Publications by authors named "Richard Aplenc"

194 Publications

Late health outcomes after dexrazoxane treatment: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Cancer 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Oishei Children's Hospital, Roswell Park Comprehensive Center, University at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, New York.

Background: The objective of this study was to examine long-term outcomes among children newly diagnosed with cancer who were treated in dexrazoxane-containing clinical trials.

Methods: P9404 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma [ALL]), P9425 and P9426 (Hodgkin lymphoma), P9754 (osteosarcoma), and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 95-01 (ALL) enrolled 1308 patients between 1996 and 2001: 1066 were randomized (1:1) to doxorubicin with or without dexrazoxane, and 242 (from P9754) were nonrandomly assigned to receive dexrazoxane. Trial data were linked with the National Death Index, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS), and Medicaid. Osteosarcoma survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS; n = 495; no dexrazoxane) served as comparators in subanalyses. Follow-up events were assessed with cumulative incidence, Cox regression, and Fine-Gray methods.

Results: In randomized trials (cumulative prescribed doxorubicin dose, 100-360 mg/m ; median follow-up, 18.6 years), dexrazoxane was not associated with relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-1.13), second cancers (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.62-2.30), all-cause mortality (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.78-1.47), or cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.41-5.16). Among P9754 patients (all exposed to dexrazoxane; cumulative doxorubicin, 450-600 mg/m ; median follow-up, 16.6-18.4 years), no cardiovascular deaths or heart transplantation occurred. The 20-year heart transplantation rate among CCSS osteosarcoma survivors (mean doxorubicin, 377 ± 145 mg/m ) was 1.6% (vs 0% in P9754; P = .13). Among randomized patients, serious cardiovascular outcomes (cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, and stroke) ascertained by PHIS/Medicaid occurred less commonly with dexrazoxane (5.6%) than without it (17.6%; P = .02), although cardiomyopathy rates alone did not differ (4.4% vs 8.1%; P = .35).

Conclusions: Dexrazoxane did not appear to adversely affect long-term mortality, event-free survival, or second cancer risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33974DOI Listing
October 2021

Outcomes of intensification of induction chemotherapy for children with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Oct 1:e29281. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Division of Oncology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: High-risk pediatric acute myeloid leukemia confers a poor prognosis, and alternative strategies are needed to improve outcomes. We hypothesized that intensifying induction on the AAML1031 clinical trial would improve outcomes compared to the predecessor trial AAML0531.

Methods: Patients on AAML0531 received cytarabine (1600 mg/m )/daunorubicin (150 mg/m )/etoposide (ADE) for induction II and patients on AAML1031 received mitoxantrone (48 mg/m )/cytarabine (8000 mg/m ) (MA). Stem cell transplant (SCT) conditioning included busulfan/cyclophosphamide on AAML0531, whereas AAML1031 used busulfan/fludarabine and liberalized donor eligibility. Patients were included in this analysis if they met high-risk criteria common to the two trials by cytogenics or poor disease response after induction I ADE.

Results: MA provided no benefit over ADE at: induction II response (complete response [CR]: 64% vs. 62%, p = .87; measurable residual disease [MRD]+: 57% vs. 46%, p = .34); or intensification I response (CR: 79% vs. 94%, p = .27; MRD+: 27% vs. 20%, p = 1.0). When considered with altered SCT approach, MA did not improve 5-year disease-free survival (24% ± 9% vs. 18% ± 15%, p = .63) or 5-year overall survival (35% ± 10% vs. 38% ± 18%, p = .66). MA was associated with slower neutrophil recovery (median 34 vs. 27 days, p = .007) and platelet recovery (median 29 vs. 24.5 days, p = .04) and longer hospital stay (32 vs. 28 days, p = .01) during induction II.

Conclusion: Intensification of induction II did not improve treatment response or survival, but did increase toxicity and resource utilization. Alternative strategies are urgently needed to improve outcomes for pediatric patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (trials registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT01371981, NCT00372593).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.29281DOI Listing
October 2021

Challenges and Barriers to Adverse Event Reporting in Clinical Trials: A Children's Oncology Group Report.

J Patient Saf 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

From the Aflac Cancer & Blood Disorders Center, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin Department of Pediatrics, Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee Division of Oncology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Division of Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Blood and Marrow Transplantation, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: Adverse event (AE) reporting is crucial for determining safety of trials. Adverse events are captured manually by clinical research associates (CRAs) and research nurses (RNs), and prior studies show underreporting. It is necessary to understand AE reporting training, processes, and institution-level differences to improve AE capture.

Methods: A 26-item questionnaire regarding AE reporting training, identification, tracking, and challenges was distributed to all Children's Oncology Group (COG) CRAs and RNs from February 15 to March 11, 2019, regardless of if they report AEs based on limitations of COG rosters. Results were tabulated. Institutions were grouped by self-reported full-time equivalents and compared using χ2 tests.

Results: Of 1315 CRAs and 2703 RNs surveyed, 509 (12.7%) responded. Of those, 369 (64.9%) representing 71.8% of COG institutions report AEs. Only data from respondents who report AEs were collected and analyzed. There was a range in AE training; COG training modules were most common (79.7%). There was wide variability in AE ascertainment; only 51.2% use standardized approaches at their site. There was no standard AE tracking method; larger sites more commonly use spreadsheets (P = 0.002) and smaller sites more commonly use paper (P = 0.028). The greatest AE reporting challenges were differences between protocols (70%) and between AE definitions and documentation (53%). Half of the respondents endorsed 6 of 13 proposed tools for improving reporting including online AE reporting modules (75.3%), tip sheets for interpreting Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events definitions (67.5%), and standardized AE tracking forms (66.9%). Only half of the respondents reported that all colleagues at their site followed the same AE reporting practices, and there was no dominant AE tracking approach across the respondents.

Discussion: There is wide variability in AE reporting training and practices. Numerous challenges exist, including differences between trials, challenges in interpreting AE definitions, and engaging clinicians.

Conclusions: Respondents are eager for additional central resources. These results provide a roadmap for areas of potential improvement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PTS.0000000000000911DOI Listing
September 2021

CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for CNS relapsed or refractory acute lymphocytic leukaemia: a post-hoc analysis of pooled data from five clinical trials.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Oct;8(10):e711-e722

Division of Oncology and Cancer Immunotherapy Program, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Center for Cellular Immunotherapies, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: CNS relapse of acute lymphocytic leukaemia is difficult to treat. Durable remissions of relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia have been observed following treatment with CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells; however, most trials have excluded patients with active CNS disease. We aimed to assess the safety and activity of CAR T-cell therapy in patients with a history of CNS relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia.

Methods: In this post-hoc analysis, we included 195 patients (aged 1-29 years; 110 [56%] male and 85 [44%] female) with relapsed or refractory CD19-positive acute lymphocytic leukaemia or lymphocytic lymphoma from five clinical trials (Pedi CART19, 13BT022, ENSIGN, ELIANA, and 16CT022) done at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, PA, USA), in which participants received CD19-directed CAR T-cell therapy between April 17, 2012, and April 16, 2019. The trials required control of CNS disease at enrolment and infusion and excluded treatment in the setting of acute neurological toxic effects (>grade 1 in severity) or parenchymal lesions deemed to increase the risk of neurotoxicity. 154 patients from Pedi CART19, ELIANA, ENSIGN, and 16CT022 received tisagenlecleucel and 41 patients from the 13BT022 trial received the humanised CD19-directed CAR, huCART19. We categorised patients into two strata on the basis of CNS status at relapse or within the 12 months preceding CAR T-cell infusion-either CNS-positive or CNS-negative disease. Patients with CNS-positive disease were further divided on the basis of morphological bone marrow involvement-either combined bone marrow and CNS involvement, or isolated CNS involvement. Endpoints were the proportion of patients with complete response at 28 days after infusion, Kaplan-Meier analysis of relapse-free survival and overall survival, and the incidence of cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity.

Findings: Of all 195 patients, 66 (34%) were categorised as having CNS-positive disease and 129 (66%) as having CNS-negative disease, and 43 (22%) were categorised as having isolated CNS involvement. The median length of follow-up was 39 months (IQR 25-49) in the CNS-positive stratum and 36 months (18-49) in the CNS-negative stratum. The proportion of patients in the CNS-positive stratum with a complete response at 28 days after infusion was similar to that in the CNS-negative stratum (64 [97%] of 66 vs 121 [94%] of 129; p=0·74), with no significant difference in relapse-free survival (60% [95% CI 49-74] vs 60% [51-71]; p=0·50) or overall survival (83% [75-93] vs 71% [64-79]; p=0·39) at 2 years between the two groups. Overall survival at 2 years was significantly higher in patients with isolated CNS involvement compared with those with bone marrow involvement (91% [82-100] vs 71% [64-78]; p=0·046). The incidence and severity of neurotoxicity (any grade, 53 [41%] vs 38 [58%]; grade 1, 24 [19%] vs 20 [30%]; grade 2, 14 [11%] vs 10 [15%]; grade 3, 12 [9%] vs 6 [9%], and grade 4, 3 [2%] vs 2 [3%]; p=0·20) and cytokine release syndrome (any grade, 110 [85%] vs 53 [80%]; grade 1, 12 [9%] vs 2 [3%]; grade 2, 61 [47%] vs 38 [58%]; grade 3, 18 [14%] vs 7 [11%] and grade 4, 19 [15%] vs 6 [9%]; p=0·26) did not differ between the CNS-negative and the CNS-positive disease strata.

Interpretation: Tisagenlecleucel and huCART19 are active at clearing CNS disease and maintaining durable remissions in children and young adults with CNS relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia or lymphocytic lymphoma, without increasing the risk of severe neurotoxicity; although care should be taken in the timing of therapy and disease control to mitigate this risk. These preliminary findings support the use of these CAR T-cell therapies for patients with CNS relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia.

Funding: Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Frontier Program.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(21)00238-6DOI Listing
October 2021

CBFB-MYH11 Fusion Transcripts Distinguish Acute Myeloid Leukemias with Distinct Molecular Landscapes and Outcomes.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, seattle, Washington, United States.

Patients with inv(16)/CBFB-MYH11 AML are considered favorable risk, however, nearly one-third relapse despite intensive therapy. Despite efforts to define risk groups within this favorable risk cohort, CBFB-MYH11 AML patients continue to be treated as a uniform cohort. Through transcriptome sequencing of 186 patients with inv(16) AML, we demonstrate that fusion junction breakpoints (exon 5-exon 33 versus other) are highly associated with outcome. The presence of exon 17 KIT mutations provides additional prognostic significance. Additionally, we provide insights into the transcriptional landscapes that differentiate these distinct CBFB-MYH11 AML subtypes. Children's Oncology Group trials include CCG-2961 (registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00002798), AAML03P1 (NCT00070174), AAML0531 (NCT00372593), and AAML1031 (NCT01371981).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004965DOI Listing
September 2021

Cytarabine dose reduction in patients with low-risk acute myeloid leukemia: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Sep 2:e29313. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Oncology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: The optimal number of chemotherapy courses for low-risk (LR) pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is not known.

Objective: To compare outcomes for four (21.6 g/m cytarabine) versus five (45.6 g/m cytarabine) chemotherapy courses for LR-AML using data from Children's Oncology Group (COG) AAML0531 and AAML1031.

Methods: We compared relapse risk (RR), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS), and the differential impact in LR subgroups for patients receiving four versus five chemotherapy courses. Cox (OS and DFS) and risk (RR) regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) to compare outcomes.

Results: A total of 923 LR-AML patients were included; 21% received five courses. Overall, LR-AML patients who received four courses had higher RR (40.9% vs. 31.4%; HR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.85), and worse DFS (56.0% vs. 67.0%; HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.10-1.91). There was a similar decrement in OS though it was not statistically significant (77.0% vs. 83.5%; HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 0.97-2.17). Stratified analyses revealed the detrimental effects of cytarabine dose de-escalation to be most pronounced in the LR-AML subgroup with uninformative cytogenetic/molecular features who were minimal residual disease (MRD) negative after the first induction course (EOI1). The absolute decrease in DFS with four courses for patients with favorable cytogenetic/molecular features and positive MRD was similar to that observed for patients with uninformative cytogenetic/molecular features and negative MRD at EOI1, though not statistically significant.

Conclusions: Our results support de-escalation of cytarabine exposure through the elimination of a fifth chemotherapy course only for LR-AML patients who have both favorable cytogenetic/molecular features and negative MRD after the first induction cycle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.29313DOI Listing
September 2021

Cancer Informatics for Cancer Centers: Scientific Drivers for Informatics, Data Science, and Care in Pediatric, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2021 08;5:881-896

Duke University, Durham, NC.

Cancer Informatics for Cancer Centers (CI4CC) is a grassroots, nonprofit 501c3 organization intended to provide a focused national forum for engagement of senior cancer informatics leaders, primarily aimed at academic cancer centers anywhere in the world but with a special emphasis on the 70 National Cancer Institute-funded cancer centers. This consortium has regularly held topic-focused biannual face-to-face symposiums. These meetings are a place to review cancer informatics and data science priorities and initiatives, providing a forum for discussion of the strategic and pragmatic issues that we faced at our respective institutions and cancer centers. Here, we provide meeting highlights from the latest CI4CC Symposium, which was delayed from its original April 2020 schedule because of the COVID-19 pandemic and held virtually over three days (September 24, October 1, and October 8) in the fall of 2020. In addition to the content presented, we found that holding this event virtually once a week for 6 hours was a great way to keep the kind of deep engagement that a face-to-face meeting engenders. This is the second such publication of CI4CC Symposium highlights, the first covering the meeting that took place in Napa, California, from October 14-16, 2019. We conclude with some thoughts about using data science to learn from every child with cancer, focusing on emerging activities of the National Cancer Institute's Childhood Cancer Data Initiative.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/CCI.21.00040DOI Listing
August 2021

Association of Combined Focal 22q11.22 Deletion and IKZF1 Alterations With Outcomes in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Division of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.

Importance: Alterations in the IKZF1 gene drive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) but are not routinely used to stratify patients by risk because of inconsistent associations with outcomes. We describe a novel deletion in 22q11.22 that was consistently associated with very poor outcomes in patients with B-ALL with IKZF1 alterations.

Objective: To determine whether focal deletions within the λ variable chain region in chromosome 22q11.22 were associated with patients with B-ALL with IKZF1 alterations with the highest risk of relapse and/or death.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study included 1310 primarily high-risk pediatric patients with B-ALL who were taken from 6 independent clinical cohorts, consisting of 3 multicenter cohorts (AALL0232 [2004-2011], P9906 [2000-2003], and patients with Down syndrome who were pooled from national and international studies) and 3 single-institution cohorts (University of Utah [Salt Lake City], Children's Hospital of Philadelphia [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania], and St. Jude Children's Hospital [Memphis, Tennessee]). Data analysis began in 2011 using patients from the older studies first, and data analysis concluded in 2021.

Exposures: Focal 22q11.22 deletions.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Event-free and overall survival was investigated. The hypothesis that 22q11.22 deletions stratified the prognostic effect of IKZF1 alterations was formulated while investigating nearby deletions in VRPEB1 in 2 initial cohorts (n = 270). Four additional cohorts were then obtained to further study this association (n = 1040).

Results: This study of 1310 patients with B-ALL (717 male [56.1%] and 562 female patients [43.9%]) found that focal 22q11.22 deletions are frequent (518 of 1310 [39.5%]) in B-ALL and inconsistent with physiologic V(D)J recombination. A total of 299 of 1310 patients with B-ALL had IKZF1 alterations. Among patients with IKZF1 alterations, more than half shared concomitant focal 22q11.22 deletions (159 of 299 [53.0%]). Patients with combined IKZF1 alterations and 22q11.22 deletions had worse outcomes compared with patients with IKZF1 alterations and wild-type 22q11.22 alleles in every cohort examined (combined cohorts: 5-year event-free survival rates, 43.3% vs 68.5%; hazard ratio [HR], 2.18; 95% CI, 1.54-3.07; P < .001; 5-year overall survival rates, 66.9% vs 83.9%; HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.32-3.21; P = .001). While 22q11.22 deletions were not prognostic in patients with wild-type IKZF1 , concomitant 22q11.22 deletions in patients with IKZF1 alterations stratified outcomes across additional risk groups, including patients who met the IKZF1plus criteria, and maintained independent significance in multivariate analysis for event-free survival (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.27-3.29; P = .003) and overall survival (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.01-3.34; P = .05).

Conclusions And Relevance: This cohort study suggests that 22q11.22 deletions identify patients with B-ALL and IKZF1 alterations who have very poor outcomes and may offer a new genetic biomarker to further refine B-ALL risk stratification and treatment strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.2723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8377604PMC
August 2021

Humanized CD19-Targeted Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells in CAR-Naive and CAR-Exposed Children and Young Adults With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Sep 22;39(27):3044-3055. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Oncology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells demonstrate unprecedented responses in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL); however, relapse remains a substantial challenge. Short CAR T-cell persistence contributes to this risk; therefore, strategies to improve persistence are needed.

Methods: We conducted a pilot clinical trial of a humanized CD19 CAR T-cell product (huCART19) in children and young adults with relapsed or refractory B-ALL (n = 72) or B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (n = 2), treated in two cohorts: with (retreatment, n = 33) or without (CAR-naive, n = 41) prior CAR exposure. Patients were monitored for toxicity, response, and persistence of huCART19.

Results: Seventy-four patients 1-29 years of age received huCART19. Cytokine release syndrome developed in 62 (84%) patients and was grade 4 in five (6.8%). Neurologic toxicities were reported in 29 (39%), three (4%) grade 3 or 4, and fully resolved in all cases. The overall response rate at 1 month after infusion was 98% (100% in B-ALL) in the CAR-naive cohort and 64% in the retreatment cohort. At 6 months, the probability of losing huCART19 persistence was 27% (95% CI, 14 to 41) for CAR-naive and 48% (95% CI, 30 to 64) for retreatment patients, whereas the incidence of B-cell recovery was 15% (95% CI, 6 to 28) and 58% (95% CI, 33 to 77), respectively. Relapse-free survival at 12 and 24 months, respectively, was 84% (95% CI, 72 to 97) and 74% (95% CI, 60 to 90) in CAR-naive and 74% (95% CI, 56 to 97) and 58% (95% CI, 37 to 90) in retreatment cohorts.

Conclusion: HuCART19 achieved durable remissions with long-term persistence in children and young adults with relapsed or refractory B-ALL, including after failure of prior CAR T-cell therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03458DOI Listing
September 2021

Survival Following Relapse in Children with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Report from AML-BFM and COG.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 12;13(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Pediatrics III, University Hospital of Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany.

Post-relapse therapy remains critical for survival in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We evaluated survival, response and prognostic variables following relapse in independent cooperative group studies conducted by COG and the population-based AML-BFM study group. BFM included 197 patients who relapsed after closure of the last I-BFM relapse trial until 2017, while COG included 852 patients who relapsed on the last Phase 3 trials (AAML0531, AAML1031). Overall survival at 5 years (OS) was 42 ± 4% (BFM) and 35 ± 2% (COG). Initial high-risk features (BFM 32 ± 6%, COG 26 ± 4%) and short time to relapse (BFM 29 ± 4%, COG 25 ± 2%) predicted diminished survival. In the BFM dataset, there was no difference in OS for patients who had a complete remission with full hematopoietic recovery (CR) following post-relapse re-induction compared to those with partial neutrophil and platelet recovery (CRp and CRi) only (52 ± 7% vs. 63 ± 10%, = 0.39). Among 90 patients alive at last follow-up, 87 had received a post-relapse hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). OS for patients with post-relapse HSCT was 54 ± 4%. In conclusion, initial high-risk features and early relapse remain prognostic. Response assessment with full hematopoietic recovery following initial relapse therapy does not predict survival. These data indicate the need for post-relapse risk stratification in future studies of relapse therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151466PMC
May 2021

Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin Improves Event-Free Survival and Reduces Relapse in Pediatric -Rearranged AML: Results From the Phase III Children's Oncology Group Trial AAML0531.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Oct 28;39(28):3149-3160. Epub 2021 May 28.

Children's Mercy, Kansas City, MO.

Purpose: We investigated the impact of the CD33-targeted agent gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) on survival in pediatric patients with -rearranged (-r) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) enrolled in the Children's Oncology Group trial AAML0531 (NCT01407757).

Methods: Patients with -r AML were identified and clinical characteristics described. Five-year overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and relapse risk (RR) were determined overall and for higher-risk versus not high-risk translocation partners. GO's impact on response was determined and outcomes based on consolidation approach (hematopoietic stem cell transplant [HSCT] chemotherapy) described.

Results: Two hundred fifteen (21%) of 1,022 patients enrolled had -r AML. Five-year EFS and OS from study entry were 38% and 58%, respectively. EFS was superior with GO treatment (EFS 48% with GO 29% without, = .003), although OS was comparable (63% 53%, = .054). For patients with -r AML who achieved complete remission, GO was associated with lower RR (40% GO 66% patients who did not receive GO [No-GO], = .001) and improved 5-year DFS (GO 57% No-GO 33%, = .002). GO benefit was observed in both higher-risk and not high-risk -r subsets. For patients who underwent HSCT, prior GO exposure was associated with decreased relapse (5-year RR: 28% GO and HSCT 73% No-GO and HSCT, = .006). In multivariable analysis, GO was independently associated with improved EFS, improved DFS, and reduced RR.

Conclusion: GO added to conventional chemotherapy improved outcomes for -r AML; consolidation with HSCT may further enhance outcomes. Future clinical trials should study CD33-targeted agents in combination with HSCT for pediatric r AML.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8478392PMC
October 2021

CEBPA-bZip mutations are associated with favorable prognosis in de novo AML: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Blood 2021 Sep;138(13):1137-1147

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Biallelic CEBPA mutations are associated with favorable outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We evaluated the clinical and biologic implications of CEBPA-basic leucine zipper (CEBPA-bZip) mutations in children and young adults with newly diagnosed AML. CEBPA-bZip mutation status was determined in 2958 patients with AML enrolled on Children's Oncology Group trials (NCT00003790, NCT0007174, NCT00372593, NCT01379181). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed in 1863 patients (107 with CEBPA mutations) to characterize the co-occurring mutations. CEBPA mutational status was correlated with disease characteristics and clinical outcomes. CEBPA-bZip mutations were identified in 160 (5.4%) of 2958 patients, with 132 (82.5%) harboring a second CEBPA mutation (CEBPA-double-mutated [CEBPA-dm]) and 28 (17.5%) had a single CEBPA-bZip only mutation. The clinical and laboratory features of the 2 CEBPA cohorts were very similar. Patients with CEBPA-dm and CEBPA-bZip experienced identical event-free survival (EFS) of 64% and similar overall survival (OS) of 81% and 89%, respectively (P = .259); this compared favorably to EFS of 46% and OS of 61% in patients with CEBPA-wild-type (CEBPA-WT) (both P < .001). Transcriptome analysis demonstrated similar expression profiles for patients with CEBPA-bZip and CEBPA-dm. Comprehensive NGS of patients with CEBPA mutations identified co-occurring CSF3R mutations in 13.1% of patients and GATA2 mutations in 21.5% of patients. Patients with dual CEBPA and CSF3R mutations had an EFS of 17% vs 63% for patients with CEBPA-mutant or CSF3R-WT (P < .001) with a corresponding relapse rate (RR) of 83% vs 22%, respectively (P < .001); GATA2 co-occurrence did not have an impact on outcome. CEBPA-bZip domain mutations are associated with favorable clinical outcomes, regardless of monoallelic or biallelic status. Co-occurring CSF3R and CEBPA mutations are associated with a high RR that nullifies the favorable prognostic impact of CEBPA mutations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020009652DOI Listing
September 2021

Electronic symptom monitoring in pediatric patients hospitalized for chemotherapy.

Cancer 2021 Aug 4;127(16):2980-2989. Epub 2021 May 4.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Background: Using patient-reported outcomes for symptom monitoring in oncology has resulted in significant benefits for adult patients with cancer. The feasibility of this approach has not been established in the routine care of children with cancer.

Methods: The Pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (Ped-PRO-CTCAE) is an item library that enables children and caregivers to self-report symptoms. Ten symptom items from the Ped-PRO-CTCAE were uploaded to an online platform. Patients at least 7 years old and their caregivers were prompted by text/email message to electronically self-report daily during a planned hospitalization for chemotherapy administration. Symptom reports were emailed to the clinical team caring for the patient, but no instructions were given regarding the use of this information. Rates of patient participation and clinician responses to reports were systematically tracked.

Results: The median age of the participating patients (n = 52) was 11 years (range, 7-18 years). All patients and caregivers completed an initial login, with 92% of dyads completing at least 1 additional symptom assessment during hospitalization (median, 3 assessments; range, 0-40). Eighty-one percent of participating dyads submitted symptom reports on at least half of hospital days, and 54% submitted reports on all hospital days. Clinical actions were taken in response to symptom reports 21% of the time. Most patients felt that the system was easy (73%) and important (79%). Most clinicians found symptom reports easy to understand and useful (97%).

Conclusions: Symptom monitoring using patient-reported outcome measures for hospitalized pediatric oncology patients is feasible and generates data valued by clinicians and patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33617DOI Listing
August 2021

Neighborhood education status drives racial disparities in clinical outcomes in PPCM.

Am Heart J 2021 08 19;238:27-32. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:

Background: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) disproportionately affects women of African ancestry. Additionally, clinical outcomes are worse in this subpopulation compared to White women with PPCM.  The extent to which socioeconomic parameters contribute to these racial disparities is not known.

Methods: We aimed to quantify the association between area-based proxies of socioeconomic status (SES) and clinical outcomes in PPCM, and to determine the potential contribution of these factors to racial disparities in outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was performed at the University of Pennsylvania Health System, a tertiary referral center serving a population with a high proportion of Black individuals. The cohort included 220 women with PPCM, 55% of whom were Black or African American. Available data included clinical and demographic characteristics as well as residential address georeferenced to US Census-derived block group measures of SES. Rates of sustained cardiac dysfunction (defined as persistent LVEF <50%, LVAD placement, transplant, or death) were compared by race and block group-level measures of SES, and a composite neighborhood concentrated disadvantage index (NDI). The contributions of area-based socioeconomic parameters to the association between race and sustained cardiac dysfunction were quantified.

Results: Black race and higher NDI were both independently associated with sustained cardiac dysfunction (relative risk [RR] 1.63, confidence interval [CI] 1.13-2.36; and RR 1.29, CI 1.08-1.53, respectively). Following multivariable adjustment, effect size for NDI remained statistically significant, but effect size for Black race did not. The impact of low neighborhood education on racial disparities in outcomes was stronger than that of low neighborhood income (explaining 45% and 0% of the association with black race, respectively). After multivariate adjustment, only low area-based education persisted as significantly correlating with sustained cardiac dysfunction (RR 1.49; CI 1.02-2.17).

Conclusions: Both Black race and NDI independently associate with adverse outcomes in women with PPCM in a single center study. Of the specific components of NDI, neighborhood low education was most strongly associated with clinical outcome and partially explained differences in race. These results suggest interventions targeting social determinants of health in disadvantaged communities may help to mitigate outcome disparities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.03.015DOI Listing
August 2021

Clinical impact of genomic characterization of 15 patients with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia-related malignancies.

Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2021 04 8;7(2). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukemia but is approximately 500 times more likely to develop in children with Down syndrome (DS) through transformation of transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). This study investigates the clinical significance of genomic heterogeneity of AMKL in children with and without DS and in children with TAM. Genomic evaluation of nine patients with DS-related TAM or AMKL, and six patients with non-DS AMKL, included conventional cytogenetics and a comprehensive next-generation sequencing panel for single-nucleotide variants/indels and copy-number variants in 118 genes and fusions involving 110 genes. Recurrent gene fusions were found in all patients with non-DS, including two individuals with complex genomes and either a or a - fusion, and the remaining harbored a fusion, which arose from both typical and atypical cytogenetic mechanisms. These fusions guided treatment protocols and resulted in a change in diagnosis in two patients. The nine patients with DS had constitutional trisomy 21 and somatic mutations, and those with DS-AMKL had two to four additional clinically significant somatic mutations. Comprehensive genomic characterization provides critical information for diagnosis, risk stratification, and treatment decisions for patients with AMKL. Continued genetic and clinical characterization of these rare cancers will aid in improving patient management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/mcs.a005975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040732PMC
April 2021

Evolution of Hematology Clinical Trial Adverse Event Reporting to Improve Care Delivery.

Curr Hematol Malig Rep 2021 04 30;16(2):126-131. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Oncology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Reporting of adverse events on hematology clinical trials is crucial to understanding the safety of standard treatments and novel agents. However, despite the importance of understanding toxicities, challenges in capturing and reporting accurate adverse event data exist.

Recent Findings: Currently, adverse events are reported manually on most hematology clinical trials. Especially on phase III trials, the highest grade of each adverse event during a reporting period is typically reported. Despite the effort committed to AE reporting, studies have identified underreporting of adverse events on hematologic malignancy clinical trials, which raises concern about the true understanding of safety of treatment that clinicians have in order to guide patients about what to expect during therapy. In order to address these concerns, recent studies have piloted alternative methods for identification of adverse events. These methods include automated extraction of adverse event data from the electronic health record, implementation of trigger or alert tools into the medical record, and analytic tools to evaluate duration of adverse events rather than only the highest adverse event grade. Adverse event reporting is a crucial component of clinical trials. Novel tools for identifying and reporting adverse events provide opportunities for honing and refining methods of toxicity capture and improving understanding of toxicities patients experience while enrolled on clinical trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11899-021-00627-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284013PMC
April 2021

Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics and Risk of Graft-versus-Host Disease in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Transplantation for Acute Leukemia: Association of Carbapenem Use with the Risk of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 02 21;27(2):177.e1-177.e8. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Variation in the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been associated with acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Because antibiotics induce dysbiosis, we examined the association of broad-spectrum antibiotics with subsequent aGVHD risk in pediatric patients undergoing HCT for acute leukemia. We performed a retrospective analysis in a dataset merged from 2 sources: (1) the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, an observational transplantation registry, and (2) the Pediatric Health Information Services, an administrative database from freestanding children's hospitals. We captured exposure to 3 classes of antibiotics used for empiric treatment of febrile neutropenia: (1) broad-spectrum cephalosporins, (2) antipseudomonal penicillins, and (3) carbapenems. The primary outcome was grade II-IV aGVHD; secondary outcomes were grade III-IV aGVHD and lower GI GVHD. The adjusted logistic regression model (full cohort) and time-to-event analysis (subcohort) included transplantation characteristics, GVHD risk factors, and adjunctive antibiotic exposures as covariates. The full cohort included 2550 patients at 36 centers; the subcohort included 1174 patients. In adjusted models, carbapenems were associated with an increased risk of grade II-IV aGVHD in the full cohort (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.51) and subcohort (sub hazard ratio [HR], 1.31; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.72), as well as with an increased risk of grade III-IV aGVHD (subHR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.52). Early carbapenem exposure (before day 0) especially impacted aGVHD risk. For antipseudomonal penicillins, the associations with aGVHD were in the direction of increased risk but were not statistically significant. There was no identified association between broad-spectrum cephalosporins and aGVHD. Carbapenems, more than other broad-spectrum antibiotics, should be used judiciously in pediatric HCT recipients to minimize aGVHD risk. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism underlying this association.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.10.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946150PMC
February 2021

RNA Dysregulation: An Expanding Source of Cancer Immunotherapy Targets.

Trends Pharmacol Sci 2021 04;42(4):268-282

Center for Computational and Genomic Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Cancer transcriptomes frequently exhibit RNA dysregulation. As the resulting aberrant transcripts may be translated into cancer-specific proteins, there is growing interest in exploiting RNA dysregulation as a source of tumor antigens (TAs) and thus novel immunotherapy targets. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies and rapid accumulation of multiomic cancer profiling data in public repositories have provided opportunities to systematically characterize RNA dysregulation in cancer and identify antigen targets for immunotherapy. However, given the complexity of cancer transcriptomes and proteomes, important conceptual and technological challenges exist. Here, we highlight the expanding repertoire of TAs arising from RNA dysregulation and introduce multiomic and big data strategies for identifying optimal immunotherapy targets. We discuss extant barriers for translating these targets into effective therapies as well as the implications for future research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2021.01.006DOI Listing
April 2021

Presentation acuity, induction mortality, and resource utilization in infants with acute leukemia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Jul 11;68(7):e28940. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Oncology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Treatment of infants with acute leukemia remains challenging, especially for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Infants have shown markedly higher rates of induction mortality compared with noninfants. There are limited data on presentation acuity and supportive care utilization in this age group.

Methods: In retrospective analyses of patients treated for new onset ALL or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at pediatric hospitals contributing to the Pediatric Health Information System, we compared presentation acuity, induction mortality, and resource utilization in infants relative to noninfants less than 10 years at diagnosis.

Results: Analyses included 10 359 children with ALL (405 infants, 9954 noninfants) and 871 AML (189 infants, 682 noninfants). Infants were more likely to present with multisystem organ failure compared to noninfants for both ALL (12% and 1%, PR = 10.8, 95% CI: 7.4, 15.7) and AML (6% vs. 3%; PR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.7). Infants with ALL had higher induction mortality compared to noninfants, even after accounting for differences in anthracycline exposure and presentation acuity (2.7% vs. 0.5%, HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 4.8). Conversely, infants and noninfants with AML had similar rates of induction mortality (3.2% vs. 2.1%, HR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.3, 3.9), which were comparable to rates among infants with ALL. Infants with ALL and AML had greater requirements for blood products, diuretics, supplemental oxygen, and ventilation during induction relative to noninfants.

Conclusions: Infants with leukemia present with higher acuity compared with noninfants. Induction mortality and supportive care requirements for infants with ALL were similar to all children with AML, and significantly higher than those for noninfants with ALL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283996PMC
July 2021

Risk-Adapted Preemptive Tocilizumab to Prevent Severe Cytokine Release Syndrome After CTL019 for Pediatric B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Prospective Clinical Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2021 03 8;39(8):920-930. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of risk-adapted preemptive tocilizumab (PT) administration in preventing severe cytokine release syndrome (CRS) after CTL019, a CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy.

Methods: Children and young adults with CD19-positive relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia were assigned to high- (≥ 40%) or low- (< 40%) tumor burden cohorts (HTBC or LTBC) based on a bone marrow aspirate or biopsy before infusion. HTBC patients received a single dose of tocilizumab (8-12 mg/kg) after development of high, persistent fevers. LTBC patients received standard CRS management. The primary end point was the frequency of grade 4 CRS (Penn scale), with an observed rate of ≤ 5 of 15 patients in the HTBC pre-defined as clinically meaningful. In post hoc analyses, the HTBC was compared with a historical cohort of high-tumor burden patients from the initial phase I CTL019 trial.

Results: The primary end point was met. Seventy patients were infused with CTL019, 15 in the HTBC and 55 in the LTBC. All HTBC patients received the PT intervention. The incidence of grade 4 CRS was 27% (95% CI, 8 to 55) in the HTBC and 3.6% (95% CI, 0.4 to 13) in the LTBC. The best overall response rate was 87% in the HTBC and 100% in the LTBC. Initial CTL019 expansion was greater in the HTBC than the LTBC ( < .001), but persistence was not different ( = .73). Event-free and overall survival were worse in the HTBC ( = .004, < .001, respectively). In the post hoc analysis, grade 4 CRS was observed in 27% versus 50% of patients in the PT and prior phase I cohorts, respectively ( = .18).

Conclusion: Risk-adapted PT administration resulted in a decrease in the expected incidence of grade 4 CRS, meeting the study end point, without adversely impacting the antitumor efficacy or safety of CTL019.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8462622PMC
March 2021

Acute erythroid leukemia is enriched in NUP98 fusions: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Blood Adv 2020 12;4(23):6000-6008

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.

Acute erythroid leukemia (AEL) is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) primarily affecting older adults and was previously classified into erythroid/myeloid and pure erythroid subtypes. In this pediatric AEL study, we evaluated morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, molecular, and clinical data of 24 (1.2%) cases from all cases undergoing central pathology review in Children's Oncology Group trials AAML0531 and AAML1031. Of 24 cases, 5 had a pure erythroid phenotype, and 19 had an erythroid/myeloid phenotype. NUP98 fusions were highly enriched in patients with AEL, occurring in 7 of 22 cases for which molecular data were available (31.8% vs 6.7% in other AML subtypes). Of 5 cases of pure erythroid leukemias (PELs), 3 had NUP98 fusions, and 4 had complex karyotypes. Erythroid/myeloid leukemias were reclassified by using the 2017 World Health Organization hematopathology classification as: myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with excess blasts-1 (n = 3), MDS with excess blasts-2 (n = 7), AML (nonerythroid, n = 5), and unknown MDS/AML (n = 4); the 5 cases of nonerythroid AML included 1 with an NUP98-NSD1 fusion, 2 with myelodysplasia-related changes, and 1 with a complex karyotype. Three cases of MDS with excess blasts-2 also had NUP98 rearrangements. WT1 mutations were present in 5 of 14 cases, all erythroid/myeloid leukemia. Outcomes assessment revealed statistically poorer overall survival (5-year, 20% ± 36% vs 66% ± 23%; P = .004) and event-free survival (5-year, 20% ± 36% vs 46% ± 23%; P = .019) for those with PEL than those with erythroid/myeloid leukemia. Our study supports that AEL is a morphologically and genetically heterogeneous entity that is enriched in NUP98 fusions, with the pure erythroid subtype associated with particularly adverse outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724911PMC
December 2020

Cardiology Involvement in Patients with Breast Cancer Treated with Trastuzumab.

JACC CardioOncol 2020 Jun 16;2(2):179-189. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: There is limited evidence regarding the impact of cardiology involvement in the care of cancer patients.

Objectives: We evaluated the impact of cardiology involvement on guideline-adherent cardiovascular monitoring and risk factor management in breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab.

Methods: In a single-center retrospective cohort study, we evaluated electronic health records from 1,047 breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab between January 2009 and July 2018. A visit to a cardiology provider beginning from the 3 months prior to cancer therapy initiation until the last contact date defined cardiology involvement. Guideline-adherent monitoring, defined by echocardiography assessment within the 4 months prior to trastuzumab initiation and follow-up echocardiography at least every 4 months during therapy, was compared in patients with and without cardiology involvement prior to treatment initiation. Multivariable associations between cardiology involvement and time-varying risk factors blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) were assessed using generalized estimating equations.

Results: Cardiology involvement occurred in 293 (28%) patients. A higher proportion of patients with cardiology involvement prior to trastuzumab initiation had guideline-adherent monitoring (76.4% versus 60.1%, p=0.007). Cardiology involvement was associated with an average 1.5mmHg (95% CI -2.9,-0.1, p=0.035) lower systolic BP; which was more pronounced in those with hypertension (-2.7mmHg (95% CI -4.6,-0.7, p=0.007)). Cardiology involvement was associated with a lower BMI in patients with baseline BMI≥25 kg/m (mean difference; -0.5 (95% CI -1.0,-0.1, p=0.027)).

Conclusions: Cardiology involvement in breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab is associated with greater adherence to cardiovascular monitoring and modest improvements in risk factor control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccao.2020.04.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7701353PMC
June 2020

Poverty and Targeted Immunotherapy: Survival in Children's Oncology Group Clinical Trials for High-Risk Neuroblastoma.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 03;113(3):282-291

Division of Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Whether social determinants of health are associated with survival in the context of pediatric oncology-targeted immunotherapy trials is not known. We examined the association between poverty and event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for children with high-risk neuroblastoma treated in targeted immunotherapy trials.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 371 children with high-risk neuroblastoma treated with GD2-targeted immunotherapy in the Children's Oncology Group trial ANBL0032 or ANBL0931 at a Pediatric Health Information System center from 2005 to 2014. Neighborhood poverty exposure was characterized a priori as living in a zip code with a median household income within the lowest quartile for the cohort. Household poverty exposure was characterized a priori as sole coverage by public insurance. Post hoc analyses examined the joint effect of neighborhood and household poverty using a common reference. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: In multivariable Cox regressions adjusted for disease and treatment factors, household poverty-exposed children experienced statistically significantly inferior EFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28 to 2.82, P = .001) and OS (HR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.63 to 4.79, P < .001) compared with unexposed children. Neighborhood poverty was not independently associated with EFS or OS. In post hoc analyses exploring the joint effect of neighborhood and household poverty, children with dual-poverty exposure (neighborhood poverty and household poverty) experienced statistically significantly inferior EFS (HR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.48 to 3.30, P < .001) and OS (HR = 3.70, 95% CI = 2.08 to 6.59, P < .001) compared with the unexposed group.

Conclusions: Poverty is independently associated with increased risk of relapse and death among neuroblastoma patients treated with targeted immunotherapy. Incorporation of social and environmental factors in future trials as health-care delivery intervention targets may increase the benefit of targeted therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936051PMC
March 2021

Diagnostic biomarkers to differentiate sepsis from cytokine release syndrome in critically ill children.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(20):5174-5183

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells directed against CD19 have drastically altered outcomes for children with relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r ALL). Pediatric patients with r/r ALL treated with CAR-T are at increased risk of both cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and sepsis. We sought to investigate the biologic differences between CRS and sepsis and to develop predictive models which could accurately differentiate CRS from sepsis at the time of critical illness. We identified 23 different cytokines that were significantly different between patients with sepsis and CRS. Using elastic net prediction modeling and tree classification, we identified cytokines that were able to classify subjects as having CRS or sepsis accurately. A markedly elevated interferon γ (IFNγ) or a mildly elevated IFNγ in combination with a low IL1β were associated with CRS. A normal to mildly elevated IFNγ in combination with an elevated IL1β was associated with sepsis. This combination of IFNγ and IL1β was able to categorize subjects as having CRS or sepsis with 97% accuracy. As CAR-T therapies become more common, these data provide important novel information to better manage potential associated toxicities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594400PMC
October 2020

Morphologic remission status is limited compared to ΔN flow cytometry: a Children's Oncology Group AAML0531 report.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(20):5050-5061

Hematologics, Inc, Seattle, WA.

Risk stratification for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) uses molecular and cytogenetic abnormalities identified at diagnosis. Response to therapy informs risk, and morphology continues to be used more frequently than flow cytometry. Herein, the largest cohort of pediatric patients prospectively assessed for measurable residual disease (MRD) by flow cytometry (N = 784) is reported. The "difference from normal" (ΔN) technique was applied: 31% of all patients tested positive (AML range, 0.02% to 91%) after the first course of treatment on Children's Oncology Group study AAML0531. Detection of MRD following initial chemotherapy proved the strongest predicator of overall survival (OS) in univariable and multivariable analyses, and was predictive of relapse risk, disease-free survival, and treatment-related mortality. Clearance of MRD after a second round of chemotherapy did not improve survival. The morphologic definition of persistent disease (>15% AML) failed 27% of the time; those identified as MRD- had superior outcomes. Similarly, for patients not achieving morphologic remission (>5% blasts), 36% of patients were MRD- and had favorable outcomes compared with those who were MRD+ (P < .001); hence an increase in myeloid progenitor cells can be favorable when ΔN classifies them as phenotypically normal. Furthermore, ΔN reclassified 20% of patients in morphologic remission as having detectable MRD with comparable poor outcomes. Retrospective analysis using the relapse phenotype as a template demonstrated that 96% of MRD- patients had <0.02% of the relapse immunophenotype in their end of induction 1 marrow. Thus, the detection of abnormal myeloid progenitor cells by ΔN is both specific and sensitive, with a high predictive signal identifiable early in treatment. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00372593.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594384PMC
October 2020

Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1-pSer326) predicts response to bortezomib-containing chemotherapy in pediatric AML: a COG report.

Blood 2021 02;137(8):1050-1060

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine/Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center and Texas Children's Cancer and Hematology Centers, Houston, TX.

Bortezomib (BTZ) was recently evaluated in a randomized phase 3 clinical trial by the Children's Oncology Group (COG) that compared standard chemotherapy (cytarabine, daunorubicin, and etoposide [ADE]) vs standard therapy with BTZ (ADEB) for de novo pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Although the study concluded that BTZ did not improve outcome overall, we examined patient subgroups benefiting from BTZ-containing chemotherapy using proteomic analyses. The proteasome inhibitor BTZ disrupts protein homeostasis and activates cytoprotective heat shock responses. Total heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and phosphorylated HSF1 (HSF1-pSer326) were measured in leukemic cells from 483 pediatric patients using reverse phase protein arrays. HSF1-pSer326 phosphorylation was significantly lower in pediatric AML compared with CD34+ nonmalignant cells. We identified a strong correlation between HSF1-pSer326 expression and BTZ sensitivity. BTZ significantly improved outcome of patients with low-HSF1-pSer326 with a 5-year event-free survival of 44% (ADE) vs 67% for low-HSF1-pSer326 treated with ADEB (P = .019). To determine the effect of HSF1 expression on BTZ potency in vitro, cell viability with HSF1 gene variants that mimicked phosphorylated (S326A) and nonphosphorylated (S326E) HSF1-pSer326 were examined. Those with increased HSF1 phosphorylation showed clear resistance to BTZ vs those with wild-type or reduced HSF1-phosphorylation. We hypothesize that HSF1-pSer326 expression could identify patients who benefit from BTZ-containing chemotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020005208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907722PMC
February 2021

The Impact of Donor Type on Outcomes and Cost of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Pediatric Leukemia: A Merged Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and Pediatric Health Information System Analysis.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 09 25;26(9):1747-1756. Epub 2020 May 25.

Cancer Care Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality, resulting in increased healthcare utilization (HCU). To date, no multicenter comparative cost analyses have specifically evaluated alloHCT in children with acute leukemia. In this retrospective cohort study, we examined the relationship between survival and HCU while investigating the hypothesis that matched sibling donor (MSD) alloHCT has significantly lower inpatient HCU with unrelated donor (URD) alloHCT, and that among URDs, umbilical cord blood (UCB) alloHCT will have higher initial utilization but lower long-term utilization. Clinical and transplantation outcomes data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) were merged with inpatient cost data from the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database using a probabilistic merge methodology. The merged dataset comprised US patients age 1 to 21 years who underwent alloHCT for acute leukemia between 2004 and 2011 with comprehensive CIBMTR data at a PHIS hospital. AlloHCT was analyzed by donor type, with specific analysis of utilization and costs using PHIS claims data. The primary outcomes of overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), and inpatient costs were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox and Poisson models. A total of 632 patients were identified in both the CIBMTR and PHIS data. The 5-year LFS was 60% for MSD alloHCT, 47% for well-matched matched unrelated donor bone marrow (MUD) alloHCT, 48% for mismatched unrelated donor alloHCT, and 45% for UCB alloHCT (P = .09). Total adjusted costs were significantly lower for MSD alloHCT versus MUD alloHCT by day 100 (adjusted cost ratio [ACR], .73; 95% confidence interval [CI], .62 to .86; P < .001), and higher for UCB alloHCT versus MUD alloHCT (ACR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.45; P < .001). By 2 years, total adjusted costs remained significantly lower for MSD alloHCT compared with MUD alloHCT (ACR, .67; 95% CI, .56 to .81; P < .001) and higher for UCB alloHCT compared with MUD alloHCT (ACR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.52; P = .0280). Our data show that UCB and MUD alloHCT provide similar survival outcomes; however, MUD alloHCT has a significant advantage in cost by day 100 and 2 years. More research is needed to determine whether the cost difference among URD alloHCT approaches remains significant with a larger sample size and/or beyond 2 years post-alloHCT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.05.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518194PMC
September 2020

Safety of gemtuzumab ozogamicin as monotherapy or combination therapy in an expanded-access protocol for patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 08 20;61(8):1965-1973. Epub 2020 May 20.

Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) remained available to US clinicians through an open-label expanded-access protocol (NCT02312037) until GO was reapproved. Patients were aged ≥3 months with relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, or acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and had exhausted other treatment options. Three hundred and thirty one patients received GO as monotherapy for R/R AML ( 139), combination therapy for R/R AML ( 183), or treatment for R/R APL ( 9). Corresponding treatment discontinuations occurred in 68, 39, and 33% of patients. All-causality grade 5 AEs occurred in 52, 22, and 22% of patients in the monotherapy, combination, and APL groups, respectively. Corresponding grades 3 and 4 treatment-related AEs were reported in 60, 55 and 78% of patients. Hepatotoxicity occurred in five patients: veno-occlusive disease ( 4) and drug-induced liver injury ( 1). GO was generally well tolerated in patients with R/R AML or APL. Most frequent treatment-related grade ≥3 AEs were hematologic AEs. NCT02312037.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1742897DOI Listing
August 2020

Phase I/II Study of CPX-351 Followed by Fludarabine, Cytarabine, and Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor for Children With Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

J Clin Oncol 2020 07 13;38(19):2170-2177. Epub 2020 May 13.

Nemours Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders/Alfred I. DuPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE.

Purpose: Effective regimens are needed for children with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AAML1421 is a phase I/II study of CPX-351, a liposomal preparation of daunorubicin and cytarabine. AAML1421 sought to determine the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of CPX-351 and the response rate after up to 2 cycles of therapy.

Patients And Methods: Children > 1 and ≤ 21 years of age with relapsed/refractory AML were eligible for dose finding; those in first relapse were eligible for the efficacy phase. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) assessment occurred during cycle 1. Two cycles of therapy were offered (cycle 1: CPX-351; cycle 2: FLAG [fludarabine 30 mg/m/dose on days 1-5; cytarabine 2,000 mg/m/dose on days 1-5; and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor 5 µg/kg/dose, days 1-5 and day 15 through absolute neutrophil count > 500/µL]). Response was assessed after each cycle.

Results: Thirty-eight patients enrolled: 6 in the dose-finding phase and 32 in the efficacy phase. During dose finding, 1/6 patients experienced a DLT (grade 3 decrease in ejection fraction). The RP2D was 135 units/m on days 1, 3, and 5. Toxicities of grade ≥ 3 during cycle 1 included fever/neutropenia (45%), infection (47%), and rash (40%). There was no toxic mortality. Best responses included 20 complete response (CR; 54%), 5 CR with partial recovery of platelet count (CRp; 14%), and 5 CR with incomplete blood count recovery (14%). Twenty-one of 25 with CR/CRp had no detectable residual disease (RD; 84%) by flow cytometry. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was used as consolidation in 29/30 responders (96.7%); 20/25 (80%) had no RD before HSCT.

Conclusion: The RP2D of CPX-351 is 135 units/m/dose on days 1, 3, and 5. Toxicity was manageable, and protocol therapy was effective. Response rates are superior to prior published North American cooperative group clinical trials for children with AML in first relapse.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.03306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325367PMC
July 2020
-->