Publications by authors named "Rich C McIlroy"

10 Publications

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Exploring the Relationship between Attitudes, Risk Perceptions, Fatalistic Beliefs, and Pedestrian Behaviors in China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 24;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Human Factors Engineering, Transportation Research Group, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 7QF, UK.

Road safety has become a worldwide public health concern. Although many factors contribute to collisions, pedestrian behaviors can strongly influence road safety outcomes. This paper presents results of a survey investigating the effects of age, gender, attitudes towards road safety, fatalistic beliefs and risk perceptions on self-reported pedestrian behaviors in a Chinese example. The study was carried out on 543 participants (229 men and 314 women) from 20 provinces across China. Pedestrian behaviors were assessed by four factors: errors, violations, aggressions, and lapses. Younger people reported performing riskier pedestrian behaviors compared to older people. Gender was not an influential factor. Of the factors explored, attitudes towards road safety explained the most amount of variance in self-reported behaviors. Significant additional variance in risky pedestrian behaviors was explained by the addition of fatalistic beliefs. The differences among the effects, and the implications for road safety intervention design, are discussed. In particular, traffic managers can provide road safety education and related training activities to influence pedestrian behaviors positively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037076PMC
March 2021

Resolving the differences between system development and system operation using STAMP: a road safety case study in a low-income setting.

Ergonomics 2021 Feb 1:1-17. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Human Factors Engineering, Transportation Research Group University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Road safety strategies adopted worldwide have made significant progress in reducing road trauma, but have stagnated more recently. The situation in low- and middle-income countries is even worse with no significant decrease in fatality rates. Safety researchers have argued that adopting sociotechnical systems approach is necessary to make significant advancements and improvements. The aim of this study was to develop a control structure model of the Bangladesh road safety system by identifying the actors and organisations involved across the system. Expert stakeholders were identified and interviewed, and relevant information was gathered in order to generate the Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Process control structure model. Throughout the analysis of this model, differences in the control and feedback mechanisms of the system were identified, and road safety intervention recommendations were made. Future research should also predict potential risks within the system and propose proactive and preventative countermeasures. : In this article, a Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Process control structure model of the Bangladesh road safety system is developed, and the involved actors are identified. Based on interviews and workshops with expert stakeholders, differences in the controls and feedback mechanisms in the system were identified, and road safety intervention recommendations were made. BUET: Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2021.1876928DOI Listing
February 2021

Representing two road traffic collisions in one Accimap: highlighting the importance of emergency response and enforcement in a low-income country.

Ergonomics 2020 Dec 19;63(12):1512-1524. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Human Factors Engineering, Transportation Research Group, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Seemingly erratic pedestrian crossing has become a major source of vehicle-pedestrian collisions on highways in Bangladesh, and across other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this article, we approach the challenge from a sociotechnical systems perspective by using the Accimap method to analyse a pair of time-separated yet interconnected road traffic collisions. The first event involved a truck colliding with a road divider; in the second, fatal incident, a bus hit a university student. The traditional-style investigation conducted immediately after the collision apportioned blame to end users, that is, drivers and pedestrian; however, application of sociotechnical systems thinking revealed the contribution from lack of emergency response and enforcement among many other important factors. Results and recommendations are discussed in terms of reducing the chance and severity of such collisions across LMICs, and in terms of the need to look beyond the end-user, a focus that remains dominant in such settings. : This paper applies sociotechnical systems thinking to pedestrian safety in Bangladesh by analysing two inter-connected road traffic collisions using a single Accimap. The findings emphasise the importance of implementing road safety interventions that target all system levels, and draw attention to the importance of post-collision response in low-income settings. BUET: Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2020.1807064DOI Listing
December 2020

How do fatalistic beliefs affect the attitudes and pedestrian behaviours of road users in different countries? A cross-cultural study.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 6;139:105491. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Human Factors Engineering, Transportation Research Group, University of Southampton, UK.

This paper reports on an exploratory investigation of the influence of five different fatalistic belief constructs (divine control, luck, helplessness, internality, and general fatalism) on three classes of self-reported pedestrian behaviours (memory and attention errors, rule violations, and aggressive behaviours) and on respondents' general attitudes to road safety, and how relationships between constructs differ across countries. A survey of over 3400 respondents across Bangladesh, China, Kenya, Thailand, the UK, and Vietnam revealed a similar pattern for most of the relationships assessed, in most countries; those who reported higher fatalistic beliefs or more external attributions of causality also reported performing riskier pedestrian behaviours and holding more dangerous attitudes to road safety. The strengths of relationships between constructs did, however, differ by country, behaviour type, and aspect of fatalism. One particularly notable country difference was that in Bangladesh and, to a lesser extent, in Kenya, a stronger belief in divine influence over one's life was associated with safer attitudes and behaviours, whereas where significant relationships existed in the other countries the opposite was true. In some cases, the effect of fatalistic beliefs on self-reported behaviours was mediated through attitudes, in other cases the effect was direct. Results are discussed in terms of the need to consider the effect of locus of control and attributions of causality on attitudes and behaviours, and the need to understand the differences between countries therein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105491DOI Listing
May 2020

Vulnerable road users in low-, middle-, and high-income countries: Validation of a Pedestrian Behaviour Questionnaire.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Oct 22;131:80-94. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

University of Southampton, Human Factors Engineering Transport, Southampton, SO16 7QF, United Kingdom.

The primary aim of this study was to validate the short version of a Pedestrian Behaviour Questionnaire across six culturally and economically distinct countries; Bangladesh, China, Kenya, Thailand, the UK, and Vietnam. The questionnaire comprised 20 items that asked respondents to rate the extent to which they perform certain types of pedestrian behaviours, with each behaviour belonging to one of five categories identified in previous literature; violations, errors, lapses, aggressive behaviours, and positive behaviours. The sample consisted of 3423 respondents across the six countries. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of the data to the five-factor structure, and a four-factor structure in which violations and errors were combined into one factor (seen elsewhere in the literature). For some items, factor loadings were unacceptably low, internal reliability was low for two of the sub-scales, and model fit indices were generally unacceptable for both models. As such, only the violations, lapses, and aggressions sub-scales were retained (those with acceptable reliability and factor loadings), and the three-factor model tested. Although results suggest that the violations sub-scale may need additional attention, the three-factor solution showed the best fit to the data. The resulting 12-item scale is discussed with regards to country differences, and with respect to its utility as a research tool in cross-cultural studies of road user behaviour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.05.027DOI Listing
October 2019

What do people know about eco-driving?

Ergonomics 2017 Jun 6;60(6):754-769. Epub 2016 Sep 6.

a Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Transportation Research Group , University of Southampton , Southampton , UK.

An online survey of 321 respondents revealed that the majority of people are aware of eco-driving and have a positive attitude towards it. Although the types of eco-driving tips offered by respondents, and their potential effect on fuel consumption, were in line with those found in the popular and academic literature, knowledge of specific fuel saving behaviours was generally low. Relationships were found between environmental attitudes and knowledge of, and propensity to perform eco-driving behaviours; however, these relationships were weak, indicating that neither pro-environmental attitudes nor knowledge of eco-driving behaviours is strongly indicative of actual eco-driving performance. Males were found to be more knowledgeable of the means for driving in a fuel-efficient manner than females; however, no effect was found for either age or level of general education. Results are discussed in terms of the challenges and opportunities for encouraging eco-driving, and the necessity for both governmental and industry involvement. Practitioner Summary: To successfully encourage the uptake of eco-driving (e.g. through policy, training and feedback) it is first necessary to understand how the general public perceives it, and what they already know of it. This survey study addresses this by looking at relationships between environmental attitudes and knowledge, and specific eco-driving measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2016.1227092DOI Listing
June 2017

Ecodriving in hybrid electric vehicles--Exploring challenges for user-energy interaction.

Appl Ergon 2016 Jul 27;55:33-45. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

Transportation Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can help to reduce transport emissions; however, user behaviour has a significant effect on the energy savings actually achieved in everyday usage. The present research aimed to advance understanding of HEV drivers' ecodriving strategies, and the challenges for optimal user-energy interaction. We conducted interviews with 39 HEV drivers who achieved above-average fuel efficiencies. Regression analyses showed that technical system knowledge and ecodriving motivation were both important predictors for ecodriving efficiency. Qualitative data analyses showed that drivers used a plethora of ecodriving strategies and had diverse conceptualisations of HEV energy efficiency regarding aspects such as the efficiency of actively utilizing electric energy or the efficiency of different acceleration strategies. Drivers also reported several false beliefs regarding HEV energy efficiency that could impair ecodriving efforts. Results indicate that ecodriving support systems should facilitate anticipatory driving and help users locate and maintain drivetrain states of maximum efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2016.01.007DOI Listing
July 2016

A decision ladder analysis of eco-driving: the first step towards fuel-efficient driving behaviour.

Ergonomics 2015 21;58(6):866-82. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

a Transportation Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment , University of Southampton , Southampton , UK.

This paper provides a decision ladder analysis of eco-driving, and a discussion of the resultant models in terms of the skills, rules and knowledge taxonomy of human behaviour and how this can inform the design of an in-vehicle, eco-driving support system. In order to understand the types of behaviours that characterise fuel-efficient driving, a review was conducted of the academic literature and of more publicly available resources, such as governmental, car manufacturers' and specific eco-driving organisations' websites. The review identified four largely distinct driving activities that play a central role in the use of fuel in the private road vehicle. A focus group involving four researchers in the transport ergonomics field, followed by a series of five interviews with eco-driving experts, served to validate, supplement and further specify the models. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents a decision ladder analysis of eco-driving. A four-member focus group and five interviews with eco-driving experts were conducted; the resultant models are discussed in terms of supporting fuel-efficient driving behaviours in the novice eco-driver through their potential to inform the design of an in-vehicle eco-driving support system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2014.997807DOI Listing
December 2016

Following the cognitive work analysis train of thought: exploring the constraints of modal shift to rail transport.

Ergonomics 2013 30;56(3):522-40. Epub 2012 Aug 30.

Transportation Research Group, Civil, Maritime, Environmental Engineering & Science Unit, The University of Southampton, Highfield, SO17 1BJ, Southampton, UK.

Unlabelled: Environmental concerns show that transport is responsible for almost a quarter of all greenhouse gas emissions, and it is also the fastest growing sector. Modal shift towards public transport could help slow down, or even reverse, this trend. There appear to be a number of constraints that are preventing this from happening. This paper explores the constraints to modal shift to rail transport from the perspective of cognitive work analysis, specifically the abstraction hierarchy, the contextual activity template and social organisational and cooperation analyses. Whilst these analyses may not present any new barriers, they do show how the constraints are interlinked in an explicit manner. These interrelations are important for two reasons. First, in consideration of constraint removal, one must anticipate the likely effects on the remainder of the system. Second, by linking functions and situations, new concepts of travel may be identified and explored.

Practitioner Summary: The purpose of this study was to use a semi-structured approach to identifying constraints to modal shift from a variety of perspectives. It is argued that cognitive work analysis offers a new way of thinking about the modal shift problem and helps to generate new insights into potential solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2012.718366DOI Listing
January 2014

Getting past first base: Going all the way with Cognitive Work Analysis.

Appl Ergon 2011 Jan 16;42(2):358-70. Epub 2010 Sep 16.

University of Southampton, Highfield, United Kingdom.

This paper reports the application of Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) to the problem of communications planning in military aviation. Applications of CWA rarely get beyond the first one or two phases; this paper presents an analysis in which all five phases have been completed. The method offers a formative description of the system, defining the set of boundaries and constraints that shape system activity in terms of work domain, recurring activities, decision making, social organisation and worker competency requirements. It is an analysis that is well suited to environments in which the occurrence of unanticipated events can have serious implications for both safety and productivity. Communications planning in military aviation is such an environment. The outputs of the analysis provided an extensive and exhaustive description of the system, highlighting the uneven spread of activity, across actors involved in communications planning and across the situations in which planning can occur. In addition, a new method for informing worker competency requirements based on abstract functions rather than specific decision steps is proposed and discussed in terms of job design, interface design, and person specification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2010.08.006DOI Listing
January 2011