygen consumption) in mouse adipocytes cultured from two contrasting depots, namely interscapular brown adipose tissue, and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), following treatment with a known browning agent, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) activator rosiglitazone. Prototypical BA readily express uncoupling protein (UCP)1, and upstream regulators including the β-adrenoceptor and transcription factors involved in energy homeostasis. Adipocytes from inguinal WAT display maximal UCP1 expression and mitochondrial uncoupling only when treated with a combination of the PPARγ activator rosiglitazone and a β-adrenoceptor agonist. In conclusion, brite adipocytes are fully activated only when a browning agent (rosiglitazone) and a thermogenic agent (β-adrenoceptor agonist) are added in combination. The presence of rosiglitazone throughout the 7-day culture period partially masks the effects of β-adrenoceptor signaling in inguinal white adipocyte cultures, whereas including rosiglitazone only for the first 3 days promotes robust β-adrenoceptor expression and provides an improved window for detection of β-adrenoceptor responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5992408PMC
May 2018

The PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone promotes the induction of brite adipocytes, increasing β-adrenoceptor-mediated mitochondrial function and glucose uptake.

Cell Signal 2018 Jan 29;42:54-66. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 381 Royal Parade, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia; Department of Pharmacology, 9 Ancora Imparo Way, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia. Electronic address:

Recruitment and activation of brite (or beige) adipocytes has been advocated as a potential avenue for manipulating whole-body energy expenditure. Despite numerous studies illustrating the differences in gene and protein markers between brown, brite and white adipocytes, there is very little information on the adrenergic regulation and function of these brite adipocytes. We have compared the functional (cyclic AMP accumulation, oxygen consumption rates, mitochondrial function, glucose uptake, extracellular acidification rates, calcium influx) profiles of mouse adipocytes cultured from three contrasting depots, namely interscapular brown adipose tissue, and inguinal or epididymal white adipose tissues, following chronic treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist rosiglitazone. Prototypical brown adipocytes readily express β-adrenoceptors, and β-adrenoceptor stimulation increases cyclic AMP accumulation, oxygen consumption rates, mitochondrial function, glucose uptake, and extracellular acidification rates. Treatment of brown adipocytes with rosiglitazone increases uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) levels, and increases β-adrenoceptor mitochondrial function but does not affect glucose uptake responses. In contrast, inguinal white adipocytes only express UCP1 and β-adrenoceptors following rosiglitazone treatment, which results in an increase in all β-adrenoceptor-mediated functions. The effect of rosiglitazone in epididymal white adipocytes, was much lower compared to inguinal white adipocytes. Rosiglitazone also increased α-adrenoceptor mediated increases in calcium influx and glucose uptake (but not mitochondrial function) in inguinal and epididymal white adipocytes. In conclusion, the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone promotes the induction and function of brite adipocytes cultured from inguinal and epididymal white adipose depots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2017.09.023DOI Listing
January 2018

Methazolamide is a new hepatic insulin sensitizer that lowers blood glucose in vivo.

Diabetes 2012 Aug 14;61(8):2146-54. Epub 2012 May 14.

Metabolic Research Unit, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

We previously used Gene Expression Signature technology to identify methazolamide (MTZ) and related compounds with insulin sensitizing activity in vitro. The effects of these compounds were investigated in diabetic db/db mice, insulin-resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, and rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. MTZ reduced fasting blood glucose and HbA(1c) levels in db/db mice, improved glucose tolerance in DIO mice, and enhanced the glucose-lowering effects of exogenous insulin administration in rats with STZ-induced diabetes. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in DIO mice revealed that MTZ increased glucose infusion rate and suppressed endogenous glucose production. Whole-body or cellular oxygen consumption rate was not altered, suggesting MTZ may inhibit glucose production by different mechanism(s) to metformin. In support of this, MTZ enhanced the glucose-lowering effects of metformin in db/db mice. MTZ is known to be a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI); however, CAIs acetazolamide, ethoxyzolamide, dichlorphenamide, chlorthalidone, and furosemide were not effective in vivo. Our results demonstrate that MTZ acts as an insulin sensitizer that suppresses hepatic glucose production in vivo. The antidiabetic effect of MTZ does not appear to be a function of its known activity as a CAI. The additive glucose-lowering effect of MTZ together with metformin highlights the potential utility for the management of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db11-0578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3402314PMC
August 2012

A gene expression signature for insulin resistance.

Physiol Genomics 2011 Feb 16;43(3):110-20. Epub 2010 Nov 16.

Metabolic Research Unit, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Insulin resistance is a heterogeneous disorder caused by a range of genetic and environmental factors, and we hypothesize that its etiology varies considerably between individuals. This heterogeneity provides significant challenges to the development of effective therapeutic regimes for long-term management of type 2 diabetes. We describe a novel strategy, using large-scale gene expression profiling, to develop a gene expression signature (GES) that reflects the overall state of insulin resistance in cells and patients. The GES was developed from 3T3-L1 adipocytes that were made "insulin resistant" by treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and then reversed with aspirin and troglitazone ("resensitized"). The GES consisted of five genes whose expression levels best discriminated between the insulin-resistant and insulin-resensitized states. We then used this GES to screen a compound library for agents that affected the GES genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a way that most closely resembled the changes seen when insulin resistance was successfully reversed with aspirin and troglitazone. This screen identified both known and new insulin-sensitizing compounds including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, β-adrenergic antagonists, β-lactams, and sodium channel blockers. We tested the biological relevance of this GES in participants in the San Antonio Family Heart Study (n = 1,240) and showed that patients with the lowest GES scores were more insulin resistant (according to HOMA_IR and fasting plasma insulin levels; P < 0.001). These findings show that GES technology can be used for both the discovery of insulin-sensitizing compounds and the characterization of patients into subtypes of insulin resistance according to GES scores, opening the possibility of developing a personalized medicine approach to type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00115.2010DOI Listing
February 2011

Src homology 3-domain growth factor receptor-bound 2-like (endophilin) interacting protein 1, a novel neuronal protein that regulates energy balance.

Endocrinology 2005 Sep 26;146(9):3757-64. Epub 2005 May 26.

Metabolic Research Unit, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong 3217, Victoria, Australia.

To identify genes involved in the central regulation of energy balance, we compared hypothalamic mRNA from lean and obese Psammomys obesus, a polygenic model of obesity, using differential display PCR. One mRNA transcript was observed to be elevated in obese, and obese diabetic, P. obesus compared with lean animals and was subsequently found to be increased 4-fold in the hypothalamus of lethal yellow agouti (A(y)/a) mice, a murine model of obesity and diabetes. Intracerebroventricular infusion of antisense oligonucleotide targeted to this transcript selectively suppressed its hypothalamic mRNA levels and resulted in loss of body weight in both P. obesus and Sprague Dawley rats. Reductions in body weight were mediated by profoundly reduced food intake without a concomitant reduction in metabolic rate. Yeast two-hybrid screening, and confirmation in mammalian cells by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer analysis, demonstrated that the protein it encodes interacts with endophilins, mediators of synaptic vesicle recycling and receptor endocytosis in the brain. We therefore named this transcript Src homology 3-domain growth factor receptor-bound 2-like (endophilin) interacting protein 1 (SGIP1). SGIP1 encodes a large proline-rich protein that is expressed predominantly in the brain and is highly conserved between species. Together these data suggest that SGIP1 is an important and novel member of the group of neuronal molecules required for the regulation of energy homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2005-0282DOI Listing
September 2005

Profile of dyslipidemia in Psammomys obesus, an animal model of the metabolic syndrome.

Endocr Regul 2002 Mar;36(1):1-8

Metabolic Research Unite, School of Health Sciences, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds 3217, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: To investigate lipid profiles in Psammomys obesus and relationships between lipid profile and other components of the Metabolic Syndrome.

Methods: A total number of 49 adults with a wide range of body weight and glucose tolerance were studied in a cross-sectional analysis. Plasma cholesterol distribution profiles were measured by size exclusion lipid chromatography. Blood glucose was measured using an enzymatic glucose analyser, and plasma insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay.

Results: Obese diabetic Psammomys obesus had elevated plasma cholesterol (P=0.003) and triglyceride levels (p>0.001) compared to their lean littermates. The hypercholesterolemia was mainly due to increased circulating levels of VLDL-cholesterol (P=0.003) and LDL-cholesterol (P=0.003) in these animals. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that body weight was independently associated with plasma cholesterol (P=0.011) and LDL concentration (P=0.009), while plasma insulin was associated with VLDL-cholesterol concentration (P=0.005). All of the variables measured exhibited continuous distributions across a wide range of phenotypes, from a normal rodent lipid profile to profound dyslipidemia.

Conclusions: These data suggest that the dyslipidemia in obese, diabetic Psammomys obesus is closely associated with other components of the Metabolic Syndrome, including obesity and insulin resistance.
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March 2002