Publications by authors named "Richard C Waterman"

6 Publications

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Next generation sequencing to define prokaryotic and fungal diversity in the bovine rumen.

PLoS One 2012 7;7(11):e48289. Epub 2012 Nov 7.

The J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America.

A combination of Sanger and 454 sequences of small subunit rRNA loci were used to interrogate microbial diversity in the bovine rumen of 12 cows consuming a forage diet. Observed bacterial species richness, based on the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, was between 1,903 to 2,432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) when 5,520 reads were sampled per animal. Eighty percent of species-level OTUs were dominated by members of the order Clostridiales, Bacteroidales, Erysipelotrichales and unclassified TM7. Abundance of Prevotella species varied widely among the 12 animals. Archaeal species richness, also based on 16S rRNA, was between 8 and 13 OTUs, representing 5 genera. The majority of archaeal OTUs (84%) found in this study were previously observed in public databases with only two new OTUs discovered. Observed rumen fungal species richness, based on the 18S rRNA gene, was between 21 and 40 OTUs with 98.4-99.9% of OTUs represented by more than one read, using Good's coverage. Examination of the fungal community identified numerous novel groups. Prevotella and Tannerella were overrepresented in the liquid fraction of the rumen while Butyrivibrio and Blautia were significantly overrepresented in the solid fraction of the rumen. No statistical difference was observed between the liquid and solid fractions in biodiversity of archaea and fungi. The survey of microbial communities and analysis of cross-domain correlations suggested there is a far greater extent of microbial diversity in the bovine rumen than previously appreciated, and that next generation sequencing technologies promise to reveal novel species, interactions and pathways that can be studied further in order to better understand how rumen microbial community structure and function affects ruminant feed efficiency, biofuel production, and environmental impact.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0048289PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3492333PMC
April 2013

Effects of rumen-protected methionine on plasma amino acid concentrations during a period of weight loss for late gestating beef heifers.

Amino Acids 2012 Nov 4;43(5):2165-77. Epub 2012 May 4.

Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 243 Fort Keogh Road, Miles City, MT 59301, USA.

This study determined changes in plasma amino acid concentration in late-gestating (beginning 58 ± 1.02 days prior to calving), primiparous, winter-grazing range heifers receiving wheat middling-based supplement without (CON) or with rumen-protected methionine (MET) to provide 15 g DL-MET each day. Plasma was collected on days -2 and 0 (start of MET supplementation just prior to individually receiving supplement at 0700 hours). Plasma was sampled again on days 40, 42 and 44 prior to supplementation at 0700 and 1100 hours (4 h after receiving daily supplement). Data were analyzed with cow as the experimental unit. Continuous variables were analyzed by the main effects of treatment, date, or time and their interaction when appropriate. Comparable BW (P = 0.32) and BCS (P = 0.83) over the 44-day metabolism trial were found between both CON- and MET-fed heifers. MET-supplemented heifers had greater (P < 0.01) plasma concentrations of methionine indicating that the rumen-protection technology successfully delivered methionine to the small intestine. Supplementation with rumen-protected DL-MET caused a significant supplement × date interaction for glutamine (P = 0.03), glycine (P = 0.02), methionine (P < 0.01), and serine (P = 0.05). In addition, trends for supplement × date interactions were detected for leucine (P = 0.07), threonine (P = 0.09), valine (P = 0.08), total amino acids (TAA; P = 0.08), non essential amino acids (NEAA; P = 0.08), branched chain amino acids (BCAA; P = 0.08), and glucogenic amino acids (GLUCO; P = 0.08). These results suggest that the BCAA (leucine and valine) were utilized more efficiently with MET supplemented heifers compared to CON supplemented heifers. Plasma AA concentrations for glutamic acid (P < 0.01), histidine (P = 0.01), tyrosine (P < 0.01), and EAA (P < 0.01), all decreased throughout the study. These results further confirm methionine is a limiting amino acid in forage fed late-gestating heifers and further suggests the limitation when grazing dormant range forages as shown by improved utilization of other plasma amino acids when supplemental methionine was provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-012-1301-3DOI Listing
November 2012

Effect of reduced heifer nutrition during in utero and post-weaning development on glucose and acetate kinetics.

Br J Nutr 2011 Dec 21;106(11):1702-12. Epub 2011 Jun 21.

Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Miles City, MT 59301, USA.

Energetic efficiency was evaluated in composite bred heifers born from dams receiving 1·8 or 1·2 kg/d winter supplementation for approximately 80 d before parturition. Heifers were then developed post-weaning and randomly assigned to heifer development treatments of either control (100 %; ad libitum; n 8/year) or restricted (80 %; fed 80 % of supplementation fed to controls adjusted to a common body weight: n 8/year) in a 2-year study. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) and acetate irreversible loss test (AILT) were administered to heifers at the termination of a 140 d development period when the heifers were approximately 403 d of age and consumed a silage-based diet, and again at 940 d of age when pregnant with their second calf and grazing dormant forage. No differences were measured (P>0·08) for dam winter nutrition or heifer development treatment for baseline serum metabolites or measures in either the GTT or the AILT. However, changes in baseline serum concentrations (P>0·05) were different between metabolic challenges, which occurred at different stages of development. No difference in acetate disappearance (P = 0·18) and half-life (P = 0·66) was measured between the two metabolic challenges. A trend for glucose half-life to be shorter in heifers born from dams receiving in utero winter treatments that supplied 1·2 kg/d of winter supplementation was observed (P = 0·083). Heifers developed with lower total DM intake during a 140 d development period had similar glucose and acetate incorporation rates as ad libitum-fed heifers when evaluated at two different production stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511002224DOI Listing
December 2011

Effects of Euphorbia esula L. (leafy spurge) on cattle and sheep in vitro fermentation and gas production.

J Sci Food Agric 2011 Aug 26;91(11):2053-60. Epub 2011 Apr 26.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory, Miles City, MT 59301-4016, USA.

Background: Euphorbia esula L. (leafy spurge) is indigenous to Eurasia and has been known to cause grazing aversion in ruminant species. As a result, E. esula encroachment has negatively impacted rangelands in the Northern Great Plains and Intermountain West of the USA, as well as southern Canada. Our objectives were to evaluate the effect of increasing concentrations of E. esula on in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD) and gas production. Two ruminally-cannulated cows and ewes were used as rumen inoculum donors. To accomplish objectives, two studies were conducted. In study 1, animals were fed exclusively a barley hay (12% crude protein (CP), 55.4% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), DM basis) diet; whereas in study 2, animals were fed a diet of 15% E. esula (21.9% CP, 48% NDF, DM basis) and 85% barley hay based on previous day intake.

Results: The 24 and 48 h in vitro and 96 h gas production indicate that, regardless of inoculum source or substrate fermented, DMD was not influenced. Differences, however, were consistently observed across studies for NDF disappearance.

Conclusion: Regardless of inoculum source NDF disappearance was greater when substrate being fermented contained 0%, 80%, or 100% E. esula.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4419DOI Listing
August 2011

The genome sequence of taurine cattle: a window to ruminant biology and evolution.

Science 2009 Apr;324(5926):522-8

To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1169588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2943200PMC
April 2009
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