Publications by authors named "Richard C E Anderson"

102 Publications

Dural augmentation approaches and complication rates after posterior fossa decompression for Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia: a Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium study.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Feb 12:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

Objective: Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) is commonly performed for Chiari I malformation (CM-I) with syringomyelia (SM). However, complication rates associated with various dural graft types are not well established. The objective of this study was to elucidate complication rates within 6 months of surgery among autograft and commonly used nonautologous grafts for pediatric patients who underwent PFDD for CM-I/SM.

Methods: The Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium database was queried for pediatric patients who had undergone PFDD for CM-I with SM. All patients had tonsillar ectopia ≥ 5 mm, syrinx diameter ≥ 3 mm, and ≥ 6 months of postoperative follow-up after PFDD. Complications (e.g., pseudomeningocele, CSF leak, meningitis, and hydrocephalus) and postoperative changes in syrinx size, headaches, and neck pain were compared for autograft versus nonautologous graft.

Results: A total of 781 PFDD cases were analyzed (359 autograft, 422 nonautologous graft). Nonautologous grafts included bovine pericardium (n = 63), bovine collagen (n = 225), synthetic (n = 99), and human cadaveric allograft (n = 35). Autograft (103/359, 28.7%) had a similar overall complication rate compared to nonautologous graft (143/422, 33.9%) (p = 0.12). However, nonautologous graft was associated with significantly higher rates of pseudomeningocele (p = 0.04) and meningitis (p < 0.001). The higher rate of meningitis was influenced particularly by the higher rate of chemical meningitis (p = 0.002) versus infectious meningitis (p = 0.132). Among 4 types of nonautologous grafts, there were differences in complication rates (p = 0.02), including chemical meningitis (p = 0.01) and postoperative nausea/vomiting (p = 0.03). Allograft demonstrated the lowest complication rates overall (14.3%) and yielded significantly fewer complications compared to bovine collagen (p = 0.02) and synthetic (p = 0.003) grafts. Synthetic graft yielded higher complication rates than autograft (p = 0.01). Autograft and nonautologous graft resulted in equal improvements in syrinx size (p < 0.0001). No differences were found for postoperative changes in headaches or neck pain.

Conclusions: In the largest multicenter cohort to date, complication rates for dural autograft and nonautologous graft are similar after PFDD for CM-I/SM, although nonautologous graft results in higher rates of pseudomeningocele and meningitis. Rates of meningitis differ among nonautologous graft types. Autograft and nonautologous graft are equivalent for reducing syrinx size, headaches, and neck pain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.8.PEDS2087DOI Listing
February 2021

Occipital-Cervical Fusion and Ventral Decompression in the Surgical Management of Chiari-1 Malformation and Syringomyelia: Analysis of Data From the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

Neurosurgery 2021 01;88(2):332-341

Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Occipital-cervical fusion (OCF) and ventral decompression (VD) may be used in the treatment of pediatric Chiari-1 malformation (CM-1) with syringomyelia (SM) as adjuncts to posterior fossa decompression (PFD) for complex craniovertebral junction pathology.

Objective: To examine factors influencing the use of OCF and OCF/VD in a multicenter cohort of pediatric CM-1 and SM subjects treated with PFD.

Methods: The Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium registry was used to examine 637 subjects with cerebellar tonsillar ectopia ≥ 5 mm, syrinx diameter ≥ 3 mm, and at least 1 yr of follow-up after their index PFD. Comparisons were made between subjects who received PFD alone and those with PFD + OCF or PFD + OCF/VD.

Results: All 637 patients underwent PFD, 505 (79.2%) with and 132 (20.8%) without duraplasty. A total of 12 subjects went on to have OCF at some point in their management (PFD + OCF), whereas 4 had OCF and VD (PFD + OCF/VD). Of those with complete data, a history of platybasia (3/10, P = .011), Klippel-Feil (2/10, P = .015), and basilar invagination (3/12, P < .001) were increased within the OCF group, whereas only basilar invagination (1/4, P < .001) was increased in the OCF/VD group. Clivo-axial angle (CXA) was significantly lower for both OCF (128.8 ± 15.3°, P = .008) and OCF/VD (115.0 ± 11.6°, P = .025) groups when compared to PFD-only group (145.3 ± 12.7°). pB-C2 did not differ among groups.

Conclusion: Although PFD alone is adequate for treating the vast majority of CM-1/SM patients, OCF or OCF/VD may be occasionally utilized. Cranial base and spine pathologies and CXA may provide insight into the need for OCF and/or OCF/VD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803430PMC
January 2021

Robust deep learning classification of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma from limited preoperative radiographic images.

Sci Rep 2020 10 9;10(1):16885. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, 80045, USA.

Deep learning (DL) is a widely applied mathematical modeling technique. Classically, DL models utilize large volumes of training data, which are not available in many healthcare contexts. For patients with brain tumors, non-invasive diagnosis would represent a substantial clinical advance, potentially sparing patients from the risks associated with surgical intervention on the brain. Such an approach will depend upon highly accurate models built using the limited datasets that are available. Herein, we present a novel genetic algorithm (GA) that identifies optimal architecture parameters using feature embeddings from state-of-the-art image classification networks to identify the pediatric brain tumor, adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP). We optimized classification models for preoperative Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and combined CT and MRI datasets with demonstrated test accuracies of 85.3%, 83.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. Notably, our GA improved baseline model performance by up to 38%. This work advances DL and its applications within healthcare by identifying optimized networks in small-scale data contexts. The proposed system is easily implementable and scalable for non-invasive computer-aided diagnosis, even for uncommon diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73278-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7547020PMC
October 2020

High Prevalence of Gram-Negative Rod and Multi-Organism Surgical Site Infections after Pediatric Complex Tethered Spinal Cord Surgery: Preliminary Report from a Single-Center Study.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2020 16;55(2):92-100. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most common complications following pediatric complex tethered spinal cord release. This patient population is similar in some ways to the neuromuscular scoliosis population, in which higher-than-expected rates of gram-negative SSIs have been identified.

Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent complex tethered spinal cord release over a 10-year period between 2007 and 2017.

Results: A total of 69 patients were identified, with 10 documented SSIs (14%). 50% of the SSIs were polymicrobial or included at least 1 gram-negative organism. Among the organisms isolated, 3 were fully or -partially resistant to cefazolin, the most common antibiotic prophylaxis in this population.

Conclusion: Among children undergoing complex tethered spinal cord release, gram-negative and polymicrobial infections are a significant cause of SSIs. Although further multicenter data are needed, these findings suggest that standard antibiotic prophylaxis with cefazolin may not be sufficient.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508753DOI Listing
July 2020

Evaluation of the Patient-Practitioner Consultation on Surgical Treatment Options for Patients With Craniosynostosis.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Jul-Aug;31(5):1186-1190

*Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO †Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Primary Children's Hospital, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT ‡Neurological Surgery §Division of Plastic Surgery, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, WA ||Department of Neurological Surgery, Columbia University, Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York-Presbyterian, New York, NY ¶Division of Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT #Division of Neurosurgery, British Columbia Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada **Plastic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA ††Division of Plastic Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY ‡‡Department of Neurosurgery, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO.

Introduction: Endoscope-assisted craniectomy and spring-assisted cranioplasty with post-surgical helmet molding are minimally invasive alternatives to the traditional craniosynostosis treatment of open cranial vault remodeling. Families are often faced with deciding between techniques. This study aimed to understand providers' practice patterns in consulting families about surgical options.

Methods: An online survey was developed and distributed to 31 providers. The response rate was 84% (26/31).

Results: Twenty-six (100%) respondents offer a minimally invasive surgical option for sagittal craniosynostosis, 21 (81%) for coronal, 20 (77%) for metopic, 18 (69%) for lambdoid, and 12 (46%) for multi-suture. Social issues considered in determining whether to offer a minimally invasive option include anticipated likelihood of compliance (23 = 88%), distance traveled for care (16 = 62%) and financial considerations (6 = 23%). Common tools to explain options include verbal discussion (25 = 96%), 3D reconstructed CT scans (17 = 65%), handouts (13 = 50%), 3D models (12 = 46%), hand drawings (11 = 42%) and slides (10 = 38%). Some respondents strongly (7 = 27%) or somewhat (3 = 12%) encourage a minimally invasive option over open repair. Others indicate they remain neutral (7 = 27%) or tailor their approach to meet perceived needs (8 = 31%). One (4%) somewhat encourages open repair. Despite this variation, all completely (17 = 65%), strongly (5 = 19%) or somewhat agree (4 = 15%) they use shared decision making in presenting surgical options.

Conclusion: This survey highlights the range of practice patterns in presenting surgical options to families and reveals possible discrepancies in the extent providers believe they use shared decision making and the extent it is actually used.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006327DOI Listing
October 2020

Transcriptional analyses of adult and pediatric adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma reveals similar expression signatures regarding potential therapeutic targets.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2020 05 13;8(1):68. Epub 2020 May 13.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, USA.

Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is a biologically benign but clinically aggressive lesion that has a significant impact on quality of life. The incidence of the disease has a bimodal distribution, with peaks occurring in children and older adults. Our group previously published the results of a transcriptome analysis of pediatric ACPs that identified several genes that were consistently overexpressed relative to other pediatric brain tumors and normal tissue. We now present the results of a transcriptome analysis comparing pediatric to adult ACP to identify biological differences between these groups that may provide novel therapeutic insights or support the assertion that potential therapies identified through the study of pediatric ACP may also have a role in adult ACP. Using our compiled transcriptome dataset of 27 pediatric and 9 adult ACPs, obtained through the Advancing Treatment for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma Consortium, we interrogated potential age-related transcriptional differences using several rigorous mathematical analyses. These included: canonical differential expression analysis; divisive, agglomerative, and probabilistic based hierarchical clustering; information theory based characterizations; and the deep learning approach, HD Spot. Our work indicates that there is no therapeutically relevant difference in ACP gene expression based on age. As such, potential therapeutic targets identified in pediatric ACP are also likely to have relvance for adult patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-020-00939-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222517PMC
May 2020

Pediatric Spine Trauma: A Brief Review.

Neurosurgery 2020 07;87(1):E1-E9

Department of Neurological Surgery, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Pediatric spinal trauma is a broad topic with nuances specific to each anatomic region of the spinal column. The purpose of this report is to provide a brief review highlighting the most important and common clinical issues regarding the diagnosis and management of pediatric spine trauma. Detailed descriptions of imaging findings along with specific operative and nonoperative management of each fracture and dislocation type are beyond the scope of this review.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa119DOI Listing
July 2020

Multimodal Analgesia After Posterior Fossa Decompression With and Without Duraplasty for Children With Chiari Type I.

Hosp Pediatr 2020 05;10(5):447-451

Pediatrics, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, Columbia University, New York, New York;

Background: Multimodal analgesia (MMA) may reduce opioid use after surgery for Chiari malformation type I. An MMA protocol was implemented after both posterior fossa decompression without dural opening (PFD) and posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD).

Methods: Scheduled nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (ketorolac or ibuprofen) and diazepam were alternated with acetaminophen, and as-needed oxycodone or intravenous morphine. The primary outcome was total opioid requirement over postoperative days 0 to 2.

Results: From 2012 to 2017, 49 PFD and 29 PFDD procedures were performed, and 46 of 78 patients used the protocol. Patients with PFD required less opioids than patients with PFDD. Among patients with PFDD, patients with MMA protocol usage had a lower mean opioid requirement than patients with no MMA protocol usage (0.53 ± 0.49 mgEq/kg versus 1.4 ± 1.0 mgEq/kg, = .0142). In multivariable analysis, MMA protocol usage status independently predicted a mean decrease in opioid requirement of 0.146 mg equivalents/kg ( = .0497) after adjustment for procedure and surgeon. Statistically significant differences were not demonstrated in antiemetic requirements, discharge opioid prescriptions, total direct cost, and length of stay.

Conclusions: A protocol of scheduled nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs alternating with scheduled acetaminophen and diazepam was associated with opioid use reductions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2019-0298DOI Listing
May 2020

Radiological and clinical associations with scoliosis outcomes after posterior fossa decompression in patients with Chiari malformation and syrinx from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Apr 10:1-7. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Objective: In patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) and a syrinx who also have scoliosis, clinical and radiological predictors of curve regression after posterior fossa decompression are not well known. Prior reports indicate that age younger than 10 years and a curve magnitude < 35° are favorable predictors of curve regression following surgery. The aim of this study was to determine baseline radiological factors, including craniocervical junction alignment, that might predict curve stability or improvement after posterior fossa decompression.

Methods: A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and a syrinx (≥ 3 mm in width) was reviewed for clinical and radiological characteristics of CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis (coronal curve ≥ 10°) in patients who underwent posterior fossa decompression and who also had follow-up imaging.

Results: Of 825 patients with CM-I and a syrinx, 251 (30.4%) were noted to have scoliosis present at the time of diagnosis. Forty-one (16.3%) of these patients underwent posterior fossa decompression and had follow-up imaging to assess for scoliosis. Twenty-three patients (56%) were female, the mean age at time of CM-I decompression was 10.0 years, and the mean follow-up duration was 1.3 years. Nine patients (22%) had stable curves, 16 (39%) showed improvement (> 5°), and 16 (39%) displayed curve progression (> 5°) during the follow-up period. Younger age at the time of decompression was associated with improvement in curve magnitude; for those with curves of ≤ 35°, 17% of patients younger than 10 years of age had curve progression compared with 64% of those 10 years of age or older (p = 0.008). There was no difference by age for those with curves > 35°. Tonsil position, baseline syrinx dimensions, and change in syrinx size were not associated with the change in curve magnitude. There was no difference in progression after surgery in patients who were also treated with a brace compared to those who were not treated with a brace for scoliosis.

Conclusions: In this cohort of patients with CM-I, a syrinx, and scoliosis, younger age at the time of decompression was associated with improvement in curve magnitude following surgery, especially in patients younger than 10 years of age with curves of ≤ 35°. Baseline tonsil position, syrinx dimensions, frontooccipital horn ratio, and craniocervical junction morphology were not associated with changes in curve magnitude after surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.1.PEDS18755DOI Listing
April 2020

Factors associated with syrinx size in pediatric patients treated for Chiari malformation type I and syringomyelia: a study from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Mar 6:1-11. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

34Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Objective: Factors associated with syrinx size in pediatric patients undergoing posterior fossa decompression (PFD) or PFD with duraplasty (PFDD) for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) with syringomyelia (SM; CM-I+SM) are not well established.

Methods: Using the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium registry, the authors analyzed variables associated with syrinx radiological outcomes in patients (< 20 years old at the time of surgery) with CM-I+SM undergoing PFD or PFDD. Syrinx resolution was defined as an anteroposterior (AP) diameter of ≤ 2 mm or ≤ 3 mm or a reduction in AP diameter of ≥ 50%. Syrinx regression or progression was defined using 1) change in syrinx AP diameter (≥ 1 mm), or 2) change in syrinx length (craniocaudal, ≥ 1 vertebral level). Syrinx stability was defined as a < 1-mm change in syrinx AP diameter and no change in syrinx length.

Results: The authors identified 380 patients with CM-I+SM who underwent PFD or PFDD. Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed younger age at surgery and PFDD as being independently associated with syrinx resolution, defined as a ≤ 2-mm or ≤ 3-mm AP diameter or ≥ 50% reduction in AP diameter. Radiological syrinx resolution was associated with improvement in headache (p < 0.005) and neck pain (p < 0.011) after PFD or PFDD. Next, PFDD (p = 0.005), scoliosis (p = 0.007), and syrinx location across multiple spinal segments (p = 0.001) were associated with syrinx diameter regression, whereas increased preoperative frontal-occipital horn ratio (FOHR; p = 0.007) and syrinx location spanning multiple spinal segments (p = 0.04) were associated with syrinx length regression. Scoliosis (HR 0.38 [95% CI 0.16-0.91], p = 0.03) and smaller syrinx diameter (5.82 ± 3.38 vs 7.86 ± 3.05 mm; HR 0.60 [95% CI 0.34-1.03], p = 0.002) were associated with syrinx diameter stability, whereas shorter preoperative syrinx length (5.75 ± 4.01 vs 9.65 ± 4.31 levels; HR 0.21 [95% CI 0.12-0.38], p = 0.0001) and smaller pB-C2 distance (6.86 ± 1.27 vs 7.18 ± 1.38 mm; HR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02-2.05], p = 0.04) were associated with syrinx length stability. Finally, younger age at surgery (8.19 ± 5.02 vs 10.29 ± 4.25 years; HR 1.89 [95% CI 1.31-3.04], p = 0.01) was associated with syrinx diameter progression, whereas increased postoperative syrinx diameter (6.73 ± 3.64 vs 3.97 ± 3.07 mm; HR 3.10 [95% CI 1.67-5.76], p = 0.003), was associated with syrinx length progression. PFD versus PFDD was not associated with syrinx progression or reoperation rate.

Conclusions: These data suggest that PFDD and age are independently associated with radiological syrinx improvement, although forthcoming results from the PFDD versus PFD randomized controlled trial (NCT02669836, clinicaltrials.gov) will best answer this question.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.1.PEDS19493DOI Listing
March 2020

Opioid-Sparing Multimodal Analgesia After Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy.

Hosp Pediatr 2020 01;10(1):84-89

Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, New York;

Objectives: Multimodal analgesia (MMA) may reduce opioid use among children who are hospitalized, and may contribute toward enhanced recovery after selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) for patients with spasticity in pediatric cerebral palsy. In this retrospective cohort study, we assess an MMA protocol consisting of scheduled nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug doses (ketorolac or ibuprofen), alternating with scheduled acetaminophen and diazepam doses, with as-needed opioids. It was hypothesized that protocol use would be associated with reductions in opioid requirements and other clinical improvements.

Methods: Data were obtained for 52 patients undergoing SDR at an academic tertiary care pediatric hospital (2012-2017, with the protocol implemented in 2014). Using a retrospective cohort design, we compared outcomes between protocol and nonprotocol patients, employing both univariate test and Wilcoxon rank test comparisons as well as multivariable regression methods. The primary outcome was total as-needed opioid requirements over postoperative days (PODs) 0 to 2, measured in oral morphine milligram equivalents per kilogram. Additional outcomes included antiemetic medication doses, discharge opioid prescriptions, total direct cost, and length of stay.

Results: Twelve patients received the MMA protocol, and 40 patients did not. POD-0 MMA initiation was independently associated with a reduction of 0.14 morphine milligram equivalents per kilogram in mean opioid requirements over PODs 0 to 2 in the multiple regression analysis (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.28; = .04). No statistically significant differences were demonstrated in doses of antiemetic medications, discharge opioid prescriptions, total direct cost, and length of stay.

Conclusions: This MMA protocol may help reduce opioid use after SDR. Improving protocol implementation in a prospective, multisite study will help elucidate further MMA effects on pain, costs, and recovery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2019-0016DOI Listing
January 2020

Assessment of craniocervical motion in Down syndrome: a pilot study of two measurement techniques.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Oct 4:1-7. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

6Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Primary Children's Hospital, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Objective: Hypermobility of the craniocervical junction (CCJ) in patients with Down syndrome (DS) is common. Whereas atlantoaxial (C1-2) hypermobility is well characterized, occipitoatlantal (Oc-C1) laxity is recognized but poorly defined. A clear understanding of the risks associated with DS-related hypermobility is lacking. Research efforts to address the topic of axial cervical spine instability in the patient with DS require a reliable and reproducible means of assessing CCJ mobility. The authors conducted a pilot study comparing two methods of quantifying motion of the CCJ on dynamic (flexion/extension) plain radiographs: the delta-condyle-axial interval (ΔCAI) and the delta-basion-axial interval (ΔBAI) methods.

Methods: Dynamic radiographs from a cohort of 10 patients with DS were evaluated according to prescribed standards. Independent movement of Oc-C1, C1-2, and Oc-C2 was calculated. Interrater and intrarater reliability for CCJ mobility was then calculated for both techniques.

Results: Measurement using the ΔCAI technique had excellent fidelity with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of 0.77, 0.71, and 0.80 for Oc-C1, C1-2, and Oc-C2, respectively. The ΔBAI technique had lower fidelity, yielding respective ICCs of 0.61, 0.65, and 0.50.

Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that ΔCAI is a superior measurement technique compared to ΔBAI and may provide reliable assessment of the mobility of the CCJ on dynamic radiographs in the pediatric patient with DS. The use of reliable and reproducible measurement techniques strengthens the validity of research derived from pooled database efforts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.7.PEDS191DOI Listing
October 2019

Radiological and clinical predictors of scoliosis in patients with Chiari malformation type I and spinal cord syrinx from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Aug 16:1-8. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Objective: Scoliosis is frequently a presenting sign of Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) with syrinx. The authors' goal was to define scoliosis in this population and describe how radiological characteristics of CM-I and syrinx relate to the presence and severity of scoliosis.

Methods: A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and syrinx (≥ 3 mm in axial width) was reviewed for clinical and radiological characteristics of CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis (coronal curve ≥ 10°).

Results: Based on available imaging of patients with CM-I and syrinx, 260 of 825 patients (31%) had a clear diagnosis of scoliosis based on radiographs or coronal MRI. Forty-nine patients (5.9%) did not have scoliosis, and in 516 (63%) patients, a clear determination of the presence or absence of scoliosis could not be made. Comparison of patients with and those without a definite scoliosis diagnosis indicated that scoliosis was associated with wider syrinxes (8.7 vs 6.3 mm, OR 1.25, p < 0.001), longer syrinxes (10.3 vs 6.2 levels, OR 1.18, p < 0.001), syrinxes with their rostral extent located in the cervical spine (94% vs 80%, OR 3.91, p = 0.001), and holocord syrinxes (50% vs 16%, OR 5.61, p < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis revealed syrinx length and the presence of holocord syrinx to be independent predictors of scoliosis in this patient cohort. Scoliosis was not associated with sex, age at CM-I diagnosis, tonsil position, pB-C2 distance (measured perpendicular distance from the ventral dura to a line drawn from the basion to the posterior-inferior aspect of C2), clivoaxial angle, or frontal-occipital horn ratio. Average curve magnitude was 29.9°, and 37.7% of patients had a left thoracic curve. Older age at CM-I or syrinx diagnosis (p < 0.0001) was associated with greater curve magnitude whereas there was no association between syrinx dimensions and curve magnitude.

Conclusions: Syrinx characteristics, but not tonsil position, were related to the presence of scoliosis in patients with CM-I, and there was an independent association of syrinx length and holocord syrinx with scoliosis. Further study is needed to evaluate the nature of the relationship between syrinx and scoliosis in patients with CM-I.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.5.PEDS18527DOI Listing
August 2019

Increased complications without neurological benefit are associated with prophylactic spinal cord untethering prior to scoliosis surgery in children with myelomeningocele.

Childs Nerv Syst 2019 11 2;35(11):2187-2194. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Department of Neurological Surgery, Children's Hospital of New York, Columbia-Presbyterian, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: Children with myelomeningocele (MMC) are at increased risk of developing neuromuscular scoliosis and spinal cord re-tethering (Childs Nerv Syst 12:748-754, 1996; Neurosurg Focus 16:2, 2004; Neurosurg Focus 29:1, 2010). Some centers perform prophylactic untethering on asymptomatic MMC patients prior to scoliosis surgery because of concern that additional traction on the cord may place the patient at greater risk of neurologic deterioration peri-operatively. However, prophylactic untethering may not be justified if it carries increased surgical risks. The purpose of this study was to determine if prophylactic untethering is necessary in asymptomatic children with MMC undergoing scoliosis surgery.

Methods: A multidisciplinary, retrospective cohort study from seven children's hospitals was performed including asymptomatic children with MMC < 21 years old, managed with or without prophylactic untethering prior to scoliosis surgery. Patients were divided into three groups for analysis: (1) untethering at the time of scoliosis surgery (concomitant untethering), (2) untethering within 3 months of scoliosis surgery (prior untethering), and (3) no prophylactic untethering. Baseline data, intra-operative reports, and 90-day post-operative outcomes were analyzed to assess for differences in neurologic outcomes, surgical complications, and overall length of stay.

Results: A total of 208 patients were included for analysis (mean age 9.4 years, 52% girls). No patient in any of the groups exhibited worsened motor or sensory function at 90 days post-operatively. However, comparing the prophylactic untethering groups with the group that was not untethered, there was an increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) (31.3% concomitant, 28.6% prior untethering vs. 12.3% no untethering; p = 0.0104), return to the OR (43.8% concomitant, 23.8% prior untethering vs. 17.4% no untethering; p = 0.0047), need for blood transfusion (51.6% concomitant, 57.1% prior untethering vs. 33.8% no untethering; p = 0.04), and increased mean length of stay (LOS) (13.4 days concomitant, 10.6 days prior untethering vs. 6.8 days no untethering; p < 0.0001). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, prophylactic untethering was independently associated with increased adjusted relative risks of surgical site infection (aRR = 2.65, 95% CI 1.17-5.02), unplanned re-operation (aRR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.02-4.65), and any complication (aRR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.07-4.74).

Conclusion: In this study, asymptomatic children with myelomeningocele who underwent scoliosis surgery developed no neurologic injuries regardless of prophylactic untethering. However, those who underwent prophylactic untethering were more likely to experience SSIs, return to the OR, need a blood transfusion, and have increased LOS than children not undergoing untethering. Based on these data, prophylactic untethering in asymptomatic MMC patients prior to scoliosis surgery does not provide any neurological benefit and is associated with increased surgical risks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-019-04276-zDOI Listing
November 2019

Morphometric changes at the craniocervical junction during childhood.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Jun 21:1-9. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

2Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Objective: Current understanding of how the pediatric craniocervical junction develops remains incomplete. Measurements of anatomical relationships at the craniocervical junction can influence clinical and surgical decision-making. The purpose of this analysis was to quantitatively define clinically relevant craniocervical junction measurements in a population of children with CT scans that show normal anatomy.

Methods: A total of 1458 eligible patients were identified from children between 1 and 18 years of age who underwent cervical spine CT scanning at a single institution. Patients were separated by both sex and age in years into 34 groups. Following this, patients within each group were randomly selected for inclusion until a target of 15 patients in each group had been reached. Each patient underwent measurement of the occipital condyle-C1 interval (CCI), pB-C2, atlantodental interval (ADI), basion-dens interval (BDI), basion-opisthion diameter (BOD), basion-axial interval (BAI), dens angulation, and canal diameter at C1. Mean values were calculated in each group. Each measurement was performed by two teams and compared for intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).

Results: The data showed that CCI, ADI, BDI, and dens angulation decrease in magnitude throughout childhood, while pB-C2, PADI, BAI, and BOD increase throughout childhood, with an ICC of fair to good (range 0.413-0.912). Notably, CCI decreases continuously on coronal CT scans, whereas on parasagittal CT scans, CCI does not decrease until after age 9, when it shows a continuous decline similar to measurements on coronal CT scans.

Conclusions: These morphometric analyses establish parameters for normal pediatric craniocervical spine growth for each year of life up to 18 years. The data should be considered when evaluating children for potential surgical intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.4.PEDS1968DOI Listing
June 2019

Traumatic Occipitocervical Distraction Injuries in Children: A Systematic Review.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2019 7;54(2):75-84. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, New Jersey Medical School and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Occipitocervical distraction injuries (OCDI) in children occur on a wide spectrum of severity, and decisions about treatment suffer from a lack of rigorous guidelines and significant inter-institutional variability. While clear cases of frank atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) are treated with surgical stabilization, the approach for less severe cases of OCDI is not standardized. These patients require a careful assessment of both radiographic and clinical criteria, as part of a complex risk-benefit analysis, to establish whether occipitocervical fusion (OCF) is indicated. Here, we performed a systematic review of the literature that describes traumatic OCDI in children < 18 years of age.

Summary: We performed a systematic review, according to PRISMA guidelines, of children < 18 years of age presenting with traumatic etiologies of OCDI. We searched PubMed to identify papers congruent with these criteria. Exclusion criteria included (1) reports on atraumatic causes of OCDI and (2) studies with insufficient clinical and radiographic details on individual patients. We identified 16 reports describing a total of 144 patients treated for pediatric traumatic OCDI. Based on the synthesis of these findings and the collective experience of the authors, we present the demographic, clinical, and radiographic factors that underlie OC instability, which we hope will serve as components of a grading system in the future. We considered various clinical and radiographic findings including: (1) the mechanism of injury, (2) the patient's age, (3) CT/CT angiography of head and neck findings and parameters, (4) MRI findings, and (5) neurological exam, for the purpose of determining the severity of the OCDI and offering treatment guidelines based on the summative risk of underlying OC instability. Key Messages: OCDI is a potentially devastating injury, especially in children. Although missing the diagnosis can have potentially catastrophic consequences, reverting to surgical fixation in less severe cases can subject children to unnecessary operative risk and permanently reduce their range of motion. After reviewing all the available reports of pediatric traumatic OCDI in the neurosurgical literature, we propose an outline of clinical and radiographic factors influencing underlying OC instability that could be incorporated into a grading scale to guide treatment. We hope this study stimulates discussion on the standardization of treatment for pediatric OCDI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496832DOI Listing
April 2019

Cerebral Vasospasm after Open Fenestration of an Arachnoid Cyst in a 4-Year-Old Boy: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2019 16;54(2):132-138. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Neurological Surgery, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Neurological Institute of New York, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA,

Cerebral vasospasm is associated with significant morbidity, and most commonly occurs following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Rarely, vasospasm can follow tumor resection and traumatic brain injury. We present the first reported case of a young child who developed diffuse vasospasm following open fenestration of an arachnoid cyst and was promptly treated, with full recovery of neurologic function. Although vasopasm after arachnoid cyst fenestration is rare, it can be included in the differential for a new focal neurologic deficit.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000495834DOI Listing
April 2019

Variation in the management of isolated craniosynostosis: a survey of the Synostosis Research Group.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2018 Dec;22(6):627-631

4Division of Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

OBJECTIVEThe authors created a collaborative network, the Synostosis Research Group (SynRG), to facilitate multicenter clinical research on craniosynostosis. To identify common and differing practice patterns within the network, they assessed the SynRG surgeons' management preferences for sagittal synostosis. These results will be incorporated into planning cooperative studies.METHODSThe SynRG consists of 12 surgeons at 5 clinical sites. An email survey was distributed to SynRG surgeons in late 2016, and responses were collected through early 2017. Responses were collated and analyzed descriptively.RESULTSAll of the surgeons-7 plastic/craniofacial surgeons and 5 neurosurgeons-completed the survey. They varied in both experience (1-24 years) and sagittal synostosis case volume in the preceding year (5-45 cases). Three sites routinely perform preoperative CT scans. The preferred surgical technique for children younger than 3 months is strip craniectomy (10/12 surgeons), whereas children older than 6 months are all treated with open cranial vault surgery. Pre-incision cefazolin, preoperative complete blood count panels, and an arterial line were used by most surgeons, but tranexamic acid was used routinely at 3 sites and never at the other 2 sites. Among surgeons performing endoscopic strip craniectomy surgery (SCS), most create a 5-cm-wide craniectomy, whereas 2 surgeons create a 2-cm strip. Four surgeons routinely send endoscopic SCS patients to the intensive care unit after surgery. Two of the 5 sites routinely obtain a CT scan within the 1st year after surgery.CONCLUSIONSThe SynRG surgeons vary substantially in the use of imaging, the choice of surgical procedure and technique, and follow-up. A collaborative network will provide the opportunity to study different practice patterns, reduce variation, and contribute multicenter data on the management of children with craniosynostosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.7.PEDS18132DOI Listing
December 2018

Development of best practices to minimize wound complications after complex tethered spinal cord surgery: a modified Delphi study.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2018 Dec;22(6):701-709

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.

OBJECTIVEComplications after complex tethered spinal cord (cTSC) surgery include infections and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. With little empirical evidence to guide management, there is variability in the interventions undertaken to limit complications. Expert-based best practices may improve the care of patients undergoing cTSC surgery. Here, authors conducted a study to identify consensus-driven best practices.METHODSThe Delphi method was employed to identify consensual best practices. A literature review regarding cTSC surgery together with a survey of current practices was distributed to 17 board-certified pediatric neurosurgeons. Thirty statements were then formulated and distributed to the group. Results of the second survey were discussed during an in-person meeting leading to further consensus, which was defined as ≥ 80% agreement on a 4-point Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree).RESULTSSeventeen consensus-driven best practices were identified, with all participants willing to incorporate them into their practice. There were four preoperative interventions: (1, 2) asymptomatic AND symptomatic patients should be referred to urology preoperatively, (3, 4) routine preoperative urine cultures are not necessary for asymptomatic AND symptomatic patients. There were nine intraoperative interventions: (5) patients should receive perioperative cefazolin or an equivalent alternative in the event of allergy, (6) chlorhexidine-based skin preparation is the preferred regimen, (7) saline irrigation should be used intermittently throughout the case, (8) antibiotic-containing irrigation should be used following dural closure, (9) a nonlocking running suture technique should be used for dural closure, (10) dural graft overlay should be used when unable to obtain primary dural closure, (11) an expansile dural graft should be incorporated in cases of lipomyelomeningocele in which primary dural closure does not permit free flow of CSF, (12) paraxial muscles should be closed as a layer separate from the fascia, (13) routine placement of postoperative drains is not necessary. There were three postoperative interventions: (14) postoperative antibiotics are an option and, if given, should be discontinued within 24 hours; (15) patients should remain flat for at least 24 hours postoperatively; (16) routine use of abdominal binders or other compressive devices postoperatively is not necessary. One intervention was prioritized for additional study: (17) further study of additional gram-negative perioperative coverage is needed.CONCLUSIONSA modified Delphi technique was used to develop consensus-driven best practices for decreasing wound complications after cTSC surgery. Further study is required to determine if implementation of these practices will lead to reduced complications. Discussion through the course of this study resulted in the initiation of a multicenter study of gram-negative surgical site infections in cTSC surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.6.PEDS18243DOI Listing
December 2018

Modern Surgical Management of Early Onset and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

Neurosurgery 2019 02;84(2):291-304

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center/New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York.

The early principles of spinal fusion in the adolescent population focused on preventing progression while simultaneously correcting the spinal deformity. These principles have remained relatively unchanged since their introduction more than a century ago, but recent improvements in imaging, instrumentation, and corrective techniques have provided new insight on the diagnosis, management, and postoperative care of this condition. Treatment options for the management of patients with early onset scoliosis have also evolved dramatically over the last 2 decades. Further knowledge on the physiology of lung development and the detrimental effects of early fusion in the early onset scoliosis population has led to the development of growth friendly implants and other surgical techniques that allow correction of the deformity while maintaining spine, lung, and chest wall development. The following is an overview of current techniques on the management of adolescent idiopathic and early onset scoliosis to help provide guidance on the available surgical alternatives to address these conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyy267DOI Listing
February 2019

Growth and alignment of the pediatric subaxial cervical spine following rigid instrumentation and fusion: a multicenter study of the Pediatric Craniocervical Society.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2018 07 20;22(1):81-88. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

1Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital of New York, Columbia-Presbyterian, New York, New York.

OBJECTIVE The long-term effects of surgical fusion on the growing subaxial cervical spine are largely unknown. Recent cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that there is continued growth of the cervical spine through the teenage years. The purpose of this multicenter study was to determine the effects of rigid instrumentation and fusion on the growing subaxial cervical spine by investigating vertical growth, cervical alignment, cervical curvature, and adjacent-segment instability over time. METHODS A total of 15 centers participated in this multi-institutional retrospective study. Cases involving children less than 16 years of age who underwent rigid instrumentation and fusion of the subaxial cervical spine (C-2 and T-1 inclusive) with at least 1 year of clinical and radiographic follow-up were investigated. Charts were reviewed for clinical data. Postoperative and most recent radiographs, CT, and MR images were used to measure vertical growth and assess alignment and stability. RESULTS Eighty-one patients were included in the study, with a mean follow-up of 33 months. Ninety-five percent of patients had complete clinical resolution or significant improvement in symptoms. Postoperative cervical kyphosis was seen in only 4 patients (5%), and none developed a swan-neck deformity, unintended adjacent-level fusion, or instability. Of patients with at least 2 years of follow-up, 62% demonstrated growth across the fusion construct. On average, vertical growth was 79% (4-level constructs), 83% (3-level constructs), or 100% (2-level constructs) of expected growth. When comparing the group with continued vertical growth to the one without growth, there were no statistically significant differences in terms of age, sex, underlying etiology, surgical approach, or number of levels fused. CONCLUSIONS Continued vertical growth of the subaxial spine occurs in nearly two-thirds of children after rigid instrumentation and fusion of the subaxial spine. Failure of continued vertical growth is not associated with the patient's age, sex, underlying etiology, number of levels fused, or surgical approach. Further studies are needed to understand this dichotomy and determine the long-term biomechanical effects of surgery on the growing pediatric cervical spine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.1.PEDS17551DOI Listing
July 2018

Comparison of Fusion Rates Based on Graft Material Following Occipitocervical and Atlantoaxial Arthrodesis in Adults and Children.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2018 11;15(5):530-537

Pediatric Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

Background: Fusion rates following rigid internal instrumentation for occipitocervical and atlantoaxial instability approach 100% in many reports. Based on this success and the morbidity that can be associated with obtaining autograft for fusion, surgeons increasingly select alternative graft materials.

Objective: To examine fusion failure using various graft materials in a retrospective observational study.

Methods: Insurance claims databases (Truven Health MarketScan® [Truven Health Analytics, Ann Arbor, Michigan] and IMS Health Lifelink/PHARMetrics [IMS Health, Danbury, Connecticut]) were used to identify patients with CPT codes 22590 and 22595. Patients were divided by age (≥18 yr = adult) and arthrodesis code, establishing 4 populations. Each population was further separated by graft code: group 1 = 20938 (structural autograft); group 2 = 20931 (structural allograft); group 3 = other graft code (nonstructural); group 4 = no graft code. Fusion failure was assigned when ≥1 predetermined codes presented in the record ≥90 d following the last surgical procedure.

Results: Of 522 patients identified, 419 were adult and 103 were pediatric. Fusion failure occurred in 10.9% (57/522) of the population. There was no statistically significant difference in fusion failure based on graft material. Fusion failure occurred in 18.9% of pediatric occipitocervical fusions, but in 9.2% to 11.1% in the other groups.

Conclusion: Administrative data regarding patients who underwent instrumented occipitocervical or atlantoaxial arthrodesis do not demonstrate differences in fusion rates based on the graft material selected. When compared to many contemporary primary datasets, fusion failure was more frequent; however, several recent studies have shown higher failure rates than previously reported. This may be influenced by broad patient selection and fusion failure criteria that were selected in order to maximize the generalizability of the findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opy013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6186910PMC
November 2018

Team Approach: Preventing Surgical Site Infections in Pediatric Scoliosis Surgery.

JBJS Rev 2018 02;6(2):e2

Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery (W.G.S.M., K.W., J.C., J.E.H., and M.G.V.), Anesthesiology (R.R.K.), and Neurological Surgery (R.C.E.A.), Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.RVW.16.00121DOI Listing
February 2018

Use of Fetal Magnetic Resonance Image Analysis and Machine Learning to Predict the Need for Postnatal Cerebrospinal Fluid Diversion in Fetal Ventriculomegaly.

JAMA Pediatr 2018 02;172(2):128-135

Center for Biomedical Image Computing and Analytics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Importance: Which children with fetal ventriculomegaly, or enlargement of the cerebral ventricles in utero, will develop hydrocephalus requiring treatment after birth is unclear.

Objective: To determine whether extraction of multiple imaging features from fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and integration using machine learning techniques can predict which patients require postnatal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion after birth.

Design, Setting, And Patients: This retrospective case-control study used an institutional database of 253 patients with fetal ventriculomegaly from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2014, to generate a predictive model. Data were analyzed from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2015. All 25 patients who required postnatal CSF diversion were selected and matched by gestational age with 25 patients with fetal ventriculomegaly who did not require CSF diversion (discovery cohort). The model was applied to a sample of 24 consecutive patients with fetal ventriculomegaly who underwent evaluation at a separate institution (replication cohort) from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2007. Data were analyzed from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2009.

Exposures: To generate the model, linear measurements, area, volume, and morphologic features were extracted from the fetal MRI, and a machine learning algorithm analyzed multiple features simultaneously to find the combination that was most predictive of the need for postnatal CSF diversion.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the model in correctly classifying patients requiring postnatal CSF diversion.

Results: A total of 74 patients (41 girls [55%] and 33 boys [45%]; mean [SD] gestational age, 27.0 [5.6] months) were included from both cohorts. In the discovery cohort, median time to CSF diversion was 6 days (interquartile range [IQR], 2-51 days), and patients with fetal ventriculomegaly who did not develop symptoms were followed up for a median of 29 months (IQR, 9-46 months). The model correctly classified patients who required CSF diversion with 82% accuracy, 80% sensitivity, and 84% specificity. In the replication cohort, the model achieved 91% accuracy, 75% sensitivity, and 95% specificity.

Conclusion And Relevance: Image analysis and machine learning can be applied to fetal MRI findings to predict the need for postnatal CSF diversion. The model provides prognostic information that may guide clinical management and select candidates for potential fetal surgical intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.3993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796744PMC
February 2018

Identifying Factors Predictive of Atlantoaxial Fusion Failure in Pediatric Patients: Lessons Learned From a Retrospective Pediatric Craniocervical Society Study.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2018 06;43(11):754-760

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Primary Children's Medical Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

Study Design: Multicenter retrospective cohort study with multivariate analysis.

Objective: To determine factors predictive of posterior atlantoaxial fusion failure in pediatric patients.

Summary Of Background Data: Fusion rates for pediatric posterior atlantoaxial arthrodesis have been reported to be high in single-center studies; however, factors predictive of surgical non-union have not been identified by a multicenter study.

Methods: Clinical and surgical details for all patients who underwent posterior atlantoaxial fusion at seven pediatric spine centers from 1995 to 2014 were retrospectively recorded. The primary outcome was surgical failure, defined as either instrumentation failure or fusion failure seen on either plain x-ray or computed tomography scan. Multiple logistic regression analysis was undertaken to identify clinical and technical factors predictive of surgical failure.

Results: One hundred thirty-one patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Successful fusion was seen in 117 (89%) of the patients. Of the 14 (11%) patients with failed fusion, the cause was instrumentation failure in 3 patients (2%) and graft failure in 11 (8%). Multivariate analysis identified Down syndrome as the single factor predictive of fusion failure (odds ratio 14.6, 95% confidence interval [3.7-64.0]).

Conclusion: This retrospective analysis of a multicenter cohort demonstrates that although posterior pediatric atlantoaxial fusion success rates are generally high, Down syndrome is a risk factor that significantly predicts the possibility of surgical failure.

Level Of Evidence: 3.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000002495DOI Listing
June 2018

Temporary occipital fixation in young children with severe cervical-thoracic spinal deformity.

Neurosurg Focus 2017 Oct;43(4):E11

Department of Neurological Surgery, Neurological Institute; and.

OBJECTIVE The long-term effects of instrumentation and fusion of the occipital-cervical-thoracic spine on spinal growth in young children are poorly understood. To mitigate the effects of this surgery on the growing pediatric spine, the authors report a novel technique used in 4 children with severe cervical-thoracic instability. These patients underwent instrumentation from the occiput to the upper thoracic region for stabilization, but without bone graft at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). Subsequent surgery was then performed to remove the occipital instrumentation, thereby allowing further growth and increased motion across the CVJ. METHODS Three very young children (15, 30, and 30 months old) underwent occipital to thoracic posterior segmental instrumentation due to cervical or upper thoracic dislocation, progressive kyphosis, and myelopathy. The fourth child (10 years old) underwent similar instrumentation for progressive cervical-thoracic scoliosis. Bone graft was placed at and distal to C-2 only. After follow-up CT scans demonstrated posterior arthrodesis without unintended fusion from the occiput to C-2, 3 patients underwent removal of the occipital instrumentation. RESULTS Follow-up cervical spine flexion/extension radiographs demonstrated partial restoration of motion at the CVJ. One patient has not had the occipital instrumentation removed yet, because only 4 months have elapsed since her operation. CONCLUSIONS Temporary fixation to the occiput provides increased biomechanical stability for spinal stabilization in young children, without permanently eliminating motion and growth at the CVJ. This technique can be considered in children who require longer instrumentation constructs for temporary stabilization, but who only need fusion in more limited areas where spinal instability exists.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2017.7.FOCUS17287DOI Listing
October 2017

Molecular Analyses Reveal Inflammatory Mediators in the Solid Component and Cyst Fluid of Human Adamantinomatous Craniopharyngioma.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2017 Sep;76(9):779-788

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado; Developmental Biology and Cancer Programme, Great Ormond Street UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK; Department of Neurological Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Miami Children's Hospital, University of Miami/Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida; Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, California; Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama; Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Pathology; Department of Neurosurgery; Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado; Department of Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, NHS Trust, London, UK; Morgan Adams Foundation Pediatric Brain Tumor Research Program; Pediatric Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital Colorado; and Adult and Child Center for Health Outcomes Research, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

Pediatric adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is a highly solid and cystic tumor, often causing substantial damage to critical neuroendocrine structures such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and optic apparatus. Paracrine signaling mechanisms driving tumor behavior have been hypothesized, with IL-6R overexpression identified as a potential therapeutic target. To identify potential novel therapies, we characterized inflammatory and immunomodulatory factors in ACP cyst fluid and solid tumor components. Cytometric bead analysis revealed a highly pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern in fluid from ACP compared to fluids from another cystic pediatric brain tumor, pilocytic astrocytoma. Cytokines and chemokines with particularly elevated concentrations in ACPs were IL-6, CXCL1 (GRO), CXCL8 (IL-8) and the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. These data were concordant with solid tumor compartment transcriptomic data from a larger cohort of ACPs, other pediatric brain tumors and normal brain. The majority of receptors for these cytokines and chemokines were also over-expressed in ACPs. In addition to IL-10, the established immunosuppressive factor IDO-1 was overexpressed by ACPs at the mRNA and protein levels. These data indicate that ACP cyst fluids and solid tumor components are characterized by an inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression pattern. Further study regarding selective cytokine blockade may inform novel therapeutic interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlx061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6005018PMC
September 2017

Analysis and interrater reliability of pB-C2 using MRI and CT: data from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium on behalf of the Pediatric Craniocervical Society.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2017 Aug 19;20(2):170-175. Epub 2017 May 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University, Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of NewYork-Presbyterian, New York, New York.

OBJECTIVE The distance to the ventral dura, perpendicular to the basion to C2 line (pB-C2), is commonly employed as a measure describing the anatomy of the craniovertebral junction. However, both the reliability among observers and the clinical utility of this measurement in the context of Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) have been incompletely determined. METHODS Data were reviewed from the first 600 patients enrolled in the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium with CM-I and syringomyelia. Thirty-one cases were identified in which both CT and MRI studies were available for review. Three pediatric neurosurgeons independently determined pB-C2 values using common imaging sequences: MRI (T1-weighted and T2-weighted with and without the inclusion of retro-odontoid soft tissue) and CT. Values were compared and intraclass correlations were calculated among imaging modalities and observers. RESULTS Intraclass correlation of pB-C2 demonstrated strong agreement between observers (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] range 0.72-0.76). Measurement using T2-weighted MRI with the inclusion of retro-odontoid soft tissue showed no significant difference with measurement using T1-weighted MRI. Measurements using CT or T2-weighted MRI without retro-odontoid soft tissue differed by 1.6 mm (4.69 and 3.09 mm, respectively, p < 0.05) and were significantly shorter than those using the other 2 sequences. Conclusions pB-C2 can be measured reliably by multiple observers in the context of pediatric CM-I with syringomeyelia. Measurement using T2-weighted MRI excluding retro-odontoid soft tissue closely approximates the value obtained using CT, which may allow for the less frequent use of CT in this patient population. Measurement using T2-weighted MRI including retro-odontoid soft tissue or using T1-weighted MRI yields a more complete assessment of the extent of ventral brainstem compression, but its association with clinical outcomes requires further study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2017.3.PEDS16604DOI Listing
August 2017

Classification and Management of Pediatric Craniocervical Injuries.

Neurosurg Clin N Am 2017 Jan;28(1):73-90

Department of Neurosurgery, Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital, Columbia University, 710 W. 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA.

This article addresses the key features, clinical presentation, patterns of injury, indicated workup, and radiographic findings associated with craniocervical injuries in the pediatric population. It discusses nonsurgical and surgical management of pediatric cervical spine trauma, addressing when each is indicated, and the various techniques available to the pediatric neurosurgeon.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nec.2016.08.001DOI Listing
January 2017