Publications by authors named "Riccardo Pratesi"

63 Publications

Repercussion of COVID-19 Pandemic on Brazilians' Quality of Life: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 18;17(22). Epub 2020 Nov 18.

College of Population Health, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, USA.

The COVID-19 outbreak, caused by Sars-Cov-2, was officially declared a global pandemic in February 2020, after an unexpected increase in hospitalization and mortality. When faced with this new disease, social and physical distancing and quarantine emerged as solutions to reduce virus transmission. This article examines the quality of life (QoL) of the Brazilian population's during this period of isolation, due to the COVID-19 pandemic by analyzing; physical, psychological, social, and economic aspects. An online survey was distributed from 27 May to 14 August of 2020. A total of 1859 surveys were completed. Our results indicate that Brazilians were more affected by economic and social aspects than psychological and physical. Unemployed participants and individuals who tested positive for COVID-19 presented the lowest QoL. Females showed worst QoL scores than males, but having children did not influence the score. Higher educational level was associated with a better perception of QoL. Not following social distancing guidelines presented better scores in the psychological domain than the ones following restrict or partial social distancing rules. This study is the first to evaluate adults' QoL related to the Sars-Cov-2 pandemic in Brazil at a national level. Our data may help health authorities identify the main factors affecting the QoL of the Brazilian population, thereby orientating them to recover after the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698925PMC
November 2020

Assessment of BDNF serum levels as a diagnostic marker in children with autism spectrum disorder.

Sci Rep 2020 10 15;10(1):17348. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Biosciences, School of Medicine, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

There has been a significant increase in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the last decades that cannot be exclusively attributed to better diagnosis and an increase in the communication of new cases. Patients with ASD often show dysregulation of proteins associated with synaptic plasticity, notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The objective of the present study was to analyze BDNF serum concentration levels in children with classic forms autism and a healthy control group to determine if there is a correlation between ASD and BDNF serum levels. Forty-nine children with severe classic form of autism, and 37 healthy children were enrolled in the study. Blood samples, from both patients and controls, were collected and BNDF levels from both groups were analyzed. The average BDNF serum concentration level was statistically higher for children with ASD (P < 0.000) compared to the control group. There is little doubt that BDNF plays a role in the pathophysiology of ASD development and evolution, but its brain levels may fluctuate depending on several known and unknown factors. The critical question is not if BDNF levels can be considered a prognostic or diagnostic marker of ASD, but to determine its role in the onset and progression of this disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74239-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566481PMC
October 2020

Evaluation of Quality of Life of Adult Patients with Celiac Disease in Argentina: From Questionnaire Validation to Assessment.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 09 26;17(19). Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Biosciences and Celiac Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF 70910-900, Brazil.

This cross-sectional study aimed to translate, culturally adapt, validate, and apply a Celiac Disease Quality of Life (CD-QoL) questionnaire to a representative sample of Argentina's celiac population. A previously developed and validated questionnaire (Celiac Disease Questionnaire: CDQ) was chosen as a tool for assessing the health-related quality of Life (HRQoL) of adult celiac patients in Argentina. Therefore, the study was performed in four stages: (a) translation and re-translation of the CDQ to Argentinian-Spanish language; (b) cultural adaptation and semantic evaluation; based on the Delphi method (c) validation of the CDQ by applying it to a representative sample of Argentinian celiac patients; (d) statistical analysis of the data. The result of stages (a) and (b) was a translated and culturally adapted an Argentinian-Spanish version of the CDQ, which was generated after reaching consensus between the corresponding four (phase a) and 10 (phase b) professionals involved in the different phases of this process. Among them, we can cite bilingual healthcare professionals with extensive experience in research and celiac disease, celiac patients, gastroenterologists, general practitioners, dieticians, and psychologists. The resulting CDQ proved to be an appropriate measuring tool to assess the HRQoL of Argentinian celiac patients confirmed by a good fit in the confirmatory factor validity analysis (RMSEA < 0.001 and χ = 267.325, df = 313, = 0.971) and high values of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha > 0.7). A total of 191 participants accessed the questionnaire, and 171 individuals from 20 out of 23 Argentinian states completed the questionnaire. There was no correlation between higher educational level nor marital status with QoL. Individuals on a strict gluten-free diet (GFD) and those who do not take antidepressants showed higher QoL. Male gender also presented better HRQoL. There was no correlation between differences in HRQoL and age of the respondent, age at diagnosis, symptoms at diagnosis, or having other chronic diseases. However, a significantly higher score of HRQoL was reported among those individuals who disclosed having knowledge of CD related national regulations and benefits. This study highlights the importance of maintaining current public health regulations that support chronic disease patients, such as celiac patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7578972PMC
September 2020

Correlation between salivary and serum CA15-3 concentrations in patients with breast cancer.

Mol Clin Oncol 2020 Aug 4;13(2):155-161. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Laboratory of Oral Histopathology, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Brasília Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Brasília, DF 70910-900, Brazil.

The early detection of breast cancer enables the use of less aggressive treatment and increases patient survival. The transmembrane glycoprotein mucin 1, which is also known as cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), is aberrantly glycosylated and overexpressed in a variety of epithelial cancers, and serves a crucial role in the progression of the disease. CA15-3 is currently used as a marker of breast cancer. In the present study, CA15-3 concentrations in saliva and blood of patients with breast cancer were evaluated to test new assays to detect salivary CA15-3 in addition to ELISA and its diagnostic value. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of the use of chemiluminescence assay (CLIA) and electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) in saliva. Saliva and blood were collected on the same day from patients with breast cancer (n=26) and healthy controls (n=28). For each subject, the level of serum CA15-3 was measured using ECLIA, and the level of salivary CA15-3 was measured using ECLIA, CLIA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA and CLIA were able to detect CA15-3 in saliva; however, ECLIA could not detect salivary CA15-3. There was no significant difference between the mean serum and salivary CA15-3 levels in patients with breast cancer or healthy controls. The levels of CA15-3 were highest for luminal breast cancer subtypes and stage IV cases. A moderate correlation was observed between salivary and serum CA15-3 levels as measured by ELISA in breast cancer patients (r=0.56; P=0.0047). The results demonstrated that ECLIA was not a good method to detect salivary CA15-3, although it is the gold standard for detecting serum CA15-3. The presence of CA15-3 in saliva was confirmed, and this will be useful in future research. Further investigations are necessary to confirm the ability to detect salivary CA15-3 and its correlation with serum CA15-3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2020.2062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7366245PMC
August 2020

Isolation, Identification, and Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria with Probiotic Potential in Silage of Different Species of Forage Plants, Cocoa Beans, and Artisanal Salami.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 Feb;13(1):173-186

Department of Nutrition, College of Health Sciences, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, 70910900, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential in silages of different species of forage plants, cocoa beans, and artisanal salami. The obtained isolates were submitted to the following evaluations: (i) screening for tolerance to pH 2 and bile salts, (ii) genotypic identification of isolates, (iii) survival in simulated gastric and pancreatic conditions, (iv) antimicrobial activity, (v) antibiotic susceptibility and safety, and (vi) properties associated with adhesion capacity. A total of 82 isolates were obtained and were screened for pH 2.0 tolerance and capacity to growth in the presence of bile salts (1.0 and 2.0%). Only 19 strains simultaneously presented tolerance to pH 2.0 and bile salts. These 19 strains were evaluated for genetic profile by Box-PCR. Subsequently, the selected strains were subjected to partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The species Lactobacillus plantarum was prevalent. The identified strains were evaluated for survival under simulated gastric and pancreatic conditions. Some strains have shown tolerance in both conditions. Different strains showed variations in antimicrobial activity, susceptibility to antibiotics, and properties associated with adhesion (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, coaggregation, and adhesion to CaCo2 cells). All strains were negative for hemolysis, DNase, gelatinase, and biogenic amine synthesis activity. The L. plantarum SBR64.7 strain can be considered the most promising for it presented the lowest viability reduction when exposed to gastric and pancreatic juices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-020-09679-yDOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical Manifestations of Kawasaki Disease at Different Age Spectrum: A Ten-Year Study.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 Mar 25;56(4). Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Biosciences, School of Medicine, University of Brasilia, Brasilia 70910-900, Brazil.

The present study is the first known in Latin America to enroll a substantial number of Kawasaki disease (KD) patients with an extended follow-up. This study aimed to: (1) to expose the difficulties and delays in the diagnosis of KD in a developing country, (2) to describe and correlate the clinical features of this disorder with the children's age at the time of disease onset, (3) to correlate the frequent lack of early diagnosis with a delayed application of appropriate treatment, and (4) to describe the outcome and eventual recurrences of KD in our region. Three hundred and one participants (183 males and 118 females) included in the study were diagnosed and, subsequently, clinically followed for ten years (January 2007 to December 2016) at the Pediatric Rheumatology Walk-in Clinic of the Children's Hospital of Brasilia. : Episodes ranged from four months to two years. This rate of recurrence was well-above that disclosed by previous reports. Delay in diagnosis, in all age groups, caused an undesirable delay between the disease onset, the final diagnosis, and the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). KD recurred in 25 (8.3%) of the children during the first three years of follow-up. In seven patients, KD recurred twice, with an interval between episodes ranging from four months to two years. : This rate of recurrence was well-above that disclosed by previous reports. In Latin America, aside from a handful of physicians and researchers, KD is being ignored. There is a pressing need to educate primary health care physicians and bring awareness to the fact that KD is not an exotic condition that affects only the Asian populations but a disorder that already exists among us and that frequently results in severe consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231131PMC
March 2020

Current trends in the pharmacological management of Chagas disease.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2020 04 10;12:7-17. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Biosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil. Electronic address:

Chagas disease (CD) is a tropical neglected illness, affecting mainly populations of low socioeconomic status in Latin America. An estimated 6 to 8 million people worldwide are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of CD. Despite being one of the main global health problems, this disease continues without effective treatment during the chronic phase of the infection. The limitation of therapeutic strategies has been one of the biggest challenges on the fight against CD. Nifurtimox and benznidazole, developed in the 1970s, are still the only commercial options with established efficacy on CD. However, the efficacy of these drugs have a proven efficacy only during early infection and the benefits in the chronic phase are questionable. Consequently, there is a growing need for new pharmacological alternatives, either by optimization of existing drugs or by the formulation of new compounds. In the present study, a literature review of the currently adopted therapy, its concomitant combination with other drugs, and potential future treatments for CD was performed, considering articles published from 2012. The revised articles were selected according to the protocol of treatment: evaluation of drug association, drug repositioning and research of new drugs. As a result of the present revision, it was possible to conclude that the use of benznidazole in combination with other compounds showed better results when compared with its use as a single therapy. The search of new drugs has been the strategy most used in pursuing more effective forms of treatment for CD. However, studies have still focused on basic research, that is, they are still in a pre-clinical stage, using methodologies based on in vitro or in animal studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpddr.2019.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6928327PMC
April 2020

Measuring Quality of Life in Parents or Caregivers of Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease: Development and Content Validation of the Questionnaire.

Nutrients 2019 Sep 27;11(10). Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Biosciences and Celiac Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Brasilia, Brasilia 70910-900, DF, Brazil.

Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of gluten and affects approximately 1% of the global population. Currently, the only treatment available is lifelong strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). Chronic diseases such as CD affect patients and their family members' quality of life (QoL); particularly parents and caregivers who play an essential role in the child's care and treatment. A higher level of psychological distress has been found in the parents of children with chronic ailments due to limited control over the child's daily activities and the child's illness. In this context, the validation of a specific questionnaire of QoL is a valuable tool to evaluate the difficulties faced by parents or caregivers of children with this chronic illness. A specific questionnaire for this population can elucidate the reasons for stress in their daily lives as well as the physical, mental, emotional, and social impact caused by CD. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a specific questionnaire to evaluate the QoL of parents and caregivers of children and adolescents with CD. Overall results showed that a higher family income resulted in a higher score of the worries domain. In addition, having another illness besides CD decreased the QoL (except in the worries domain). The other variables studied did not present a statistically significant impact on the QoL, which was shown to be low in all aspects. Knowledge of the QoL is important to help implement effective strategies to improve celiac patients' quality of life and reduce their physical, emotional, and social burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11102302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835388PMC
September 2019

Accidental Gluten Contamination in Traditional Lunch Meals from Food Services in Brasilia, Brazil.

Nutrients 2019 Aug 16;11(8). Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia (UnB), Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, Brasilia 70910-900, Brazil.

This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of gluten contamination in naturally gluten-free meals from food services in the Federal District, Brazil. This is an exploratory cross-sectional quantitative study in which a total of 180 samples of naturally gluten-free dishes were collected from 60 food services in Brazil. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for the quantification of gluten. As established by the Codex Alimentarius, the threshold of 20 ppm of gluten was considered as the accepted upper gluten level for gluten-free food. A total of 2.8% (95% CI: 0.3-5.2%) gluten contamination was found in the samples. Among the 60 food services, 6.7% (95% CI: 2.7-10.6%) displayed at least one contaminated food in our sample. The occurrence of gluten contamination in naturally gluten-free preparations was uncommon and low on a quantitative basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11081924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6723046PMC
August 2019

Self-Reported Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity in Brazil: Translation, Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of Italian Questionnaire.

Nutrients 2019 Apr 4;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Biosciences and Celiac Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Brasilia, Brasilia 70910-900, Brazil.

This study aimed to translate, culturally adapt, validate, and apply a questionnaire to the Brazilian non-celiac gluten sensitive (NCGS) population. We also aimed to estimate the prevalence of symptoms which affect Brazilian NCGS. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the NCGS questionnaire was developed according to revised international guidelines. Five-hundred-and-fourty-three participants responded the NCGS questionnaire. We evaluated the reproducibility and validity of the questionnaire which presents valid measures of reproducibility. This is the first specific self-reported validated questionnaire for NCGS patients in Brazilian Portuguese, and the first nationwide characterization of self-reported NCGS in Brazilian adults. Most respondents were female (92.3%), and the main intestinal symptoms reported were bloating and abdominal pain. The most frequent extraintestinal symptoms were lack of wellbeing, tiredness, and depression. We expect that the present study will provide a picture of Brazilian individuals with suspected NCGS, which could help health professionals and governmental institutions in developing effective strategies to improve the treatment and diagnosis of Brazilian NCGS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11040781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6521116PMC
April 2019

Contrast-Enhanced Mammography (CEM) for Detecting Residual Disease after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Comparison with Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

Biomed Res Int 2018 8;2018:8531916. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

School of Medicine, University of Brasilia, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the performance of contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimating residual tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer.

Methods: The institutional review board approved this study. This prospective study included women with newly diagnosed breast cancer who underwent breast CEM and MRI at the end of the last cycle of NAC and before definitive surgery. Size of residual malignancy on post-NAC CEM and MRI was compared with surgical pathology. Agreements and correlations of CEM and MRI measurements with histological size were assessed.

Results: Thirty-three patients were included with a mean age of 45 years (range 22-76). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value for detection of residual disease of CEM were 76%, 87.5%, 95%, and 86.4%, and those of MRI were 92%, 75%, 92%, and 75%. Comparing CEM to MRI, the mean difference was -0.8 cm, concordance coefficient was 0.7, and Pearson correlation was 0.7 (p = 0.0003). The concordance coefficient between measurements of each imaging modality and pathologic tumor size was 0.7 for CEM and 0.4 for MRI. Pearson correlation was 0.8 for CEM and 0.5 for MRI. Mean differences between CEM, MRI, and residual histopathological tumor size were 0.8 cm and 1.8 cm, respectively.

Conclusions: CEM has good correlation and agreement with histopathology for measuring residual disease after NAC. CEM was comparable to MRI, showing high positive predictive value and specificity for detecting residual disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/8531916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6250019PMC
April 2019

Gluten-Free Diet: From Development to Assessment of a Check-List Designed for the Prevention of Gluten Cross-Contamination in Food Services.

Nutrients 2018 Sep 10;10(9). Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Brasilia (UnB), Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, Brasilia DF 70910-900, Brazil.

Gluten cross-contamination in gluten-free food may jeopardize treatment of celiac patients. Considering the deficit of appropriate instruments to enable the implementation of safe production practices for gluten-free food, this study aimed to evaluate the application of a check-list elaborated for gluten cross-contamination prevention in food services. The instrument was applied in 60 Brazilian food services. Interobserver reproducibility and internal consistency of the check-list were tested. A score classification was created for establishments according to the food contamination risk assessment. Subsequent to the application and statistical analysis, the original instrument was reduced to a 30-item check-list. In the reproducibility analysis, none of the 30 items showed significant divergence among the evaluators ( > 0.05 in the Cochran Q test). The 30-item version of the check-list presented Kuder⁻Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20) = 0.771, indicating good internal consistency. The proposed classification score is obtained by adding 1 point for each item with an "adequate" response; therefore, the final score may vary between 0 and 30 points. Establishments with up to 15 points exhibit risk of gluten contamination, while establishments with a score above 16 points exhibit low risk of contamination. The check-list displayed good reproducibility and internal consistency, suggesting that it could be a useful gluten contamination control instrument in food services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10091274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6165388PMC
September 2018

Quality of Life of Celiac Patients in Brazil: Questionnaire Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation.

Nutrients 2018 Aug 25;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 25.

Department of Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

(1) Background: Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune disorder. The manifestations of the disease and the obligatory life-long gluten-free diet (GFD) are associated with the impairment of patients' quality of life. Therefore, the present study aimed to translate, culturally adapt and validate a celiac disease quality of life (CD-QoL) questionnaire and apply it to a representative number of Brazilian CD patients. (2) Methods: A cross-cultural Brazilian-Portuguese version of the CD-QoL was developed according to revised international guidelines. The questionnaire was administered to 450 celiac patients. The reliability, reproducibility and validity were studied. (3) Results: The Brazilian CD-QoL questionnaire presents valid measures of reproducibility and internal consistency. Early diagnosis is related to higher scores of Brazilian CD-QoL social, sub- and total scale. There was a positive correlation between higher education level and higher QoL. Individuals with partners tend to have a better emotional subscale of QoL. CD-patients who follow a strict GFD have highest QoL scale values. Men scored higher than women on the CD-QoL. All results were statistically significant except for the gastrointestinal subscale. (4) Conclusions: Brazilian CD-QoL allows comparative research between different celiac populations in the world. QoL research will help in the development of effective strategies to improve Brazilian celiac patients' quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10091167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6164351PMC
August 2018

Frequency of HLA-DQ, susceptibility genotypes for celiac disease, in Brazilian newborns.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2018 09 16;6(5):779-784. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Research Center for Celiac Disease, School of Medicine, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

Background: The frequency of HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 predisposing genotypes for celiac disease (CD) has shown significant variation among different world regions and has not been previously determined among the highly interbred Brazilian population. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of these genotypes among Brazilian newborns (NB).

Methods: We typed DQA1*05 - DQB1*02 (DQ2.5) and DQA1*03 - DQB1*03:02 (DQ8) alleles in 329 NB using qPCR technique. Subsequently we confirmed our results by PCR-SSP using a reference kit which further identified DQ2.2 (DQA1*02:01 - DQB1*02).

Results: Among the 329 NB, using qPCR technique: 5 (1.52%) carried both DQ2.5 and DQ8 variants; 58 (17.63%) carried only DQ2.5 (DQA1*05 and DQB1*02) and 47 (14.29%) carried only the DQ8 (DQA1*03 and DQB1*03:02) variant. The use of the PCR-SSP method yielded further information; among the 329 samples: 34 (10.34%) tested positive for DQ2.2 and among the 47 previously DQ8 positives samples, we found 10 (3.04%) that also tested positives for DQ2.2.

Conclusion: 43.7% of the analyzed individual tested positive for at least one of the CD predisposing HLA-DQ genotypes in our group of Brazilian NB. The highest frequency was found for DQ2.5 positive subjects (17.6%) followed by DQ8 (11.3%); DQ2.2 (10.3%); DQ8 and DQ2.2 (3.0%); DQ2.5 and DQ8 (1.5%). We found no positive sample for DQ2.5 associated with DQ2.2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6160714PMC
September 2018

Molecular evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of phenolic lipid extracted from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL).

BMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Jun 11;18(1):181. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Biosciences and Celiac Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Brasilia, Asa Norte - CEP 70910900, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

Background: Anacardium occidentale L phenolic lipid (LDT11) is used in traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory, astringent, antidiarrheal, anti-asthmatic and depurative. Phenolic derivatives, such as anacardic acid, extracted from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) have demonstrated biological and pharmacological properties, and its profile makes it a candidate for the development of new anti-inflammatory agents. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory profile of a derivative, synthesized from LDT11, on an in vitro cellular model.

Methods: Organic synthesis of the phenolic derivative of CNSL that results in the hemi-synthetic compound LDT11. The cytotoxicity of the planned compound, LDT11, was analyzed in murine macrophages cell line, RAW264.7. The cells were previously treated with LDT11, and then, the inflammation was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in intervals of 6 h and 24 h. The analysis of the gene expression of inflammatory markers (TNFα, iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB, IL-1β and IL-6), nitric oxide (NO) dosage, and cytokine IL-6 were realized.

Results: The results showed that the phenolic derivative, LDT11, influenced the modulatory gene expression. The relative gene transcripts quantification demonstrated that the LDT11 disclosed an immunoprotective effect against inflammation by decreasing genes expression when compared with cells stimulated with LPS in the control group. The NO and IL-6 dosages confirmed the results found in gene expression.

Discussion: The present study evaluated the immunoprotective effect of LDT11. In addition to a significant reduction in the expression of inflammatory genes, LDT11 also had a faster and superior anti-inflammatory action than the commercial products, and its response was already evident in the test carried out six hours after the treatment of the cells.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated LDT11 is potentially valuable as a rapid immunoprotective anti-inflammatory agent. Treatment with LDT11 decreased the gene expression of inflammatory markers, and the NO, and IL-6 production. When compared to commercial drugs, LDT11 showed a superior anti-inflammatory action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2247-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996561PMC
June 2018

Rubella Seropositivity in Pregnant Women After Vaccination Campaign in Brazil's Federal District.

Viral Immunol 2017 11 3;30(9):675-677. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

2 Methodologies Applied to Infectious Diseases Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of Brasilia , Brasilia, Brazil .

Rubella is an acute viral disease that usually does not generate sequels; however, in pregnant women the infection can cause serious abnormalities to fetuses, which are collectively called congenital rubella syndrome. In Brazil, population immunization was started in 1992, but few epidemiological studies have been conducted to assess vaccination coverage and seroconversion since then. The aim of this work is to evaluate the seropositivity of pregnant women to rubella virus after vaccination campaign was carried out in 2008. Serological tests for rubella diagnosis were performed in 87 pregnant women who attended the University of Brasilia Hospital, Federal District, Brazil. Antirubella IgG antibodies were detected in 83 out of 87 pregnant women (95.4%), with an age-independent seroprevalence. Only one woman was positive in IgM serological tests. Our data suggest high levels of vaccination coverage and antirubella immunization in the Brazil Federal District population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2017.0012DOI Listing
November 2017

Endothelial dysfunction in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sept-Oct;61(5):476-483. Epub 2017 Jun 26.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Brasília, DF, Brasil.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of endothelial dysfunction and initial structural atherosclerotic changes in children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Subjects And Methods: The study population comprised 31 diabetic children aged 6 to 12 years, divided into two subgroups according to the duration of the T1DM diagnosis: subgroup 1, with less than 5 years elapsed since diagnosis, and subgroup 2, with more than 5 years elapsed since diagnosis. The control group comprised 58 age-matched healthy children. Ultrasonographic techniques were used to measure the flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries.

Results: Children with T1DM with longer disease duration showed significantly decreased mean values of FMD compared with those in the control group. No significant differences between the groups were found in relation to IMT. The FMD percentage presented a moderate negative correlation with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting glucose levels.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that endothelial dysfunction may be already present in children with 5 years or more elapsed since diagnosis, even in the absence of atherosclerotic structural changes. The decreased vasodilation response correlated with hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2359-3997000000271DOI Listing
February 2018

Content Validation and Semantic Evaluation of a Check-List Elaborated for the Prevention of Gluten Cross-Contamination in Food Services.

Nutrients 2017 Jan 6;9(1). Epub 2017 Jan 6.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Brasilia (UnB), Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, Brasilia DF 70910-900, Brazil.

Conditions associated to the consumption of gluten have emerged as a major health care concern and the treatment consists on a lifelong gluten-free diet. Providing safe food for these individuals includes adapting to safety procedures within the food chain and preventing gluten cross-contamination in gluten-free food. However, a gluten cross-contamination prevention protocol or check-list has not yet been validated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform the content validation and semantic evaluation of a check-list elaborated for the prevention of gluten cross-contamination in food services. The preliminary version of the check-list was elaborated based on the Brazilian resolution for food safety (RDC 216) and (RDC 275), the from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 22000) and the Canadian Celiac Association documents. Seven experts with experience in the area participated in the check-list validation and semantic evaluation. The criteria used for the approval of the items, as to their importance for the prevention of gluten cross-contamination and clarity of the wording, was the achievement of a minimal of 80% of agreement between the experts (W-values ≥ 0.8). Moreover, items should have a mean ≥4 in the evaluation of importance (Likert scale from 1 to 5) and clarity (Likert scale from 0 to 5) in order to be maintained in the instrument. The final version of the check-list was composed of 84 items, divided into 12 sections. After being redesigned and re-evaluated, the items were considered important and comprehensive by the experts (both with W-values ≥ 0.89). The check-list developed was validated with respect to content and approved in the semantic evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9010036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5295080PMC
January 2017

Presence of DQ2.2 Associated with DQ2.5 Increases the Risk for Celiac Disease.

Autoimmune Dis 2016 30;2016:5409653. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, University of Brasília School of Medicine, 70.900.910 Brasília, DF, Brazil; Research Laboratory for Celiac Disease, University of Brasília School of Medicine, 70.900.910 Brasília, DF, Brazil; Graduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Brasília School of Health Sciences, 70.900.910 Brasília, DF, Brazil; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Brasília School of Health Sciences, 70.900.910 Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Celiac disease (CD) is a genetically determined immune-mediated disorder in which gluten immunogenic peptides are presented to CD4 T cells by HLA-DQ2.5, DQ8, DQ2.2, and their combinations. Our aim is to establish a risk gradient for celiac disease based on HLA-DQ profile in a brazilian representative population and the relevance of DQ2.2 in celiac disease development. 237 celiac patients and 237 controls (both groups with 164 females and 73 males) were included. All samples were tested for the presence of predisposing HLA-DQ alleles using the PCR-SSP method. Results were considered significant when < 0.05. Disease risk was expressed as 1 :  for each HLA-DQ category described at this study. DQ2.5 and/or DQ8 were detected in 224 celiac patients (94.5%) and 84 controls (35.4%). Eight celiac patients (3.4%) and 38 controls (16%) disclosed only DQ2.2. Even though DQ2.2 (2/2 or 2/x) showed a low CD risk of 1 : 251 and 1 : 550, respectively, the genotype DQ2.5/DQ2.2 (2/2) showed high CD risk of 1 : 10 ( < 0.0001). The disease risk gradient ranged from 1 : 3014 to 1 : 7. Our study allowed the determination of a risk gradient for celiac disease development in at-risk population, showing that DQ2.2 variant was relevant when associated with DQ2.5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5409653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5155080PMC
November 2016

Toxocara spp. seroprevalence in pregnant women in Brasília, Brazil.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2016 Sep-Oct;49(5):641-643

Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Biociências, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.

Introduction:: The impact of gestational toxocariasis is an understudied topic on female reproductive health. We estimated anti-Toxocara IgG prevalence among pregnant women in Brasília, Brazil, and investigated the association of the infection with history of abortion and contact with pets.

Methods:: Infection was diagnosed using ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens. Participant information was obtained via questionnaires.

Results:: Of 311 pregnant women, 23 were anti-Toxocara IgG positive. Twenty-two percent of anti-Toxocara IgG-positive participants and 26% had previously miscarried. Previous contact with pets was associated with higher toxocariasis prevalence.

Conclusions:: A direct relationship between toxocariasis and contact with pets was observed, but there was no relationship with the miscarriage prevalence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0106-2016DOI Listing
December 2016

Serological prevalence of celiac disease in Brazilian population of multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and myelitis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2016 Sep 26;9:125-8. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Research Center on Chronic and Immunogenetic Diseases of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil. Electronic address:

Purpose: Comorbidity of celiac disease with demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system has been reported since the 1960s. The objective of this study was to determine the serological prevalence of celiac disease in the largest series of patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, or myelitis.

Methods: A prevalence study was conducted with patients evaluated at Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals between March 2012 and September 2013. They were previously diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, or idiopathic myelitis. The serum levels of antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and endomysium were assessed.

Results: Of the 379 patients evaluated, 249 (65.70%) were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, 37 (9.56%) with neuromyelitis optica, and 96 (24.54%) with idiopathic myelitis. Two patients (0.53%), one with multiple sclerosis and other with myelitis, tested positive for both antibodies.

Conclusion: Our study do not confirm the relationship between celiac serological antibodies with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and inflammatory myelitis of an unknown etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2016.07.018DOI Listing
September 2016

Gluten contamination in gluten-free bakery products: a risk for coeliac disease patients.

Public Health Nutr 2017 02 15;20(3):413-416. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

1Departamento de Nutrição, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde,Universidade de Brasília,Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro,Asa norte,70910-900 Brasília,DF,Brasil.

Objective: The present study aimed to assess the safety of gluten-free bakery products for consumption by coeliac patients. Design/setting In the current exploratory cross-sectional quantitative study, a total of 130 samples were collected from twenty-five bakeries in Brasilia (Brazil). For the quantification of gluten, an ELISA was used. The threshold of 20 ppm gluten was considered as the safe upper limit for gluten-free food, as proposed in the Codex Alimentarius.

Results: The results revealed a total of 21·5 % of contamination among the bakery products sampled. Sixty-four per cent of the bakeries sold at least one contaminated product in our sample.

Conclusions: These findings represent a risk for coeliac patients since the ingestion of gluten traces may be sufficient to adversely impact on their health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980016002433DOI Listing
February 2017

Activity of crude extracts from Brazilian cerrado plants against clinically relevant Candida species.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2016 Jul 11;16:203. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Biosciences, School of Medicine, Darcy Ribeiro Campus, University of Brasília, CEP 70.900.910, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Background: Medicinal plants have traditionally been used in many parts of the world as alternative medicine. Many extracts and essential oils isolated from plants have disclosed biological activity, justifying the investigation of their potential antimicrobial activity. In this study, the in vitro antifungal activity of six Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plant species were evaluated against clinically relevant Candida species.

Methods: The crude extract plants were evaluated against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) standard strains of Candida spp. using disk diffusion method and determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The chemical study results were confirmed by HPLC method.

Results: All six plant species showed antifungal activity. Among the species studied, Eugenia dysenterica and Pouteria ramiflora showed significant inhibitory activity against C. tropicalis at lowest MIC value of 125 and 500 μg/disc, respectively. The Eugenia dysenterica also disclosed MIC value of 125 μg/disc against C. famata, 250 μg/disc against C. krusei and 500 μg/disc against C. guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis. Pouteria torta, Bauhinia rufa, Erythroxylum daphnites and Erythroxylum subrotundum showed activity against the yeast strains with MIC value of 1000 μg/disc. The chemical study of the most bioactive extracts of Eugenia dysenterica and Pouteria ramiflora revealed catechin derivatives and flavonoids as main components.

Conclusions: All six evaluated plant species showed good antifungal potential against several Candida strains. However, E .dysenterica and P. ramiflora showed the higher inhibitory effect against the non-albicans Candida species. Our results may contribute to the continuing search of new natural occurring products with antifungal activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1164-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4940766PMC
July 2016

Simplifying celiac disease predisposing HLA-DQ alleles determination by the real time PCR method.

Arq Gastroenterol 2015 Apr-Jun;52(2):143-6

Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Background: Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Genetic susceptibility is associated with two sets of alleles, DQA1*05 - DQB1*02 and DQA1*03 - DQB1*03:02, which code for class II MHC DQ2 and DQ8 molecules, respectively. Approximately 90%-95% of celiac patients are HLA-DQ2 positive, and half of the remaining patients are HLA-DQ8 positive. In fact, during a celiac disease diagnostic workup, the absence of these specific DQA and DQB alleles has a near perfect negative predictive value.

Objective: Improve the detection of celiac disease predisposing alleles by combining the simplicity and sensitivity of real-time PCR (qPCR) and melting curve analysis with the specificity of sequence-specific primers (SSP).

Methods: Amplifications of sequence-specific primers for DQA1*05 (DQ2), DQB1*02 (DQ2), and DQA1*03 (DQ8) were performed by the real time PCR method to determine the presence of each allele in independent reactions. Primers for Human Growth Hormone were used as an internal control. A parallel PCR-SSP protocol was used as a reference method to validate our results.

Results: Both techniques yielded equal results. From a total of 329 samples the presence of HLA predisposing alleles was determined in 187 (56.8%). One hundred fourteen samples (61%) were positive for a single allele, 68 (36.3%) for two alleles, and only 5 (2.7%) for three alleles.

Conclusion: Results obtained by qPCR technique were highly reliable with no discordant results when compared with those obtained using PCR-SSP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-28032015000200013DOI Listing
January 2016

Hyper-responsiveness to acute stress, emotional problems and poorer memory in former preterm children.

Stress 2014 Sep;17(5):389-99

Department of Cognitive Psychology, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Ruhr-University Bochum , Bochum , Germany .

The prevalence of preterm birth (PTB) is high worldwide, especially in developing countries like Brazil. PTB is marked by a stressful environment in intra- as well as extrauterine life, which can affect neurodevelopment and hormonal and physiological systems and lead to long-term negative outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about PTB and related outcomes later on in childhood. Thus, the goals of the current study were threefold: (1) comparing cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) profiles, including cortisol awakening response (CAR), between preterm and full-term children; (2) evaluating whether preterm children are more responsive to acute stress and (3) assessing their memory skills and emotional and behavioral profiles. Basal cortisol and sAA profiles, including CAR of 30 preterm children, aged 6 to 10 years, were evaluated. Further, we assessed memory functions using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and we screened behavior/emotion using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results of preterm children were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. One week later, participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor [Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)], in which cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline, 1, 10 and 25 min after stressor exposure. Preterm children had higher cortisol concentrations at awakening, a flattened CAR and an exaggerated response to TSST-C compared to full-term children. These alterations were more pronounced in girls. In addition, preterm children were characterized by more emotional problems and poorer memory performance. Our findings illustrate the long-lasting and in part sex-dependent effects of PTB on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, internalizing behavior and memory. The findings are in line with the idea that early adversity alters the set-point of the HPA axis, thereby creating a more vulnerable phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10253890.2014.949667DOI Listing
September 2014

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy has no higher costs than ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2014 Jul;72(7):524-7

Departamento de Pediatria, Universidade de Brasília, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the cost of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) compared to ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) in the treatment of hydrocephalus in children.

Method: We studied 103 children with hydrocephalus, 52 of which were treated with ETV and 51 with VPS in a prospective cohort. Treatment costs were compared within the first year after surgery, including subsequent surgery or hospitalization.

Results: Twenty (38.4%) of the 52 children treated with VPS needed another procedure due to shunt failure, compared to 11 (21.5%) of 51 children in the ETV group. The average costs per patient in the group treated with ETV was USD$ 2,177,66±517.73 compared to USD$ 2,890.68±2,835.02 for the VPS group.

Conclusions: In this series there was no significant difference in costs between the ETV and VPS groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0004-282x20140070DOI Listing
July 2014

Screening for celiac disease in 1st degree relatives: a 10-year follow-up study.

BMC Gastroenterol 2014 Feb 20;14:36. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

Graduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Brasilia School of Health Sciences, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

Background: Although it is known that first degree relatives of celiac patients have an increased risk for celiac disease few studies are available on its incidence. We investigated the incidence of serologic conversion and of new cases of celiac disease among first degree relatives with negative results at a first screening.

Methods: From a total of 634 first degree relatives of 186 biopsy-proven celiac disease patients diagnosed between October 2000 and October 2010, 450 subjects agreed to participate in the study (Group I), and underwent serologic screening. Between January 2010 and October 2012, out of the initial group of 450, 205 previously sero-negative subjects consented to participate in a second stage of the study and undergo new serologic testing (Group II). All serologically positive individuals of both groups (I and II) were genotyped for celiac disease-predisposing alleles (HLA-DQ2/DQ8).

Results: 19 subjects (4.2%) out of the 450 subjects of Group I disclosed positive serologic results, presence of DQ2 and/or DQ8 alleles and celiac disease-compatible mucosal abnormalities. The 205 previously negative first degree relatives from Group II that underwent new serologic testing disclosed eight sero-converted subjects. Mucosal abnormalities in five of these patients confirmed the diagnosis of celiac disease. During the 10-year period of the study the incidence of sero-conversion was 8/205 and the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease cases was 5/205.

Conclusions: Our data are coincident with other works on this subject and confirm once again that relatives of celiac patients, especially first degree relatives are at high risk of developing celiac disease. In view of the relatively low incidence further studies are needed to try to establish a useful and cost-effective algorithm for follow-up of relatives of celiac patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-230X-14-36DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3941942PMC
February 2014

Fine mapping of the celiac disease-associated LPP locus reveals a potential functional variant.

Hum Mol Genet 2014 May 11;23(9):2481-9. Epub 2013 Dec 11.

Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30001, Groningen 9700 RB, The Netherlands.

Using the Immunochip for genotyping, we identified 39 non-human leukocyte antigen (non-HLA) loci associated to celiac disease (CeD), an immune-mediated disease with a worldwide frequency of ∼1%. The most significant non-HLA signal mapped to the intronic region of 70 kb in the LPP gene. Our aim was to fine map and identify possible functional variants in the LPP locus. We performed a meta-analysis in a cohort of 25 169 individuals from six different populations previously genotyped using Immunochip. Imputation using data from the Genome of the Netherlands and 1000 Genomes projects, followed by meta-analysis, confirmed the strong association signal on the LPP locus (rs2030519, P = 1.79 × 10(-49)), without any novel associations. The conditional analysis on this top SNP-indicated association to a single common haplotype. By performing haplotype analyses in each population separately, as well as in a combined group of the four populations that reach the significant threshold after correction (P < 0.008), we narrowed down the CeD-associated region from 70 to 2.8 kb (P = 1.35 × 10(-44)). By intersecting regulatory data from the ENCODE project, we found a functional SNP, rs4686484 (P = 3.12 × 10(-49)), that maps to several B-cell enhancer elements and a highly conserved region. This SNP was also predicted to change the binding motif of the transcription factors IRF4, IRF11, Nkx2.7 and Nkx2.9, suggesting its role in transcriptional regulation. We later found significantly low levels of LPP mRNA in CeD biopsies compared with controls, thus our results suggest that rs4686484 is the functional variant in this locus, while LPP expression is decreased in CeD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddt619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3976328PMC
May 2014

Decreased prevalence of celiac disease among Brazilian elderly.

World J Gastroenterol 2013 Mar;19(12):1930-5

Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, University of Brasilia School of Medicin, Brasilia DF 70910900, Brazil.

Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of celiac disease in a group of Brazilian individuals over 60 years of age and compare it with the previously known prevalence in a pediatric group living in the same geographical area.

Methods: The research protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Brasilia School of Medicine, Brasilia, Brazil. Blood samples from 946 individuals (295 male and 651 female) aged 60 years or older were collected between May 2010 and July 2011. The study subjects' mean and median ages were 68.1 and 67 years, respectively, ranging from 60 to 92 years. That age distribution closely corresponded to the age distribution of the Brazilian population according to the Brazilian 2010 census. The participants were consecutive and unselected outpatients undergoing blood tests at the University of Brasilia Hospital's Clinical Pathology Laboratory. All sera were tested for immunoglobulin A anti-transglutaminase antibodies (IgA-tTG) by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay, and those that were positive were further tested for immunoglobulin A anti-endomysium antibodies (IgA-EMA). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping was performed for all individuals who exhibited positive serologic results for IgA-tTG and/or IgA-EMA.

Results: Out of the 946 studied patients, only one previously diagnosed case of biopsy-proven celiac disease was detected. For the remaining subjects, nine serum samples tested positive for IgA-tTG antibodies; however, none of them tested positive for IgA-EMA antibodies. The HLA genotyping of those nine subjects revealed that one was carrying DQA1*0501 and two were carrying DQB1*0201 alleles. These data showed that, among those 946 elderly individuals, the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) was 0.1% (95%CI: 0.00-0.59). The prevalence of CD for the elderly group was compared with that observed for the group of 2034 children younger than 15 years (age range, 1-14 years; mean age, 8 years) who took part in our previous CD prevalence screening study. All the children came from the same geographical region and shared a similar ethnic and low-income background. As in the elderly group in the current study, the younger group was made up of consecutive outpatients who underwent blood evaluation at the University of Brasilia Hospital's Clinical Laboratory. The prevalence of biopsy-proven CD among those children was 0.54% (95%CI: 0.27-0.57). The comparative analysis between the two groups resulted in the following values: odds ratio = 0.19 (95%CI: 0.01-1.45) Fisher test P = 0.06.

Conclusion: The prevalence of CD among the children of our previous study was 5.4 times higher than that found in the present elderly group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v19.i12.1930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3613108PMC
March 2013

Evaluation of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in Callithrix penicillata primates living in their natural habitat in Brazil.

J Med Primatol 2012 Dec 18;41(6):364-71. Epub 2012 Oct 18.

Primatology Center, Institute of Biology, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil.

Background: Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone with important roles in the control of bone and mineral metabolism of vertebrates and in the maintenance of systemic homeostasis. This study aimed (i) to evaluate the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels [25(OH)D], parathyroid hormone (PTH) and ionized calcium (iCa) of wild Callithrix penicillata (black-tufted marmosets) and (ii) to propose reference ranges for those analytes for free-living marmosets.

Methods: Blood samples were collected from 15 wild animals and analyzed for 25(OH)D, PTH and iCa. Reference values were calculated following standard analytical criteria.

Results: The observed mean serum levels (±standard deviation) were 25(OH)D, 61.7 (±20.8) ng/ml; PTH, 275.2 (±34.1) pg/ml; iCai 4.0 (±0.6) mg/dl.

Conclusions: For free-living marmosets, the proposed physiological range for 25(OH)D is 20.1-103.3 ng/ml and for PTH is 207.0-343.3 pg/dl, with a confidence interval of 95%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jmp.12021DOI Listing
December 2012