Publications by authors named "Richard B Slatcher"

52 Publications

Parent-child conflict and physical health trajectories among youth with asthma.

J Psychosom Res 2021 Sep 9;150:110606. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the role of caregiver- and youth-reports of parent-child conflict on trajectories of asthma-related health outcomes over 2 years.

Methods: In a sample of 193 youth with asthma (42.7% female; M age = 12.78) and their primary caregivers, we used a multi-method and multi-informant approach to assess self-reported parent-child conflict from youth and caregivers at both the daily and global levels at baseline. Next, we annually assessed subjective (i.e., youth self-reported asthma symptoms) and clinical (i.e., peak flow) asthma health outcomes for 2 years.

Results: Latent growth curve models revealed an effect of baseline youth-reported global family conflict on peak flow trajectories such that youth who reported greater parent-child conflict at baseline experienced less of an increase in peak flow over time than youth who reported less parent-child conflict at baseline (standardized β = -0.27, p = .003).

Conclusions: Youth with asthma who perceive greater overall conflict with their caregivers experience less improvement in peak flow as they age. The research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2021.110606DOI Listing
September 2021

Naturalistically observed interpersonal problems and diabetes management in older adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

Psychol Health 2021 Aug 4:1-16. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Family Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Objective: This study investigated the links between naturalistically observed and self-reported interpersonal problems, diabetes management, and glucose levels in older adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

Design: Sixty-eight older adolescents and young adults (aged 17-20 years) participated in a cross-sectional study that consisted of three home visits and a daily diary segment.

Main Outcome Measures: Participants wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) for four days to capture interpersonal problems and wore a continuous glucose monitor for blood glucose levels. Researchers also collected HbA1 values, conducted an interview to assess diabetes management, and collected participant-reported severity of interpersonal problems.

Results: High EAR-observed interpersonal problems were associated with poor diabetes management. Multiple regression analyses revealed that high EAR-observed interpersonal problems continued to explain variance in poor diabetes management after including self-reported interpersonal problems and covariates.

Conclusion: These findings corroborate literature suggesting that negative interactions are associated with type 1 diabetes management. This study is the first to use the EAR to capture naturalistically observed interactions in this population and identify its utility beyond self-reports. These findings highlight the importance of considering naturalistically observed interactions when developing interventions to promote better diabetes management in older adolescents and young adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2021.1960345DOI Listing
August 2021

Psychosocial experiences modulate asthma-associated genes through gene-environment interactions.

Elife 2021 06 18;10. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University, Detroit, United States.

Social interactions and the overall psychosocial environment have a demonstrated impact on health, particularly for people living in disadvantaged urban areas. Here, we investigated the effect of psychosocial experiences on gene expression in peripheral blood immune cells of children with asthma in Metro Detroit. Using RNA-sequencing and a new machine learning approach, we identified transcriptional signatures of 19 variables including psychosocial factors, blood cell composition, and asthma symptoms. Importantly, we found 169 genes associated with asthma or allergic disease that are regulated by psychosocial factors and 344 significant gene-environment interactions for gene expression levels. These results demonstrate that immune gene expression mediates the link between negative psychosocial experiences and asthma risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.63852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8282343PMC
June 2021

Socioeconomic status, financial stress, and glucocorticoid resistance among youth with asthma: Testing the moderation effects of maternal involvement and warmth.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 08 17;96:92-99. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Psychology, Wayne State University, United States; Department of Family Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Wayne State University, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: Children who grow up in more socioeconomically disadvantaged homes experience greater levels of inflammation and worse asthma symptoms than children from more advantaged families. However, recent evidence suggests that certain family-level factors can mitigate health disparities associated with socioeconomic status (SES). In a sample of youth with asthma, we investigated the potential buffering effects of maternal involvement and warmth on SES disparities in asthma-related immune responses, assessed via glucocorticoid resistance (GR) of immune cells.

Methods: One hundred and forty-three youth (10-16 years of age) with asthma completed measures of maternal involvement and warmth, and their primary caregivers reported their levels of education, income, and financial stress. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from youth's blood were isolated, cultured, and assayed to determine mitogen-stimulated (PMA/INO + Etho) and mitogen/hydrocortisone-stimulated (PMA/INO + Cort) levels of two Th-2 cytokines (i.e., interleukin-5, interleukin-13) and one Th-1 cytokine (i.e., interferon-γ). GR was calculated by subtracting log-transformed cytokine concentration in the PMA/INO + Etho samples from log-transformed cytokine concentration in the PMA/INO + Cort samples.

Results: Both maternal involvement and warmth moderated the indirect pathway from family SES to GR of Th-2 cytokines via financial stress. Specifically, we found that low family SES was associated with elevated GR of Th-2 cytokines via increased financial stress among youth reporting low levels of maternal involvement and warmth, but not among those reporting high levels of maternal involvement or warmth.

Conclusions: These results highlight the protective role of maternal involvement and warmth in health-related biological processes modulated by family SES among youth with asthma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2021.05.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319072PMC
August 2021

Socioeconomic status and medication adherence among youth with asthma: the mediating role of frequency of children's daily routines.

Psychol Health 2021 Jan 4:1-17. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Psychology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

Objective: The current research aims to examine a potential explanation for SES disparities in youth medication adherence: the frequency of children's daily routines.

Design: In a cross-sectional sample of 194 youth with asthma (112 boys and 82 girls; average age = 12.8 years old) and their primary caregivers primarily from the Detroit metropolitan area, caregivers reported their SES and the frequency of their children's daily routines during the first laboratory visit. At a follow-up visit, caregivers and their children completed the Family Asthma Management System Scale (FAMSS), a well-validated, semi-structured interview that assess children's degree of adherence to prescribed medications.

Main Outcome Measures: Children's daily routines were measured with the Child Routines Inventory while children's medication adherence was measured with the FAMSS.

Results: Mediation analyses revealed that the association between subjective (but not objective) SES and medication adherence was partially mediated by the frequency of children's daily routines.

Conclusion: These results suggest that the frequency of children's daily routines is an important factor linking SES and medication adherence, a finding with important implications for improving health outcomes and reducing health disparities between low SES children and their high SES counterparts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2020.1869739DOI Listing
January 2021

Correction to Rodriguez-Stanley et al. (2020).

J Fam Psychol 2020 Oct;34(7):845

Department of Psychology.

Reports an error in "Housework, health, and well-being in older adults: The role of socioeconomic status" by Jacqueline Rodriguez-Stanley, María Alonso-Ferres, Samuele Zilioli and Richard B. Slatcher (, 2020[Aug], Vol 34[5], 610-620). In the article (http://dx.doi.org/10 .1037/fam0000630), values are incorrectly reported in columns 1-3 of Table 1 and in the "Eudaimonic well-being," "Physical health," and "Sleep dysfunction" columns of Table 2. Although the significance of the associations and analyses remain unchanged, the corrected table columns are included in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2020-09875-001.) For most adults, household chores are undesirable tasks yet need to be completed regularly. Previous research has identified absolute hours spent on household chores and one's perceived fairness of the housework distribution as predictors of romantic relationship quality and well-being outcomes. Drawing from the Equity Theory, we hypothesized that perceived fairness acts as an underlying psychological mechanism linking household chores hours to long-term effects of relationship quality, well-being, physical health, and sleep quality in a sample of 2,644 married and cohabiting adults from the Midlife Development in the U.S. study. Additionally, following the Reserve Capacity Model, socioeconomic status (SES) was tested as a moderator because of its association with exposure to stressors and psychological resources which contribute to perceived fairness. Moderated mediation results showed significant indirect effects of household chore hours through perceived fairness on prospective measures of well-being, marital quality, physical health, and sleep dysfunction among individuals of lower SES but not higher SES when controlling for age, sex, and paid work hours. These results highlight the importance of perceived fairness and the influence of SES in the links among household chores and long-term relationship processes, health, and well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000800DOI Listing
October 2020

Optimal sampling strategies for characterizing behavior and affect from ambulatory audio recordings.

J Fam Psychol 2020 Dec 9;34(8):980-990. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Psychology.

Advances in mobile and wearable technologies mean it is now feasible to record hours to days of participant behavior in its naturalistic context, a great boon for psychologists interested in family processes and development. While automated activity recognition algorithms exist for a limited set of behaviors, time-consuming human annotations are still required to robustly characterize the vast majority of behavioral and affective markers of interest. This report is the first to date which systematically tests the efficacy of different sampling strategies for characterizing behavior from audio recordings to provide practical guidelines for researchers. Using continuous audio recordings of the daily lives of 11 preschool-aged children, we compared sampling techniques to determine the most accurate and efficient approach. Results suggest that sampling both low and high frequency verbal and overt behaviors is best if samples are short in duration, systematically rather than randomly selected, and sampled to cover at least 12.5% of recordings. Implications for assessment of real-world behavior are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7544678PMC
December 2020

Couples' behavior during conflict in the lab and diurnal cortisol patterns in daily life.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2020 05 20;115:104633. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

University of Georgia, Department of Psychology, 125 Baldwin Street, Athens, GA, 30602, Georgia. Electronic address:

The current study tested whether positive and negative behaviors exhibited by couples during conflict interactions assessed in the laboratory are associated with individuals' diurnal cortisol patterns (i.e., circadian rhythms in cortisol across the course of the day) outside of the lab. Participants (N = 82) provided a total of 18 salivary cortisol samples over a 3-day period and came into the lab with their spouse to engage in two ten-minute dyadic conflict discussions. These videotaped interactions were coded to assess the intensity with which couples displayed various positive behaviors (e.g., humor, affection) and negative behaviors (e.g., defensiveness, frustration) during the conflict discussions. Multi-level modeling was used to examine the associations between couples' positive and negative behavior during conflict discussions and diurnal cortisol patterns in daily life. Results showed links between overall positive, but not negative, behaviors and diurnal cortisol patterns. Individuals who experienced more positive behaviors with their partner during the conflict discussion showed a steeper ("healthier") cortisol slope across the day in their daily lives. Exploratory analyses investigating the association between specific positive and negative behaviors and diurnal cortisol revealed that affection and scorn were associated with diurnal cortisol patterns in daily life. This research advances our understanding of the impact of social relationships on physical health from a biopsychosocial perspective and has implications for understanding how the ways in which couples resolve conflict are linked to health-related biological processes in daily life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2020.104633DOI Listing
May 2020

Housework, health, and well-being in older adults: The role of socioeconomic status.

J Fam Psychol 2020 Aug 13;34(5):610-620. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Psychology.

For most adults, household chores are undesirable tasks yet need to be completed regularly. Previous research has identified absolute hours spent on household chores and one's perceived fairness of the housework distribution as predictors of romantic relationship quality and well-being outcomes. Drawing from the Equity Theory, we hypothesized that perceived fairness acts as an underlying psychological mechanism linking household chores hours to long-term effects of relationship quality, well-being, physical health, and sleep quality in a sample of 2,644 married and cohabiting adults from the Midlife Development in the U.S. study. Additionally, following the Reserve Capacity Model, socioeconomic status (SES) was tested as a moderator because of its association with exposure to stressors and psychological resources which contribute to perceived fairness. Moderated mediation results showed significant indirect effects of household chore hours through perceived fairness on prospective measures of well-being, marital quality, physical health, and sleep dysfunction among individuals of lower SES but not higher SES when controlling for age, sex, and paid work hours. These results highlight the importance of perceived fairness and the influence of SES in the links among household chores and long-term relationship processes, health, and well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374043PMC
August 2020

Corrigendum to "Brief report: Neighborhood disadvantage and hair cortisol among older urban African Americans" [Psychoneuroendocrinology 80 (2017) 36-38].

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2020 Jan 16;111:104508. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Department of Health Care Sciences, Wayne State University, United States; Institute of Gerontology, Wayne State University, United States. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.104508DOI Listing
January 2020

Smartphones and Close Relationships: The Case for an Evolutionary Mismatch.

Perspect Psychol Sci 2019 07 19;14(4):596-618. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

2 Department of Psychology, Wayne State University.

This article introduces and outlines the case for an evolutionary mismatch between smartphones and the social behaviors that help form and maintain close social relationships. As psychological adaptations that enhance human survival and inclusive fitness, self-disclosure and responsiveness evolved in the context of small kin networks to facilitate social bonds, promote trust, and enhance cooperation. These adaptations are central to the development of attachment bonds, and attachment theory is a middle-level evolutionary theory that provides a robust account of the ways human bonding provides for reproductive and inclusive fitness. Evolutionary mismatches operate when modern contexts cue ancestral adaptations in a manner that does not provide for their adaptive benefits. We argue that smartphones and their affordances, although highly beneficial in many circumstances, cue humans' evolved needs for self-disclosure and responsiveness across broad virtual networks and, in turn, have the potential to undermine immediate interpersonal interactions. We review emerging evidence on the topic of , which is defined as the ways in which smartphone use may interfere with or intrude into everyday social interactions. The article concludes with an empirical agenda for advancing the integrative study of smartphones, intimacy processes, and close relationships.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691619826535DOI Listing
July 2019

Self-Disclosure and Perceived Responsiveness Among Youth With Asthma: Links to Affect and Anti-Inflammatory Gene Expression.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2019 08 28;45(8):1155-1169. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

1 Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

Self-disclosure and perceived responsiveness are important building blocks of social relationships that have long-lasting consequences for health and well-being. However, the conditions under which self-disclosure and responsiveness are likely to benefit health, and how early in life these benefits arise, remain unclear. Among 141 youth (aged 10-17) with asthma, we investigated how average daily levels of self-disclosure and responsiveness are linked to positive and negative affect and the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor gene , a marker of improved regulation of stress physiology and immune functioning. Higher levels of self-disclosure were associated with higher expression and positive affect when perceptions of responsiveness were high. Furthermore, perceived responsiveness was linked to expression for females but not males. These results suggest that the potential benefits of self-disclosure depend on the extent to which interaction partners are perceived as responsive and that these benefits emerge prior to adulthood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167218808497DOI Listing
August 2019

Maternal attachment avoidance is linked to youth diurnal cortisol slopes in children with asthma.

Attach Hum Dev 2019 02 8;21(1):23-37. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

a Department of Phsychology , Wayne State University , Detroit , USA.

Prior evidence suggests that an individual's attachment orientation is linked to the health and health-related biology of his/her romantic relationship partners. The current study examined whether this effect extends to parent-child relationships. Specifically, we investigated the association between maternal attachment anxiety and avoidance and diurnal cortisol of offspring. In a sample of 138 youth with asthma and their primary caregivers, caregivers reported their attachment orientations, and their children (aged 10-17) supplied four saliva samples per day over four days to assess diurnal cortisol patterns. Growth curve analyses revealed no links to caregiver attachment anxiety, but caregiver attachment avoidance was significantly associated with children's diurnal cortisol slopes, such that greater attachment avoidance predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes. Maternal warmth did not mediate this link. These results support the possibility that an individual's adult attachment orientation may "get under the skin" of family members to influence their health-related biology. Future research should seek to determine the causal direction of this association and mechanisms of this effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2018.1541514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413731PMC
February 2019

Perceived Partner Responsiveness, Daily Negative Affect Reactivity, and All-Cause Mortality: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study.

Psychosom Med 2019 01;81(1):7-15

From the Department of Psychology (Stanton), University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom; Department of Psychology (Selcuk), Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Psychology (Farrell, Slatcher) and Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics (Farrell), Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan; Department of Human Development (Ong), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York; and Division of Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine (Ong), Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Objective: This study tested longitudinal associations between absolute levels of perceived partner responsiveness (PPR; how much people perceive that their romantic partners understand, care for, and appreciate them), daily negative affect reactivity and positive affect reactivity, and all-cause mortality in a sample of 1,208 adults for three waves of data collection spanning 20 years. We also tested whether longitudinal changes in PPR predicted mortality via affect reactivity.

Methods: Data were taken from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. PPR was assessed at waves 1 and 2, affect reactivity to stressors was assessed by daily diary reports at wave 2, and mortality status was obtained at wave 3.

Results: Mediation analyses revealed absolute levels of PPR at wave 1 predicted wave 3 mortality via wave 2 affective reactivity in the predicted direction, but this did not remain robust when statistically accounting for covariates (e.g., marital risk, neuroticism), β = .004, 95% confidence interval = -.03 to .04. However, wave 1-2 PPR change predicted negative affect (but not positive affect) reactivity to daily stressors at wave 2, which then predicted mortality risk a decade later (wave 3); these results held when adjusting for relevant demographic, health, and psychosocial covariates, β = -.04, 95% confidence interval = -.09 to -.002.

Conclusions: These findings are among the first to provide direct evidence of psychological mechanisms underlying the links between intimate relationships and mortality and have implications for research aiming to develop interventions that increase or maintain responsiveness in relationships over time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6298854PMC
January 2019

Patterns of perceived partner responsiveness and well-being in Japan and the United States.

J Fam Psychol 2018 04;32(3):355-365

Department of Human Development and Weill Medical College, Cornell University.

Quality of marital relationships is consistently linked to personal well-being. However, almost all of the studies linking marital processes to well-being have been conducted in Western (particularly North American) countries. Growing evidence shows that perceived partner responsiveness is a central relationship process predicting well-being in Western contexts but little is known about whether this association generalizes to other countries. The present work investigated whether the predictive role of perceived partner responsiveness in well-being differs across the United States and Japan-2 contexts with contrasting views on how the self is conceptualized in relation to the social group. A large life span sample of married or long-term cohabiting adults (n = 3,079, age range = 33-83 in the United States and n = 861, age range = 30-79 in Japan) completed measures of perceived partner responsiveness, hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, and demographic (age, gender, education) and personality (extraversion and neuroticism) covariates known to predict well-being. Perceived partner responsiveness positively predicted hedonic and eudaimonic well-being both in the U.S. and in Japan. However, perceived partner responsiveness more strongly predicted both types of well-being in the United States as compared with Japan. The difference in slopes across the 2 countries was greater for eudaimonic as compared with hedonic well-being. The interaction between perceived partner responsiveness and country held even after controlling for demographic factors and personality traits. By showing that the role of perceived partner responsiveness in well-being may be influenced by cultural context, our findings contribute to achieving a more nuanced picture of the role of relationships in personal well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5922804PMC
April 2018

Socioeconomic status, family negative emotional climate, and anti-inflammatory gene expression among youth with asthma.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 05 15;91:62-67. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Department of Psychology, Wayne State University, 5057 Woodward Ave, Detroit, MI 48202, United States; Department of Family Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Wayne State University, 3939 Woodward Ave, Detroit, MI 48201, United States. Electronic address:

The glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 is an important down-regulator of inflammation and is typically under-expressed in individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES). Negative emotionality has been suggested as a potential mediator of SES disparities in health outcomes. In this study, we expand this literature by naturalistically assessing negative emotionality in a key emotional environment: the family. In a sample of 104 youth with asthma (10-17 years) and their primary caregiver, we assessed SES via caregiver report, emotional expression by youth and parents in the home over four days using the electronically activated recorder (EAR), and NR3C1 expression via blood collected from youth. Although there was not a direct effect of SES on NR3C1 expression, bootstrapping mediation analyses showed a significant indirect path such that lower SES was associated with a more negative family emotional climate, which in turn predicted reduced NR3C1 expression. No mediation effects were found for family positive emotional climate. This research demonstrates the importance of examining the effects of SES on emotion expression in the family context and suggests a critical biopsychosocial pathway underlying SES-based health disparities that may extend beyond youth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903571PMC
May 2018

Latent Semantic Analysis: A new measure of patient-physician communication.

Soc Sci Med 2018 02 18;198:22-26. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Department of Psychology, 806 W. Franklin St. Box 84-2018, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA. Electronic address:

Rationale: Patient-physician communication plays an essential role in a variety of patient outcomes; however, it is often difficult to operationalize positive patient-physician communication objectively, and the existing evaluation tools are generally time-consuming.

Objective: This study proposes semantic similarity of the patient's and physician's language in a medical interaction as a measure of patient-physician communication. Latent semantic analysis (LSA), a mathematical method for modeling semantic meaning, was employed to assess similarity in language during clinical interactions between physicians and patients.

Methods: Participants were 132 Black/African American patients (76% women, Mage = 43.8, range = 18-82) who participated in clinical interactions with 17 physicians (53% women, Mage = 27.1, range = 26-35) in a primary care clinic in a large city in the Midwestern United States.

Results: LSA captured reliable information about patient-physician communication: The mean correlation indicating similarity between the transcripts of a physician and patient in a clinical interaction was 0.142, significantly greater than zero; the mean correlation between a patient's transcript and transcripts of their physician during interactions with other patients was not different from zero. Physicians differed significantly in the semantic similarity between their language and that of their patients, and these differences were related to physician ethnicity and gender. Female patients exhibited greater communication similarity with their physicians than did male patients. Finally, greater communication similarity was predicted by less patient trust in physicians prior to the interaction and greater patient trust after the interaction.

Conclusion: LSA is a potentially important tool in patient-physician communication research. Methodological considerations in applying LSA to address research questions in patient-physician communication are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.12.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5866755PMC
February 2018

Mothers' Attachment is Linked to their Children's Anti-Inflammatory Gene Expression via Maternal Warmth.

Soc Psychol Personal Sci 2017 Sep 4;8(7):796-805. Epub 2017 May 4.

Wayne State University.

Research has demonstrated links between adult romantic attachment and one's own physical health; little is known about links between adult attachment orientations and offspring health. Prior work has shown that parents' greater attachment anxiety and avoidance predicts less warmth toward their children. Extensive work has also shown that lower maternal warmth has negative downstream effects on offspring health. We tested the novel hypothesis that mothers' dispositional romantic attachment would be linked-via maternal warmth-to their children's expression of the glucocorticoid receptor gene , higher expression of which is associated with healthier stress-regulation and inflammatory response. In a sample of 132 youth with asthma, we found that mothers' attachment anxiety and avoidance were both negatively associated with children's expression of , explained by lower youth-rated maternal warmth. Effects held after adjusting for demographic and psychosocial covariates. Implications for parents' attachment influencing the health of offspring are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1948550616687125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6219467PMC
September 2017

Youth secrets are associated with poorer sleep and asthma symptoms via negative affect.

J Psychosom Res 2017 05 21;96:15-20. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Wayne State University, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: Among older children and adolescents, keeping secrets from parents is consistently associated with lower levels of psychological well-being. Further, concealing one's thoughts and emotions has been associated with poor physical health outcomes in adults. However, it remains an open question whether secret-keeping is associated with poorer health and health-related behaviors (such as sleep) among youth and, if those hypothesized links exist, what the psychological mechanisms might be. We investigated the associations among youth secrecy towards parents, daily asthma symptoms and daily sleep behaviors in a sample of low-income youth with asthma aged 10-17 and tested negative affect as a possible mediator of these associations.

Methods: One hundred and seventy two youths reported the extent to which they kept secrets towards parents over a period of four days. Asthma symptoms, nighttime awakenings, sleep onset latency, and subjective sleep quality were assessed with daily diaries completed by youths.

Results: More frequent secret-keeping was associated with more severe asthma symptoms, lower ratings of sleep quality and greater number of nighttime awakenings. Secrecy was also associated with increased negative affect, which accounted for the associations between secrecy and number of awakenings and daytime asthma symptoms. These findings remained significant after controlling for youth age and other relevant demographic factors.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that secrecy towards parents can have consequential health outcomes for youth with asthma and point to the importance of investigating affective processes as mediators of the influence of secret-keeping on youth health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2017.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5967403PMC
May 2017

Protective Processes Underlying the Links between Marital Quality and Physical Health.

Curr Opin Psychol 2017 Feb 28;13:148-152. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

University of Fribourg.

Although the links between marital quality and physical health are now well established, the psychological processes through which marriage impacts health remain unclear. Additionally, prior research on the links between marriage and health has focused mainly on how negative aspects of relationships (e.g., conflict, hostility) can be damaging to one's physical health. In this article, we describe the strength and strain model of marital quality and health, which provides a roadmap for studying protective factors underlying marriage-health links. We home in one relationship process-partner responsiveness-and one broad class of psychological mechanisms-affective processes-to illustrate core aspects of the model. Our review suggests that future research will profit from a greater integration of theory from the social psychology of close relationships into studies of relationships and health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2016.09.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5423721PMC
February 2017

A Social Psychological Perspective on the Links between Close Relationships and Health.

Curr Dir Psychol Sci 2017 Feb 8;26(1):16-21. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

Middle East Technical University.

The association between the quality of people's close relationships and their physical health is well-established. But from a psychological perspective, do close relationships impact physical health? This article summarizes recent work seeking to identify the relationship processes, psychological mediators and moderators of the links between close relationships and health, with an emphasis on studies of married and cohabitating couples. We begin with a brief review of a recent meta-analysis of the links between marital quality and health. We then describe our model of marriage and health, homing in on one process--and one moderator--to illustrate ways in which basic relationship science can inform our understanding of how relationships impact physical health. We conclude with a brief discussion of promising directions in the study of close relationships and health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0963721416667444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5373007PMC
February 2017

Brief report: Neighborhood disadvantage and hair cortisol among older urban African Americans.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2017 Jun 2;80:36-38. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Department of Health Care Sciences, Wayne State University, United States. Electronic address:

Previous studies have shown that living in poor neighborhoods is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, researchers are now investigating the biological pathways responsible for the deleterious effects of neighborhood disadvantage on health. This study investigated whether neighborhood disadvantage (i.e., a measure of relative neighborhood quality derived by combining social and built environmental conditions) was associated with hair cortisol-a retrospective indicator of long-term hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activation-and whether this link would be mediated by self-reported neighborhood satisfaction. Forty-nine older African Americans were recruited from thirty-nine Detroit census tracts across five strata of census tract adversity. Participants were interviewed face-to-face to collect psychosocial measures. Each provided a hair sample for analysis of cortisol. Multiple regression analyses revealed that higher neighborhood disadvantage was associated with higher levels of hair cortisol levels and that neighborhood satisfaction partially explained this association. These results are the first to our knowledge to demonstrate a direct link between neighborhood disadvantage and hair cortisol in a sample of older adults and to show that self-reported neighborhood satisfaction may be a psychological intermediary of this association.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.02.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5450496PMC
June 2017

Biopsychosocial pathways linking subjective socioeconomic disadvantage to glycemic control in youths with type I diabetes.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2017 04 3;78:222-228. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

Department of Psychology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA.

Older adolescent and young adults (OAYA) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) living in contexts of socio-economic disadvantage (SED) suffer disproportionately from poor glycemic control and related health complications. Although SED may convey a variety of risks, it may exacerbate diabetes-related stress levels, which in turn may account for observed disparities in health outcomes. The primary goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between subjective SED, diabetes-related perceived stress, and diurnal cortisol secretion in urban OAYA with T1D. A secondary goal was to determine if cortisol was related to measures of blood glucose (HbA1c and mean blood glucose). Analyses were conducted among OAYA ages 17-20 years (n=61) affected by T1D, who provided daily saliva samples for four days, measures of glycemic control (i.e., HbA1c and mean blood glucose assessed via Continuous Glucose Monitor), and completed psychosocial questionnaires. We found that subjective SED was associated with a flatter diurnal cortisol rhythm via diabetes-related stress. Flattened cortisol rhythm was, in turn, associated with higher levels of HbA1c, but not with mean blood glucose assessed via Continuous Glucose Monitor. These results represent some of the first empirical evidence on how distal social factors (i.e., subjective SED) and proximal psychological processes (diabetes-related perceived stress) are connected to condition-relevant biological mechanisms (i.e., elevated HbA1c), via broad biological pathways implicated in health (i.e., flatter cortisol slope).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.01.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5362289PMC
April 2017

The roles of testosterone and cortisol in friendship formation.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2017 02 18;76:88-96. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

Wayne State University, 5057 Woodward Ave., Detroit, MI 48202, USA. Electronic address:

Although research has investigated the neuroendocrine correlates of romantic relationships, the neuroendocrine correlates of friendship formation are largely unexplored. In two conditions, participants' salivary testosterone and cortisol were measured before and after a high versus low closeness activity with another same-sex participant. In the high closeness task, participants took turns answering questions that fostered increases in self-disclosure. The low closeness task fostered low levels of self-disclosure. Dyadic multilevel models indicated that lower basal testosterone and decreases in testosterone were associated with increased closeness between recently acquainted strangers. Our results suggest that people high in testosterone felt less close to others and desired less closeness. Further, lower basal cortisol and dynamic cortisol decreases were associated with greater closeness and desired closeness in the high closeness condition. Finally, we found that the partners of those who had lower cortisol desired more closeness. These findings suggest that lower testosterone and cortisol are linked to the facilitation of initial social bonds and that these social bonds may, in turn, be associated with changes in these hormones.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.11.022DOI Listing
February 2017

The impact of daily and trait loneliness on diurnal cortisol and sleep among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2017 01 25;75:64-71. Epub 2016 Oct 25.

Institute of Behavior and Psychology, Henan University, Department of Psychology, Kaifeng 475004, China.

Dysregulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis and disruptions of restorative processes (e.g., sleep) have been proposed as two key mechanisms through which loneliness leads to medical morbidity in adults and late adolescents. Whether loneliness acts through these biological and behavioral intermediaries in children as well remains unexplored. In a sample of 645 children aged 8-15 affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China, trait and state (i.e., daily) loneliness were measured in a 3-day diary study, wherein participants also provided cortisol samples and sleep measures. Whereas high levels of trait loneliness were found to predict lower morning cortisol levels, longer time in bed, lower sleep quality, and a higher number of night awakenings, daily loneliness was associated with a flatter diurnal cortisol slope and shorter time in bed. Although the association between trait loneliness and daily loneliness with HPA activity remained significant after controlling for psychological constructs that overlap with loneliness (e.g., depression and daily negative affect), some of the associations between loneliness and sleep measures became non-significant after including these additional covariates. These findings provide the first empirical evidence to our knowledge of associations between trait and state loneliness and health-related outcomes among school-aged children and young adolescents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.10.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5256636PMC
January 2017

Socioeconomic status, perceived control, diurnal cortisol, and physical symptoms: A moderated mediation model.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2017 01 6;75:36-43. Epub 2016 Oct 6.

Department of Psychology, Wayne State University, United States.

Social class is a robust predictor of health, with risk for disease and mortality increasing towards the lower end of the socioeconomic (SES) spectrum. While certain psychological characteristics, such as high sense of control, can protect low-SES individuals from adverse health outcomes, very few studies have investigated the biological mechanisms underlying these relationships. In this study, we tested whether sense of control mitigated the associations between SES and cortisol activity, and SES and physical health in daily life (i.e., number and severity of physical symptoms). Next, we tested whether individual differences in cortisol secretion would act as a mechanism by which SES and perceived control influenced physical health. In a large national sample from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) survey, we found that SES interacted with perceived control in predicting morning cortisol levels, cortisol slopes, number of physical symptoms, and severity of physical symptoms. Specifically, SES disparities in these health outcomes were more pronounced among individuals reporting low levels of perceived control than among individuals endorsing high levels of perceived control. Further, we found that a flatter cortisol slope mediated the link between lower SES and greater number and severity of physical symptoms for those individuals who reported lower levels of perceived control, but not for individuals reporting higher levels of perceived control. These findings suggest that perception of greater control may act as a buffer against the effect of low SES on health-related physiological processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.09.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5256637PMC
January 2017

Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

Psychol Sci 2016 09 1;27(9):1249-65. Epub 2016 Aug 1.

Institute of Behavior and Psychology, Department of Psychology, Henan University.

Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here, we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and youths, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening, and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Finally, youths who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared with youths whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the life span.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797616658287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5017903PMC
September 2016

Physician Racial Bias and Word Use during Racially Discordant Medical Interactions.

Health Commun 2017 04 16;32(4):401-408. Epub 2016 Jun 16.

c Department of Oncology , Wayne State University/Karmanos Cancer Institute.

Physician racial bias can negatively affect Black patients' reactions to racially discordant medical interactions, suggesting that racial bias is manifested in physicians' communication with their Black patients. However, little is known about how physician racial bias actually influences their communication during these interactions. This study investigated how non-Black physicians' racial bias is related to their word use during medical interactions with Black patients. One hundred and seventeen video-recorded racially discordant medical interactions from a larger study were transcribed and analyzed using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software. Physicians with higher levels of implicit racial bias used first-person plural pronouns and anxiety-related words more frequently than physicians with lower levels of implicit bias. There was also a trend for physicians with higher levels of explicit racial bias to use first-person singular pronouns more frequently than physicians with lower levels of explicit bias. These findings suggest that non-Black physicians with higher levels of implicit racial bias may tend to use more words that reflect social dominance (i.e., first-person plural pronouns) and anxiety when interacting with Black patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2016.1138389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5161737PMC
April 2017

The impact of negative family-work spillover on diurnal cortisol.

Health Psychol 2016 Oct 9;35(10):1164-7. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology, Wayne State University.

Objective: Both dimensions of the work-family interface, work-to-family and family-to-work spillover, have important implications for health and well-being. Despite the importance of these associations, very little is known about the physiological mechanisms through which the interplay between family and work experiences are translated into long-lasting consequences for health.

Method: This study investigated both positive and negative aspects of each spillover dimension on diurnal cortisol secretion patterns in a large panel study of working adults between the ages of 33 and 80.

Results: Greater negative family-to-work (NFW) spillover predicted lower wake-up cortisol values and a flatter (less "healthy") diurnal cortisol slope. This effect was evident even after controlling for the effects of the other spillover dimensions.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that not all aspects of the work-family interface might impact stress physiology to the same extent and suggest that diurnal cortisol may be an important pathway through which negative aspects of the work-family interface leave their mark on health. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5033681PMC
October 2016

Religious participation predicts diurnal cortisol profiles 10 years later via lower levels of religious struggle.

Health Psychol 2016 Dec 9;35(12):1356-1363. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology.

Objective: Multiple aspects of religion have been linked with a variety of physical health outcomes; however, rarely have investigators attempted to empirically test the mechanisms through which religiosity impacts health. The links between religious participation, religious coping, and diurnal cortisol patterns over a 10-year period in a national sample of adults in the United States were investigated.

Method: Participants included 1,470 respondents from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study who provided reports on religious participation, religious coping, and diurnal cortisol.

Results: Religious participation predicted steeper ("healthier") cortisol slopes at the 10-year follow-up, controlling for potential confounds. Further, religious struggle (religious coping marked by tension and strain about religious and spiritual issues) mediated the prospective association between religious participation and cortisol slope, such that greater religious attendance predicted lower levels of religious struggle 10 years later, which in turn was linked with a steeper cortisol slope; this effect remained strong when controlling for general emotional coping and social support. Positive religious coping was unrelated to diurnal cortisol patterns.

Conclusion: These findings identify religious struggle as a mechanism through which religious participation impacts diurnal cortisol levels and suggest that diurnal cortisol is a plausible pathway through which aspects of religion influence long-term physical health. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5118083PMC
December 2016
-->