Publications by authors named "Richard Adam"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

GFR-α1 Expression in Substantia Nigra Increases Bilaterally Following Unilateral Striatal GDNF in Aged Rats and Attenuates Nigral Tyrosine Hydroxylase Loss Following 6-OHDA Nigrostriatal Lesion.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2019 10 8;10(10):4237-4249. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Institute for Healthy Aging , University of North Texas Health Science Center , Fort Worth , Texas 76107 , United States.

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) improved motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in Phase I clinical trials, and these effects persisted months after GDNF discontinuation. Conversely, phase II clinical trials reported no significant effects on motor improvement vs placebo. The disease duration and the quantity, infusion approach, and duration of GDNF delivery may affect GDNF efficacy in PD treatment. However, identifying mechanisms activated by GDNF that affect nigrostriatal function may reveal additional avenues to partially restore nigrostriatal function. In PD and aging models, GDNF affects tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression or phosphorylation in substantia nigra (SN), long after a single GDNF injection in striatum. In aged rats, the GDNF family receptor, GFR-α1, increases TH expression and phosphorylation in SN. To determine if GFR-α1 could be a mechanistic link in long-term GDNF impact, we conducted two studies; first to determine if a single unilateral striatal delivery of GDNF affected GFR-α1 and TH over time (1 day, 1 week, and 4 weeks) in the striatum or SN in aged rats, and second, to determine if soluble GFR-α1 could mitigate TH loss following 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. In aged rats, GDNF bilaterally increased ser31 TH phosphorylation and GFR-α1 expression in SN at 1 day and 4 weeks after GDNF, respectively. In striatum, GFR-α1 expression decreased 1 week after GDNF, only on the GDNF-injected side. In 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, recombinant soluble GFR-α1 mitigated nigral, but not striatal, TH protein loss following 6-OHDA. Together, these results show GDNF has immediate and long-term impact on dopamine regulation in the SN, which includes a gradual increase in GFR-α1 expression that may sustain TH expression and dopamine function therein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00291DOI Listing
October 2019

Dosage sensitivity intolerance of VIPR2 microduplication is disease causative to manifest schizophrenia-like phenotypes in a novel BAC transgenic mouse model.

Mol Psychiatry 2019 12 23;24(12):1884-1901. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, 71130, USA.

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified copy number variations (CNVs) at chromosomal locus 7q36.3 that significantly contribute to the risk of schizophrenia, with all of the microduplications occurring within a single gene: vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 (VIPR2). To confirm disease causality and translate such a genetic vulnerability into mechanistic and pathophysiological insights, we have developed a series of conditional VIPR2 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse models of VIPR2 CNV. VIPR2 CNV mouse model recapitulates gene expression and signaling deficits seen in human CNV carriers. VIPR2 microduplication in mice elicits prominent dorsal striatal dopamine dysfunction, cognitive, sensorimotor gating, and social behavioral deficits preceded by an increase of striatal cAMP/PKA signaling and the disrupted early postnatal striatal development. Genetic removal of VIPR2 transgene expression via crossing with Drd1a-Cre BAC transgenic mice rescued the dopamine D2 receptor abnormality and multiple behavioral deficits, implicating a pathogenic role of VIPR2 overexpression in dopaminoceptive neurons. Thus, our results provide further evidence to support the GWAS studies that the dosage sensitivity intolerance of VIPR2 is disease causative to manifest schizophrenia-like dopamine, cognitive, and social behavioral deficits in mice. The conditional BAC transgenesis offers a novel strategy to model CNVs with a gain-of -copies and facilitate the genetic dissection of when/where/how the genetic vulnerabilities affect development, structure, and function of neural circuits. Our findings have important implications for therapeutic development, and the etiology-relevant mouse model provides a useful preclinical platform for drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-019-0492-3DOI Listing
December 2019

"Teaching old dogs new tricks": targeting neural extracellular matrix for normal and pathological aging-related cognitive decline.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Apr;14(4):578-581

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Cognitive decline is a feature of normal and pathological aging. As the proportion of the global aged population continues to grow, it is imperative to understand the molecular and cellular substrates of cognitive aging for therapeutic discovery. This review focuses on the critical role of neural extracellular matrix in the regulation of neuroplasticity underlying learning and memory in another under-investigated "critical period": the aging process. The fascinating ideas of neural extracellular matrix forming a synaptic cradle in the tetrapartite synapse and possibly serving as a substrate for storage of very long-term memories will be introduced. We emphasize the distinct functional roles of diffusive neural extracellular matrix and perineuronal nets and the advantage of the coexistence of two structures for the adaptation to the ever-changing external and internal environments. Our study of striatal neural extracellular matrix supports the idea that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-associated extracellular matrix is restrictive on synaptic neuroplasticity, which plays important functional and pathogenic roles in early postnatal synaptic consolidation and aging-related cognitive decline. Therefore, the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-associated neural extracellular matrix can be targeted for normal and pathological aging. Future studies should focus on the cell-type specificity of neural extracellular matrix to identify the endogenous, druggable targets to restore juvenile neuroplasticity and confer a therapeutic benefit to neural circuits affected by aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.247459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6352600PMC
April 2019

Erasure of striatal chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-associated extracellular matrix rescues aging-dependent decline of motor learning.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 11 23;71:61-71. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Cognitive decline is a feature of aging. Accumulating evidence suggests that the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is involved in the process of aging-dependent cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration by regulating synaptic neurotransmission and affecting neuroplasticity. Age-related changes in brain structure and cognition are not uniform across the whole brain. Being one of the most vulnerable brain regions to aging-dependent alterations, striatum is integral to several central nervous system functions, such as motor, cognition, and affective control. However, the striatal ECM is largely understudied. We first describe 2 major types of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG)-associated ECM in striatum: perineuronal nets and diffusive ECM. Both types of ECM accumulate in an aging-dependent manner. The accumulation of CSPG-associated ECM correlates with aging-dependent decline in striatum-related cognitive functions, including motor learning and working memory. Enzymatic depletion of CSPG-associated ECM in aged mice via chondroitinase ABC significantly improves motor learning, suggesting that changes in neural ECM CSPGs regulate striatal plasticity. Our study provides a greater understanding of the role of neural ECM underlying striatal plasticity, which is an important precursor to design appropriate therapeutic strategies for normal and pathologic aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2018.07.008DOI Listing
November 2018

Timing and Appearance of Postmortem Root Banding in Nonhuman Mammals.

J Forensic Sci 2019 Jan 9;64(1):98-107. Epub 2018 May 9.

Laboratory Division, Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2501 Investigation Parkway, Quantico, VA, 22135.

A study was undertaken using nonhuman mammal specimens to better understand environmental influences on postmortem hair root band (PMRB) formation and to see whether PMRBs would occur in nonhuman mammal hairs in a similar fashion to human hairs. Carcasses from surrounding roadways were the primary source of specimens for this study, augmented by donated deceased domestic pets. Sections of pelt from each specimen were placed in controlled environmental conditions while the remainder of the carcass was left in a secure outdoor setting. Hair samples were collected daily from outdoor and control specimens and examined for evidence of PMRBs. Several environmental factors were also recorded on a daily basis. Results demonstrate PMRBs can occur in nonhuman mammal hairs, and they have microscopic characteristics similar to human PMRBs. Factors found to correlate with PMRB formation include postmortem interval, temperature, pH, and the formation and subsequent volatilization of ammonia from the surrounding tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13810DOI Listing
January 2019

Cre-dependent AAV vectors for highly targeted expression of disease-related proteins and neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra.

FASEB J 2018 08 7;32(8):4420-4427. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University (LSU) Health Shreveport, Shreveport, Louisiana, USA.

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are a popular genetic approach in neuroscience because they confer such efficient transgene expression in the brain and spinal cord. A number of studies have used AAV to express pathological disease-related proteins in the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra in situ ( e.g., α-synuclein to model aspects of Parkinson's disease). The neuropathology and neurodegeneration of Parkinson's disease occur in a circumscribed pattern in the brain, and one of the most important goals of any gene transfer study is accurate, pinpoint targeting. By combining Cre recombinase-dependent AAVs in Cre-driver rats in which Cre is expressed only in the tyrosine hydroxylase neurons, we have achieved more highly targeted expression of several disease-relevant neuropathological proteins in the substantia nigra pars compacta than using constitutive expression AAV vectors. Alpha-synuclein, tau, transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa, or the control fluorescent protein yellow fluorescent protein was individually expressed to induce highly targeted, dopaminergic neuron-specific neurodegeneration models. The refined targeting foreshadows a next-generation disease modeling system for expressing neurodegenerative disease-related proteins in a disease-relevant manner. We foresee specific utilities of this in vivo AAV vector targeting of pathological proteins to a well-defined and well-demarcated cell population.-Grames, M. S., Dayton, R. D., Jackson, K. L., Richard, A. D., Lu, X., Klein, R. L. Cre-dependent AAV vectors for highly targeted expression of disease-related proteins and neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201701529RRDOI Listing
August 2018

Recognition of computerized facial approximations by familiar assessors.

Sci Justice 2017 Nov 20;57(6):431-438. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Laboratory Division, Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit, 2501 Investigation Parkway, Quantico, VA 22135, United States. Electronic address:

Studies testing the effectiveness of facial approximations typically involve groups of participants who are unfamiliar with the approximated individual(s). This limitation requires the use of photograph arrays including a picture of the subject for comparison to the facial approximation. While this practice is often necessary due to the difficulty in obtaining a group of assessors who are familiar with the approximated subject, it may not accurately simulate the thought process of the target audience (friends and family members) in comparing a mental image of the approximated subject to the facial approximation. As part of a larger process to evaluate the effectiveness and best implementation of the ReFace facial approximation software program, the rare opportunity arose to conduct a recognition study using assessors who were personally acquainted with the subjects of the approximations. ReFace facial approximations were generated based on preexisting medical scans, and co-workers of the scan donors were tested on whether they could accurately pick out the approximation of their colleague from arrays of facial approximations. Results from the study demonstrated an overall poor recognition performance (i.e., where a single choice within a pool is not enforced) for individuals who were familiar with the approximated subjects. Out of 220 recognition tests only 10.5% resulted in the assessor selecting the correct approximation (or correctly choosing not to make a selection when the array consisted only of foils), an outcome that was not significantly different from the 9% random chance rate. When allowed to select multiple approximations the assessors felt resembled the target individual, the overall sensitivity for ReFace approximations was 16.0% and the overall specificity was 81.8%. These results differ markedly from the results of a previous study using assessors who were unfamiliar with the approximated subjects. Some possible explanations for this disparity in performance were examined, and it was ultimately concluded that ReFace facial approximations may have limited effectiveness if used in the traditional way. However, some promising alternative uses are explored that may expand the utility of facial approximations for aiding in the identification of unknown human remains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scijus.2017.06.004DOI Listing
November 2017

Accuracy Rates of Ancestry Estimation by Forensic Anthropologists Using Identified Forensic Cases.

J Forensic Sci 2017 Jul 30;62(4):971-974. Epub 2017 Jan 30.

Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit, Visiting Scientist Program, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Laboratory Division, 2501 Investigation Parkway, Quantico, VA, 22135.

A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the ancestry of a decedent by comparing their skeletal morphology and measurements to skeletons of individuals from known geographic groups. However, the accuracy rates of ancestry estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses 99 forensic cases with identified skeletal remains to develop accuracy rates for ancestry estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct ancestry estimation from these cases is 90.9%, which is comparable to most research-derived rates and those reported by individual practitioners. Statistical tests showed no significant difference in accuracy rates depending on examiner education level or on the estimated or identified ancestry. More recent cases showed a significantly higher accuracy rate. The incorporation of metric analyses into the ancestry estimate in these cases led to a higher accuracy rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13361DOI Listing
July 2017

Microscopical characterization of known postmortem root bands using light and scanning electron microscopy.

Forensic Sci Int 2016 Oct 18;267:7-15. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit, Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory Division, 2501 Investigation Parkway, Quantico 22135, VA, USA. Electronic address:

A postmortem root band (PMRB) is a distinct microscopic feature that is postulated to occur in hair remaining in the follicle during the postmortem interval [1] (Petraco et al., 1998). The scientific validity of this premise has been highlighted in two recent high-profile criminal cases involving PMRBs [2,3] (State of Florida v. Casey Marie Anthony, 2008; People v. Kogut, 2005). To better understand the fundamental aspects of postmortem root banding, the microscopical properties of known PMRBs were characterized by light microscopy, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging of microtomed sections of hairs showing root banding. The results from this study show that the appearance of the PMRB may be due to the degradation of the chemically labile, non-keratin intermacrofibrillar matrix (IMM) in the pre-keratin/keratogenous region of anagen hairs. In addition, this degradation is confined to the cortex of the hair, with no apparent damage to the layers of the cuticle. These results could provide valuable information for determining the mechanism of band formation, as well as identify a set of microscopic features that could be used to distinguish hairs with known PMRBs from similarly looking environmentally degraded hairs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.07.009DOI Listing
October 2016

Accuracy Rates of Sex Estimation by Forensic Anthropologists through Comparison with DNA Typing Results in Forensic Casework.

J Forensic Sci 2016 09 29;61(5):1307-10. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Laboratory Division, Visiting Scientist Program, 2501 Investigation Parkway, Quantico, VA, 22135.

A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the biological sex of a decedent by exploiting the sexual dimorphism between males and females. Estimation methods are often based on analysis of skeletal collections of known sex and most include a research-based accuracy rate. However, the accuracy rates of sex estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses sex determinations based on DNA results from 360 forensic cases to develop accuracy rates for sex estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct sex estimation from these cases is 94.7% with increasing accuracy rates as more skeletal material is available for analysis and as the education level and certification of the examiner increases. Nine of 19 incorrect assessments resulted from cases in which one skeletal element was available, suggesting that the use of an "undetermined" result may be more appropriate for these cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13137DOI Listing
September 2016

Response to "Facial Soft Tissue Thicknesses: Noise, Signal, and P" by Stephan, Munn and Caple.

Forensic Sci Int 2016 Apr 3;261:e22. Epub 2016 Feb 3.

Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit, Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory Division, 2501 Investigation Parkway, Quantico, VA 22135, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.01.032DOI Listing
April 2016

Passive Posterior Tibial Subluxation on Routine Knee MRI as a Secondary Sign of PCL Tear.

Radiol Res Pract 2014 22;2014:715439. Epub 2014 Dec 22.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

The posterior drawer test is an accurate clinical test to diagnose posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), indicating laxity of the PCL that allows posterior tibial translation. This study aimed to determine whether posterior tibial translation relative to the femur on routine MRI could serve as an additional sign of PCL tear. Routine knee MRI in eleven patients (7 males, 4 females) with arthroscopically confirmed isolated PCL tears were reviewed independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Measurements of tibial translation were made in the medial and lateral compartments of patients and controls (10 males, 12 females) without clinical or MRI evidence of ligament injury. Significant medial compartment posterior tibial translation was present in patients with PCL tear compared to controls (+2.93 mm versus +0.03 mm, P = 0.002) with excellent interobserver agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.94). No significant difference in lateral compartment tibial translation was observed (+0.17 mm versus -0.57 mm, P = 0.366) despite excellent interobserver agreement (ICC = 0.96). Posterior tibial translation in the midmedial compartment may be a secondary sign of isolated PCL tear on routine knee MRI with passive extension without manipulation or weight bearing. Additional work in a larger cohort may better address the accuracy of this finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/715439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4283255PMC
January 2015

Comparison of Insall-Salvati ratios in children with an acute anterior cruciate ligament tear and a matched control population.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2015 Jan;204(1):161-6

1 Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop St, 3950 South Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.

Objective: An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is an increasingly recognized cause of knee pain in young patients and in athletes in particular and can be detected non-invasively with MRI. Anecdotal information suggests that patella alta may be more common in the setting of this injury, but no study has documented this phenomenon. This study sought to test whether an ACL tear is associated with an increased Insall-Salvati ratio suggestive of patella alta.

Materials And Methods: Measurements of patellar height, patellar tendon length, and the Insall-Salvati ratio obtained from MRI of the knee were compared for 34 children with an arthroscopically proven ACL tear (mean age ± SD, 12.4 ± 1.4 years) and 36 control subjects with normal knee examinations (12.8 ± 2.1 years); these measurements were performed independently by two observers.

Results: Patellar tendon length (47.6 ± 6.6 mm vs 40.4 ± 5.7 mm) and patellar position calculated as the Insall-Salvati ratio (1.16 ± 0.16 vs 0.99 ± 0.14) were significantly greater in the knees with an ACL injury than in those without an internal injury, respectively, on MRI (p < 0.001). Patella length was not significantly different between the two groups (patients vs control subjects, 41.1 ± 4.2 mm vs 40.6 ± 2.7 mm, respectively; p = 0.523). There was good to excellent interobserver and intraobserver correlation for all measurements.

Conclusion: There is a significant association between an ACL tear and increased patellar tendon length with a greater Insall-Salvati ratio. The mechanism for this finding is unclear, but this association provides support to suggest relative patella alta may be a risk factor for ACL injuries in pediatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.13.12435DOI Listing
January 2015

Evaluation of Contrast Extravasation as a Diagnostic Criterion in the Evaluation of Arthroscopically Proven HAGL/pHAGL Lesions.

Radiol Res Pract 2014 3;2014:283575. Epub 2014 Nov 3.

Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-2582, USA.

Purpose. The validity of preoperative MRI in diagnosing HAGL lesions is debated. Various investigations have produced mixed results with regard to the utility of MRI. The purpose of this investigation is to apply a novel method of diagnosing HAGL/pHAGL lesions by looking at contrast extravasation and to evaluate the reliability of such extravasation of contrast into an extra-articular space as a sign of HAGL/pHAGL lesion. Methods. We utilized specific criteria to define contrast extravasation. We evaluated these criteria in 12 patients with arthroscopically proven HAGL/pHAGL lesion. We also evaluated these criteria in a control group. Results. Contrast extravasation occurred in over 83% of arthroscopically positive cases. Contrast extravasation as a diagnostic criterion in the evaluation of HAGL/pHAGL lesions demonstrated a high interobserver degree of agreement. Conclusions. In conclusion, extra-articular contrast extravasation may serve as a valid and reliable sign of HAGL and pHAGL lesions, provided stringent criteria are maintained to assure that the contrast lies in an extra-articular location. In cases where extravasation is not present, the "J" sign, though nonspecific, may be the only evidence of subtle HAGL and pHAGL lesions. Level of Evidence. Level IV, Retrospective Case-Control series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/283575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4235512PMC
December 2014

Assessment of presentation methods for ReFace computerized facial approximations.

Forensic Sci Int 2014 Sep 26;242:283-292. Epub 2014 Jun 26.

Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit, Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory Division, 2501 Investigation Parkway, Quantico, VA 22135, USA. Electronic address:

Facial approximations (whether clay sculptures, sketches, or computer-generated) can be presented to the public in a variety of layouts, but there are currently no clear indicators as to what style of presentation is most effective at eliciting recognition. The primary purpose of this study is to determine which of five presentation methods produces the most favorable recognition results. A secondary goal of the research is to evaluate a new method for assessing the accuracy of facial approximations. Previous studies have evaluated facial approximation effectiveness using standards similar to studies of eyewitness identification in which a single, definitive choice must be made by the research participant. These criteria seem inappropriate given that facial approximation is strictly an investigative tool to help narrow the search for potential matching candidates in the process of identification. Results from the study showed a higher performance for methods utilizing more than one image of the approximation, but which specific method performed best varied among approximation subjects. Also, results for all five presentation methods showed that, when given the opportunity to select more than one approximation, participants were consistently better at identifying the correct approximation as one of a few possible matches to the missing person than they were at singling out the correct approximation. This suggests that facial approximations have perhaps been undervalued as investigative tools in previous research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.06.014DOI Listing
September 2014

Accuracy of standard craniometric measurements using multiple data formats.

Forensic Sci Int 2014 Sep 25;242:177-185. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

Counterterrorism Forensic Science Research Unit, Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory Division, 2501 Investigation Parkway, VA 22135, USA. Electronic address:

Unlabelled: With continuing advancements in biomedical imaging technologies, anthropologists are increasingly making use of data derived from indirect measurement and analysis of skeletal material. To that end, the purpose of this study was to test the reliability of 26 standard craniometric measurements routinely utilized in forensic casework across several different imaging technologies. Measurements from five crania of known individuals were collected in duplicate by two anthropologists via computed tomography (CT) scans and three-dimensional (3D) laser scans of the known skulls. The laser scans were also used to create prototype models of the known skulls. These prototypes were, themselves, laser-scanned, and measurements were also collected from the prototypes and the laser scans of the prototypes. Measurement sets from each technology were then compared with one another using the previously collected osteometric measurements taken on the crania themselves as the ground truth.

Result: indicate that, while the majority of measurements showed no significant differences across data formats, a handful were found to be problematic for particular technologies. For instance, measurements taken in a supero-inferior direction (e.g., BBH, OBH) from CT scans were prone to greater deviation from direct measurements of the cranium than other technologies, especially for CT scans taken at 5 mm thickness and increment. Also, several measurements defined by Type 1 landmarks, particularly those occurring at complicated or indistinct suture junctures (e.g., ASB, ZMB), were found to have high variance across all technologies while measurements based on Type 3 landmarks proved to be highly reproducible. This is contrary to measurements taken directly on crania, in which measures defined by Type 1 landmarks are typically the most reliable, likely attributable to diminished or totally obscured suture definition in the scan data. If medical imaging data are to be increasingly utilized in anthropological studies, it may be prudent to bear in mind that the reliability of measurements taken on an actual skull may not be the same as for measurements taken from medical scans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.06.015DOI Listing
September 2014

Lymphatic filariasis disseminating to the upper extremity.

Case Rep Radiol 2014 19;2014:985680. Epub 2014 Feb 19.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY 10021, USA.

Lymphatic filariasis is the most common cause of acquired lymphedema worldwide (Szuba and Rockson, 1998). It is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions, and its effects are devastating. With over 100 million infected persons, it ranks second only to leprosy as the leading cause of permanent and long-term disability. Wuchereria bancrofti is the etiologic agent in 90% of cases. There is a dearth of published MRI findings with pathologically proven active infections, making this entity even more of a diagnostic dilemma. Imaging may provide the first clue that one is dealing with a parasite and may facilitate proper treatment and containment of this disease. This is the first report of pathologic correlation with MRI findings in the extremity in active filariasis. The magnetic resonance images demonstrate an enhancing, infiltrative, mass-like appearance with partial encasement of vasculature that has not been previously described in filariasis. Low signal strands in T2-hyperintense dilated lymphatic channels are seen and may depict live adult worms. We hypothesize that the low signal strands correspond to the collagen rich acellular cuticle. This, in combination with the surrounding hyperintense T2 signal, corresponding to a dilated lymphatic channel, may provide more specific MRI findings for active nematodal infection, which can prompt early biopsy, pathological correlation, and diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/985680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3965918PMC
April 2014

Prevalence of idiopathic cuneate gyrus herniation based on emergency room CT examinations.

Emerg Radiol 2014 Aug 27;21(4):387-9. Epub 2014 Mar 27.

Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA,

Idiopathic brain herniation caused by a focal dural defect can be confused for a mass or post-traumatic herniation. The prevalence of idiopathic brain herniation has never been described. We sought to ascertain the prevalence of idiopathic cuneate gyrus herniation in a general emergency room (ER) population on computed tomography (CT) imaging. The purpose of this study is to elucidate cuneate gyrus herniation and differentiate it from other pathologic conditions such as mass or traumatic herniation and to provide its anatomical prevalence in an ER population. Consecutive emergency room CT scans of the brain were evaluated prospectively for cuneate gyrus herniation over a 1 year period by a neuroradiologist. Of 1,500 brain CT scans evaluated, 11 patients demonstrated idiopathic cuneus gyrus herniation. The prevalence was 0.73 %. CT manifestations are normal brain tissue herniating into the superior cerebellar cistern. Idiopathic brain herniation can be mistaken for a pathologic process. We found the prevalence of one such idiopathic brain herniation, involving the cuneus gyrus, to be exceedingly rare. CT imaging demonstrates normal brain tissue herniating beyond the dural boundary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10140-014-1212-6DOI Listing
August 2014

Preliminary assessment of facial soft tissue thickness utilizing three-dimensional computed tomography models of living individuals.

Forensic Sci Int 2014 Apr 21;237:146.e1-146.e10. Epub 2014 Jan 21.

Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit, FBI Laboratory Division, 2501 Investigation Parkway, Quantico, VA 22135, USA. Electronic address:

Facial approximation is the technique of developing a representation of the face from the skull of an unknown individual. Facial approximation relies heavily on average craniofacial soft tissue depths. For more than a century, researchers have employed a broad array of tissue depth collection methodologies, a practice which has resulted in a lack of standardization in craniofacial soft tissue depth research. To combat such methodological inconsistencies, Stephan and Simpson 2008 [15] examined and synthesized a large number of previously published soft tissue depth studies. Their comprehensive meta-analysis produced a pooled dataset of averaged tissue depths and a simplified methodology, which the researchers suggest be utilized as a minimum standard protocol for future craniofacial soft tissue depth research. The authors of the present paper collected craniofacial soft tissue depths using three-dimensional models generated from computed tomography scans of living males and females of four self-identified ancestry groups from the United States ranging in age from 18 to 62 years. This paper assesses the differences between: (i) the pooled mean tissue depth values from the sample utilized in this paper and those published by Stephan 2012 [21] and (ii) the mean tissue depth values of two demographically similar subsets of the sample utilized in this paper and those published by Rhine and Moore 1984 [16]. Statistical test results indicate that the tissue depths collected from the sample evaluated in this paper are significantly and consistently larger than those published by Stephan 2012 [21]. Although a lack of published variance data by Rhine and Moore 1984 [16] precluded a direct statistical assessment, a substantive difference was also concluded. Further, the dataset presented in this study is representative of modern American adults and is, therefore, appropriate for use in constructing contemporary facial approximations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.12.043DOI Listing
April 2014

Preliminary performance assessment of computer automated facial approximations using computed tomography scans of living individuals.

Forensic Sci Int 2013 Dec 8;233(1-3):133-9. Epub 2013 Sep 8.

Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit, FBI Laboratory Division, 2501 Investigation Parkway, Quantico, VA 22135, United States.

ReFace (Reality Enhancement Facial Approximation by Computational Estimation) is a computer-automated facial approximation application jointly developed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and GE Global Research. The application derives a statistically based approximation of a face from a unidentified skull using a dataset of ~400 human head computer tomography (CT) scans of living adult American individuals from four ancestry groups: African, Asian, European and Hispanic (self-identified). To date only one unpublished subjective recognition study has been conducted using ReFace approximations. It indicated that approximations produced by ReFace were recognized above chance rates (10%). This preliminary study assesses: (i) the recognizability of five ReFace approximations; (ii) the recognizability of CT-derived skin surface replicas of the same individuals whose skulls were used to create the ReFace approximations; and (iii) the relationship between recognition performance and resemblance ratings of target individuals. All five skin surface replicas were recognized at rates statistically significant above chance (22-50%). Four of five ReFace approximations were recognized above chance (5-18%), although with statistical significance only at the higher rate. Such results suggest reconsideration of the usefulness of the type of output format utilized in this study, particularly in regard to facial approximations employed as a means of identifying unknown individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.08.031DOI Listing
December 2013

Nature abhors a vacuum: bilateral prominent rotator cable in bilateral congenital absence of the long head of the biceps tendon.

Skeletal Radiol 2014 Jan 1;43(1):75-8. Epub 2013 Sep 1.

Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA,

Bilateral agenesis of the long head of the biceps tendon is an exceedingly rare anomaly and can be a challenging diagnostic dilemma whose differential diagnosis includes tear. We present the third case of bilateral agenesis of the long head of the biceps tendon. Absent or shallow intertubercular sulcus is a constant finding and serves to differentiate this entity from tear. Our case is unique in that there was a radial ray anomaly, where prior reports of bilaterality did not demonstrate associated congenital anomalies. We also describe the newly reported finding of thickening of the rotator cable without the presence of rotator cuff tear. Thickening of the rotator cable may be an associated finding with agenesis of the biceps tendon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00256-013-1716-2DOI Listing
January 2014

Cervical carotid artery dissection: current review of diagnosis and treatment.

Cardiol Rev 2012 May-Jun;20(3):145-52

Department of Radiology, Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, 1650 Grand Concourse, Bronx, NY 10457, USA.

Carotid artery dissection is a cause of stroke, especially in young and middle-aged patients. A dissection occurs when there is an intimal tear or rupture of the vasa vasorum, leading to an intramural hematoma, which is thought to result from trauma or can occur spontaneously, and is likely multifactorial, involving environmental and intrinsic factors. The clinical diagnosis of carotid artery dissection can be challenging, with common presentations including pain, partial Horner syndrome, cranial nerve palsies, or cerebral ischemia. With the use of noninvasive imaging, including magnetic resonance and computed tomography angiography, the diagnosis of carotid dissection has increased in frequency. Treatment options include thrombolysis, antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy, endovascular or surgical interventions. The choice of appropriate therapy remains controversial as most carotid dissections heal on their own and there are no randomized trials to compare treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CRD.0b013e318247cd15DOI Listing
May 2012

Magnetic resonance imaging of idiopathic herniation of the cuneus gyrus.

J Neuroimaging 2007 Oct;17(4):353-4

Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, New York, USA.

A 65-year-old woman presenting with chronic headaches and without overt visual symptomatology was found to have herniation of the cuneus gyrus into the superior cerebellar cistern. Only one prior case of idiopathic brain herniation has been described, in which the parahippocampal gyrus herniated into the ambient cistern. In that case a biopsy was performed as the herniation was mistaken for a tumor. We describe the features of idiopathic brain herniation that would mitigate the necessity for undergoing brain biopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6569.2007.00123.xDOI Listing
October 2007