Publications by authors named "Riccardo Autorino"

457 Publications

Contemporary Trends of Systemic Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Intravesical Chemotherapy in Patients With Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas Undergoing Minimally Invasive or Open Radical Nephroureterectomy: Analysis of US Claims on Perioperative Outcomes and Health Care Costs.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2021 Dec 24. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Department of Urology, Stanford Medical Center, Stanford, CA.

Introduction: New evidence indicates that minimally invasive surgery (MIS) (laparoscopic or robotic-assisted [LNU, RANU]) reaches oncologic equivalence compared with Open Radical Nephroureterectomy (ORNU) for high-risk upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Recently, European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines suggested implementing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to standard treatment to improve oncologic outcomes of high-risk UTUC. We aimed (1) To explore contemporary trends of MIS for RNU in the United States and to compare perioperative outcomes and costs with that of ORNU. (2) To determine the trends of NAC and postoperative intravesical chemotherapy (PIC) administration for high-risk UTUC and to assess their contribution to perioperative outcomes and costs.

Patients And Methods: The Optum Clinformatics Data Mart de-identified database was queried from 2003 to 2018 to retrospectively examine patients who had undergone LNU/RANU or ORNU with or without NAC and PIC. We evaluated temporal adoption trends, complications, and health care cost analyses. We obtained descriptive statistics and utilized multivariable regression modeling to assess outcomes.

Results: A total of n = 492 ORNU and n = 1618 LNU/RANU procedures were reviewed. The MIS approach was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of intraoperative complications (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR], 0.48, 95% CI:0.24-0.96), risk of hospitalization costs (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI:0.49-0.78), and shorter hospital stay (aOR: 0.20, 95% CI:0.15-0.26) when compared to ORNU. Overall, adoption of NAC and PIC accounted for only n = 81 and n < 37 cases respectively. The implementation of NAC and higher number of cycles were associated with an increased probability of any complication rate (aOR: 2.06, 95% CI:1.26-3.36) and hospital costs (aOR: 2.12, 95% CI:1.33-3.38).

Conclusion: MIS has become the approach of choice for RNU in the US. Although recommended by guidelines, neither NAC nor postoperative bladder instillation of chemotherapy has been routinely incorporated into the clinical practice of patients with UTUC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2021.11.016DOI Listing
December 2021

Robotic vs laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma: a multicenter propensity-score matched pair "tetrafecta" analysis (ROBUUST collaborative group).

J Endourol 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Changhai hospital, the second military medical university, the department of Urology, Changhai Road NO. 163, Shanghai, Shanghai, China, 200433;

Purpose: To compare the outcomes of robotic radical nephroureterectomy (RRNU) and laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy (LRNU) within a large multi-institutional worldwide dataset.

Material And Methods: The ROBotic surgery for Upper tract Urothelial cancer STudy (ROBUUST) includes data from 17 centers worldwide regarding 877 RRNU and LRNU performed between 2015 and 2019. Baseline features, perioperative and oncological outcomes, were included. A 2:1 nearest-neighbor propensity-score matching with a 0.001 caliper was performed. An univariable and a multivariable logistic regression model were built to evaluate the predictors of a composite "tetrafecta" outcome defined as occurrence of bladder cuff excision + LND + no complications + negative surgical margins.

Results: After matching, 185 RRNU and 91 LRNU were assessed. Patients in the RRNU group were more likely to undergo bladder cuff excision (81.9% vs 63.7%; p<0.001) compared to the LRNU group. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of overall postoperative complications (p=0.003) and length of stay (p<0.001) in favor of RRNU. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that LRNU was an independent predictor negatively associated with achievement of "tetrafecta" (OR: 0.09; p=0.003).

Conclusions: In general, RRNU and LRNU offer comparable outcomes. While the rate of overall complications is higher for LRNU in this study population, this is mostly related to low grade complications, and therefore with more limited clinical relevance. RRNU seems to offer shorter hospital stay but this might also be related to the different geographical location of participating centers. Overall, the implementation of robotics might facilitate achievement of a "tetrafecta" outcome as defined in the present study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2021.0587DOI Listing
January 2022

PSA and PSA Kinetics as Predictors for 18F-Fluciclovine PET/CT Positivity in Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer.

Urol Int 2021 Dec 21:1-8. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Department of Urology, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy.

Introduction: 18F-Fluciclovine PET/CT is one of the imaging techniques currently employed to restage prostate cancer (PCa). Due to the conflicting results reported in the literature, it is not yet known at what PSA threshold 18F-fluciclovine PET/CT could reliably demonstrate the presence of recurring disease. We explored the association between 18F-fluciclovine PET/CT positivity and prescan PSA, PSA doubling time, and PSA velocity in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of PCa after curative-intent treatment.

Methods: Data from 59 patients who underwent 18F-fluciclovine PET/CT for BCR after radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy were retrieved from a single institution database. Patients already undergone salvage treatments at the time of PET/CT, with newly diagnosed PCa or with initial diagnosis of metastatic PCa were excluded. A 2-sided independent samples Bayesian t test and Bayesian Mann-Whitney U test were used to assess the association between PET/CT and prescan PSA, PSA doubling time, and PSA velocity.

Results: Evidence for no difference between PET/CT-positive and -negative patients for log-transformed PSA was found (BF01 3.61, % error: 0.01). Robustness check and sequential analysis showed stability across a wide range of prior distribution specifications. The hypothesis of no difference in terms of PSA-dt and for PSA-vel between groups was found to be more likely compared to the alternative hypothesis (BF01 of 3.44 and 3.48, respectively).

Conclusion: PSA and PSA kinetics are unlikely to be associated with 18F-fluciclovine PET/CT positivity in patients with BCR, and none of these serum biomarkers might be used as single predictors of PET/CT detection. Larger studies might be needed to evaluate the role of different predictors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000520684DOI Listing
December 2021

The battle of mini-invasiveness in the treatment of large prostate glands.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Oct;73(5):689-690

VCU Health, Richmond, VA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04723-6DOI Listing
October 2021

New Ultra-minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Comparative Outcomes.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2021 Nov 22;33:28-41. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Context: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is diagnosed in up to 80% of men during their lifetime. Several novel ultra-minimally invasive surgical treatments (uMISTs) for BPH/benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) have become available over the past 5 yr.

Objective: To evaluate the perioperative and functional outcomes of recently introduced uMISTs for BPH/BPO, including Urolift, Rezūm, temporary implantable nitinol device, prostatic artery embolization (PAE), and intraprostatic injection.

Evidence Acquisition: A systematic literature search was conducted in December 2020 using Medline (via PubMed), Embase (via Ovid), Scopus, and Web of Science (registered on PROSPERO as CRD42021225014). The search strategy used PICO criteria and article selection was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The risk of bias and the quality of the articles included were assessed. A dedicated data extraction form was used to collect the data of interest. Pooled and cumulative analyses were performed to compare perioperative and functional outcomes between study groups. A random-effects model using the DerSimonian and Laird method was used to evaluate heterogeneity. Stata version 15.0 software was used for all statistical analyses.

Evidence Synthesis: The initial electronic search identified 3978 papers, of which 48 ultimately met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Pooled analysis revealed a uMIST benefit in terms of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS; -9.81 points, 95% confidence interval [CI] -11.37 to -8.25 at 1 mo; -13.13 points, 95% CI -14.98 to -11.64 at 12 mo), maximum flow rate (from +3.66 ml/s, 95% CI 2.8-4.5 to +4.14 ml/s, 95% CI 0.72-7.56 at 12 mo), and postvoid residual volume (-10.10 ml, 95% CI -27.90 to 7.71 at 12 mo). No negative impact was observed on scores for the International Index of Erectile Function-5, Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculatory Dysfunction bother and function scales (overall postintervention change in pooled median score of 1.88, 95% CI 1.34-2.42 at the start of follow-up; and 1.04, 95% CI 0.28-1.8 after 1 yr), or the IPSS-Quality of Life questionnaire.

Conclusions: Novel uMISTs can yield fast and effective relief of LUTS without affecting patient quality of life. Only Rezūm, UroLift, and PAE had a minimal impact on patients' sexual function with respect to baseline, especially regarding preservation of ejaculation.

Patient Summary: We reviewed outcomes for recently introduced ultra-minimally invasive surgical treatments for patients with lower urinary tract symptoms caused by benign prostate enlargement or obstruction. The evidence suggests that these novel techniques are beneficial in terms of controlling symptoms while preserving sexual function.

Take Home  Message: Novel ultra-minimally invasive treatments can yield fast and effective relief of lower urinary tract symptoms without affecting a patient's quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2021.08.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473553PMC
November 2021

Warm ischemia time length during on-clamp partial nephrectomy: dose it really matter?

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Urology, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The impact of warm ischemia time (WIT) on renal functional recovery remains controversial. We examined the length of WIT >30 min. on the long-term renal function following on-clamp partial nephrectomy (PN).

Methods: Data from 23 centers for patients undergoing on-clamp PN between 2000 and 2018 were analyzed. We included patients with two kidneys, single tumor, cT1, minimum 1-year followup, and preoperative eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2. Patients were divided into two groups according to WIT length: group Ⅰ "WIT ≤30 min." and group Ⅱ "WIT >30 min.". A propensity-score matched analysis (1:1 match) was performed to eliminate potential confounding factors between groups. We compared eGFR values, eGFR (%) preservation, eGFR decline, events of chronic kidney disease (CKD) upgrading, and CKD-free progression rates between both groups. Cox regression analysis evaluated WIT impact on upgrading of CKD stages.

Results: The primary cohort consisted of 3526 patients: group Ⅰ (n=2868) and group Ⅱ (n=658). After matching the final cohort consisted of 344 patients in each group. At last followup, there were no significant differences in median eGFR values at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years (P>0.05) between the matched groups. In addition, the median eGFR (%) preservation and absolute eGFR change were similar (89% in group Ⅰ vs. 87% in group Ⅱ, p=0.638) and (-10 in group Ⅰ vs. -11 in group Ⅱ, p=0.577), respectively. The 5 years new-onset CKD-free progression rates were comparable in the non-matched groups (79% in group Ⅰ vs. 81% in group Ⅱ, log-rank, p=0.763) and the matched groups (78.8% in group Ⅰ vs. 76.3% in group Ⅱ, log-rank, p=0.905). Univariable Cox regression analysis showed that WIT >30 min. was not a predictor of overall CKD upgrading (HR:0.953, 95%CI 0.829-1.094, p=0.764) nor upgrading into CKD stage ≥Ⅲ (HR:0.972, 95%CI 0.805-1.173, p=0.764). Retrospective design is a limitation of our study.

Conclusions: Our analysis based on a large multicenter international cohort study suggests that WIT length during PN has no effect on the long-term renal function outcomes in patients having two kidneys and preoperative eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04466-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Contemporary management of benign uretero-enteric strictures after cystectomy: a systematic review.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Urology Department, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Uretero-enteric stricture (UES) is a common post-operative complication after radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. The aim of this systematic review is to discuss the contemporary management of benign UES after cystectomy and to compare the different surgical approaches.

Evidence Acquisition: A systematic review was performed from January 2000 through January 2021. Search engines used included PubMed, Embase and Medline databases. Search query was: ((ureteroileal OR uretero-ileal OR ureteroenteric OR ureteroenteric) AND (stricture OR stenosis)) AND (management OR treatment). Study selection followed the PRISMA statement. Studies tackling management of UES, either through open, endoscopic, laparoscopic or robot-assisted approaches, were included in our systematic review.

Evidence Synthesis: Forty-one studies were finally included in this systematic review. No prospective studies were found; all included studies were retrospective. Open surgical repair had a 78-100% success rate, a significant rate of complications, and a low recurrence rate (6-8%). Endourological management decreased complication rate, length-of-stay, and blood loss, with however lower success (15-50%) and higher recurrence rates (62%-91%) compared to open surgery. Robotic assisted surgery showed comparable success rates to open surgery (80-100%), while limiting the number of major complications and hospital length-of-stay.

Conclusions: Surgical management of UES remains challenging. Open surgery maintains a role given its high success rate, at the cost however of a significant morbidity. On the other hand, endourological procedures offer a favorable and low complication risk, but a low long-term success rate. Robotic-assisted surgery is emerging with a valid resolution of UES as it offers comparable success rates to an open approach, while reducing surgical morbidity. Head-to-head comparisons are awaited to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04463-3DOI Listing
July 2021

A risk-group classification model in patients with bladder cancer under neoadjuvant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy.

Future Oncol 2021 Oct 19;17(30):3987-3994. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Urology, Humanitas Gavazzeni, Bergamo, Italy.

The objective of the current research was to explore the potential prognostic value of readily available clinical and pathologic variables in bladder cancer. The novel association found between cholesterol levels and prognosis may provide the rationale for exploring novel treatments. Patients included had histologically confirmed urothelial bladder cancer and were treated with at least 3 cycles of cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy before radical cystectomy with lymphadenectomy. A total of 245 patients at low, intermediate and high risk, presenting with 0-1, 2 or 3-4 risk factors, including positive lymph nodes, Hb <12.8, NLR ≥2.7 and cholesterol levels ≥199, were included. Five-year cancer-specific survival rate was 0.67, 0.78 and 0.94 at high, intermediate and low risk, respectively. Total cholesterol levels at the time of cystectomy may represent a commonly assessable prognostic factor and may be incorporated in a clinically meaningful risk-group classification model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-1298DOI Listing
October 2021

Neutrophil percentage-to-albumin ratio predicts mortality in bladder cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy.

Future Sci OA 2021 Aug 20;7(7):FSO709. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Emergency & Organ Transplantation-Urology, Andrology & Kidney Transplantation Unit, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Aim: To investigate the prognostic role of neutrophil percentage-to-albumin ratio (NPAR) in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and radical cystectomy (RC).

Patients & Methods: 213 patients were included.

Inclusion Criteria: Nonmetastatic, MIBC (cT2-T4aN0M0), at least three cycles of NAC, undergone RC and with blood count within 30 days before NAC.

Results: Five-years overall survival (OS) with NPAR >18 was 34.06% (95% CI: 18.3-50.5) and 65.37% (95% CI: 52.4-75.6) with NPAR <18. Five years cancer-specific survival (CSS) with NPAR >18 was 42.9% (95% CI: 23.9-60.7) and 74.5% (95% CI: 62.6-83.1) with NPAR <18 (p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, NPAR increased OS of 1.3 points and CSS of 4.37 points.

Conclusion: High NPAR prior to NAC seems to be a strong predictor of OS and CSS in MIBC patients treated with NAC and RC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2144/fsoa-2021-0008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256323PMC
August 2021

Risk factors and preventive strategies for unintentionally retained surgical sharps: a systematic review.

Patient Saf Surg 2021 Jul 12;15(1):24. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, VCU Health, Richmond, VA, 23298-0118, USA.

Background: A retained surgical item (RSI) is defined as a never-event and can have drastic consequences on patient, provider, and hospital. However, despite increased efforts, RSI events remain the number one sentinel event each year. Hard foreign bodies (e.g. surgical sharps) have experienced a relative increase in total RSI events over the past decade. Despite this, there is a lack of literature directed towards this category of RSI event. Here we provide a systematic review that focuses on hard RSIs and their unique challenges, impact, and strategies for prevention and management.

Methods: Multiple systematic reviews on hard RSI events were performed and reported using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and AMSTAR (Assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews) guidelines. Database searches were limited to the last 10 years and included surgical "sharps," a term encompassing needles, blades, instruments, wires, and fragments. Separate systematic review was performed for each subset of "sharps". Reviewers applied reciprocal synthesis and refutational synthesis to summarize the evidence and create a qualitative overview.

Results: Increased vigilance and improved counting are not enough to eliminate hard RSI events. The accurate reporting of all RSI events and near miss events is a critical step in determining ways to prevent RSI events. The implementation of new technologies, such as barcode or RFID labelling, has been shown to improve patient safety, patient outcomes, and to reduce costs associated with retained soft items, while magnetic retrieval devices, sharp detectors and computer-assisted detection systems appear to be promising tools for increasing the success of metallic RSI recovery.

Conclusion: The entire healthcare system is negatively impacted by a RSI event. A proactive multimodal approach that focuses on improving team communication and institutional support system, standardizing reports and implementing new technologies is the most effective way to improve the management and prevention of RSI events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13037-021-00297-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276389PMC
July 2021

Robotic radical cystectomy with concomitant implantation of 3-piece penile prosthesis: a one-step solution.

Ther Adv Urol 2021 Jan-Dec;13:17562872211024512. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Uro-Gynecological Department, Fondazione "G. Pascale" IRCCS, Naples, Campania, Italy.

Radical cystectomy (RC) remains a highly morbid urologic procedure, and erectile dysfunction (ED) represents a significant burden for bladder cancer survivors. While inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) offers a definitive treatment option for post-RC ED, the hostile postoperative anatomy of RC patients poses some technical challenges for IPP implantation. We report the case of a 54-year-old male with high grade bladder cancer who was managed with a robotic-assisted RC with Bricker ileal conduit urinary diversion and simultaneous implantation of a 3-piece IPP. Operative time was 310 min (230 min for the RC and ileal conduit portion, 80 min for IPP implantation). Estimated blood loss was 300 ml. Postoperative course was regular. The patient was discharged home on postoperative day 6. A robotic RC with concomitant IPP implantation can be offered as "one-step" solution to bladder cancer male patients. This approach can potentially offer the advantage of better outcome in terms of sexual function, while minimizing surgical risks, ultimately improving the quality of life of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17562872211024512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209785PMC
June 2021

Increased Body Mass Index Is a Risk Factor for Poor Clinical Outcomes after Radical Prostatectomy in Men with International Society of Urological Pathology Grade Group 1 Prostate Cancer Diagnosed with Systematic Biopsies.

Urol Int 2022 24;106(1):75-82. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation-Urology, Andrology and Kidney Transplantation Unit, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Introduction: The association between obesity and clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa) is still a matter of debate. In this study, we evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the prediction of pathological unfavorable disease (UD), positive surgical margins (PSMs), and biochemical recurrence (BCR) in patients with clinically localized (≤cT2c) International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade group 1 PCa at biopsy.

Methods: 427 patients with ISUP grade group 1 PCa who have undergone radical prostatectomy and BMI evaluation were included. The outcome of interest was the presence of UD (defined as ISUP grade group ≥3 and pT ≥3a), PSM, and BCR.

Results: Statistically significant differences resulted in comparing BMI with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone levels (both p < 0.0001). Patients with UD and PSM had higher BMI values (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.006, respectively). BCR-free survival was significantly decreased in patients with higher BMI values (p < 0.0001). BMI was an independent risk factor for BCR and PSM. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis testing PSA accuracy in different BMI groups, showed that PSA had a reduced predictive value (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.535; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.422-0.646), in obese men compared to overweight (AUC = 0.664; 95% CI = 0.598-0.725) and normal weight patients (AUC = 0.721; 95% CI = 0.660-0.777).

Conclusion: Our findings show that increased BMI is a significant predictor of UD and PSM at RP in patients with preoperative low-to intermediate-risk diseases, suggesting that BMI evaluation may be useful in a clinical setting to identify patients with favorable preoperative disease characteristics harboring high-risk PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516680DOI Listing
June 2021

Risk factors for progression of chronic kidney disease after robotic partial nephrectomy in elderly patients: results from a multi-institutional collaborative series.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Urology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.

Background: Robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) in patients ≥75 years is certainly underused with concerns regarding surgical quality and a negligible impact on renal function. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of progression of chronic kidney disease for purely off-clamp (ocRPN) and on-clamp RPN (onRPN) in elderly patients on a multi-institutional series.

Methods: A collaborative minimally-invasive renal surgery dataset was queried for "RPN" performed between July 2007 and March 2021 and "age≥75 years". A total of 205 patients matched the inclusion criteria. Descriptive analyses were used. Frequencies and proportions were reported for categorical variables while medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) were reported for continuous variables. Baseline, perioperative and functional data were compared between groups. New-onset of stages 3b,4,5 CKD in onRPN and ocRPN cohorts was computed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of progression to severe CKD (sCKD [stages ≥3b]). For all statistical analyses, a two-sided p < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Mean age of the cohort considered was 78 years (IQR 76-80). At a median follow-up of 29 months (IQR 14.5-44.5), new onset CKD-3b and CKD-4,5 stages was observed in 16.6% and 2.4% of patients, respectively. At Kaplan-Meier analysis, onRPN was associated with a significantly higher risk of developing sCKD (p=0.002). On multivariable analysis, hypertension (HR 2.64; 95% CI 1.14-6.11; p=0.023), on-clamp approach (HR 3.41; 95% CI 1.50-7.74; p=0.003) non-achievement of trifecta (HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.17-0.78; p=0.01) were independent predictors of sCKD.

Conclusions: RPN in patients≥75 years is a safe surgical option. On-clamp approach, hypertension and non-achievement of trifecta were independent predictors of sCKD in the elderly after RPN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04469-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Risks and Benefits of Live Surgical Broadcast: A Systematic Review.

Eur Urol Focus 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Division of Urology, VCU Health, Richmond, VA, USA. Electronic address:

Context: Live surgical broadcast (LSB), also known as live surgery, has become a popular format for many types of surgical education meetings. However, concerns have been raised in relation to patient safety, ethical issues, and the actual educational value of LSB.

Objective: To summarize current evidence on LSB with a focus on the risks of complications and the educational impact.

Evidence Acquisition: We performed a systematic review of the literature according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to identify studies up to December 2020. We identified original articles reporting on patient outcomes, educational value, current use, and development of LSB. We also interrogated surgical society guidelines for position statements on LSB.

Evidence Synthesis: Our literature search identified 46 studies spanning six surgical specialties, with urology being the most frequent. Approximately half of the studies reported on outcomes of surgical procedures during LSB. In urology, the few comparative studies available did not suggest higher complication rates in LSB, whereas data for other surgical fields highlighted evidence of worse outcomes. Four studies assessed the educational value of LSB via survey administration, for which the evidence is limited and of low quality. Thirteen guidelines and position statements on live surgery were identified among major surgical societies, including the European Association of Urology (EAU). Some surgical societies have expressly prohibited the use of LSB at their major meetings. The perspective of surgeons performing and/or attending live surgical sessions was evaluated in six studies, and four studies looked at urologists' perception of LSB compared to semi-LSB. Limitations of this systematic review include the limited number of studies available, the low quality of the evidence, and data heterogeneity.

Conclusions: Evidence regarding outcomes of LSB is limited. Almost all the studies do not show a higher risk of complications or worse outcomes for patients undergoing a procedure during LSB. Only one study on gastrointestinal surgery reported that LSB outcomes were worse. Ongoing concerns have led to specific guidelines by several scientific societies, including the EAU, with the ultimate aim of minimizing surgical risks and maximizing patient safety.

Patient Summary: Live surgery events are often part of surgical conferences. Data in the literature show mixed outcomes for operations performed during live surgery events, but with no increase in complication rates. Safety and ethical concerns remain. Other educational tools, such as prerecorded videos and live surgery transmission from the home institution of the operating surgeon might become preferred options in the future. This review was prospectively registered on the PROSPERO website (www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO, registration number CRD42020194023).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2021.06.003DOI Listing
June 2021

Senescence in prostate cancer: is there sufficient evidence to move forward?

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Aug 11;73(4):421-423. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04525-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Robot-Assisted Ureteral Reimplantation: A Single-Center Comparative Study.

J Endourol 2021 Oct;35(10):1504-1511

Division of Urology, VCU Health, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

Aim of this study was to report a single-center experience with robot-assisted ureteral reimplantation (RAUR) and to compare its outcomes with those of open ureteral reimplantation (OUR). Patients who underwent RAUR or OUR for ureteral disease between 2016 and 2020 were identified. Data collected included baseline, pathologic, perioperative, and postoperative features. The RAUR outcomes were compared with those of OUR. Overall, 21 (42.8%) patients underwent RAUR, and 28 (57.2%) underwent OUR. The two groups were similar in terms of baseline and pathologic characteristics. There was a statistically significant difference in favor of RAUR for median operative time (216 317 minutes,  = 0.01) and median blood loss (35 175 mL,  = 0.001). No difference was observed in overall complication rate (33.3% 46.4%,  = 0.9), as well as major complications (Clavien-Dindo≥III grade) rate between RAUR and OUR groups. Median length of stay was shorter for RAUR (2 6 days;  = 0.001), as well as median catheterization time (16 28 days;  = 0.005). RAUR is a safe and effective minimally invasive surgical procedure for the management of mid to distal ureteral strictures. It can recapitulate the success rate of the gold standard OUR while offering a benefit in terms of lower surgical morbidity and faster postoperative recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2021.0083DOI Listing
October 2021

Retroperitoneal versus transepritoneal robot-assisted partial nephrectomy for postero-lateral renal masses: an international multicenter analysis.

World J Urol 2021 Nov 29;39(11):4175-4182. Epub 2021 May 29.

Division of Urology, VCU Health, Richmond, VA, 23298-0118, USA.

Purpose: To assess the outcomes of retroperitoneal robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (r-RAPN) in a large cohort of patients with postero-lateral renal masses comparing to those of transperitoneal RAPN (t-RAPN).

Methods: Patients with posterior (R.E.N.A.L. score grading P) or lateral (grading X) renal mass who underwent RAPN in six high-volume US and European centers were identified and stratified into two groups according to surgical approach: r-RAPN ("study group") and t-RAPN ("control group"). Baseline characteristics, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected and compared.

Results: Overall, 447 patients were identified for the analysis. 231 (51.7%) and 216 (48.3%) patients underwent r-RAPN and t-RAPN, respectively. Baseline characteristics were not statistically significantly different between the groups. r-RAPN group reported lower median operative time (140 vs. 170 min, p < 0.001). No difference was found in ischemia time, estimated blood loss, and intraoperative complications. Overall, 47 and 54 postoperative complications were observed in r-RAPN and t-RAPN groups, respectively (20.3 vs. 25.1%, p = 0.9). 1 and 2 patients reported major complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥ III grade) in the retroperitoneal and transperitoneal groups (0.4 vs. 0.9%, p = 0.9). There was no difference in hospital re-admission rate, median length of stay, and PSM rate. Trifecta criteria were achieved in 90.3 and 89.2% of r-RAPN and t-RAPN, respectively (p = 0.7).

Conclusion: r-RAPN and t-RAPN offer similar postoperative, functional, and oncological outcomes for patients with postero-lateral renal tumors. Our analysis suggests an advantage for r-RAPN in terms of shorter operative time, whereas it does not confirm a difference in terms of length of stay, as suggested by previous reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03741-2DOI Listing
November 2021

Three vs. Four Cycles of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Localized Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Undergoing Radical Cystectomy: A Retrospective Multi-Institutional Analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 11;11:651745. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Urology of European Institute of Oncology (IEO), IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Background: Three or four cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the standard neoadjuvant treatment prior to cystectomy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Although NCCN guidelines recommend 4 cycles of cisplatin-gemcitabine, three cycles are also commonly administered in clinical practice. In this multicenter retrospective study, we assessed a large and homogenous cohort of patients with urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) treated with three or four cycles of neoadjuvant cisplatin-gemcitabine followed by radical cystectomy, in order to explore whether three vs. four cycles were associated with different outcomes.

Methods: Patients with histologically confirmed muscle-invasive UBC included in this retrospective study had to be treated with either 3 (cohort A) or 4 (cohort B) cycles of cisplatin-gemcitabine as neoadjuvant therapy before undergoing radical cystectomy with lymphadenectomy. Outcomes including pathologic downstaging to non-muscle invasive disease, pathologic complete response (defined as absence of disease -ypT0), overall- and cancer-specific- survival as well as time to recurrence were compared between cohorts A vs. B.

Results: A total of 219 patients treated at 14 different high-volume Institutions were included in this retrospective study. Patients who received 3 (cohort A) vs. 4 (cohort B) cycles of neoadjuvant cisplatin-gemcitabine were 160 (73,1%) vs. 59 (26,9%).At univariate analysis, the number of neoadjuvant cycles was not associated with either pathologic complete response, pathologic downstaging, time to recurrence, cancer specific, and overall survival. Of note, patients in cohort B vs. A showed a worse non-cancer specific overall survival at univariate analysis (HR= 2.53; 95 CI= 1.05 - 6.10; p=0.046), although this finding was not confirmed at multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that 3 cycles of cisplatin-gemcitabine may be equally effective, with less long-term toxicity, compared to 4 cycles in the neoadjuvant setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.651745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144638PMC
May 2021

Pretreatment Risk Stratification for Endoscopic Kidney-sparing Surgery in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: An International Collaborative Study.

Eur Urol 2021 10 20;80(4):507-515. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Urology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Several groups have proposed features to identify low-risk patients who may benefit from endoscopic kidney-sparing surgery in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).

Objective: To evaluate standard risk stratification features, develop an optimal model to identify ≥pT2/N+ stage at radical nephroureterectomy (RNU), and compare it with the existing unvalidated models.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a collaborative retrospective study that included 1214 patients who underwent ureterorenoscopy with biopsy followed by RNU for nonmetastatic UTUC between 2000 and 2017.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: We performed multiple imputation of chained equations for missing data and multivariable logistic regression analysis with a stepwise selection algorithm to create the optimal predictive model. The area under the curve and a decision curve analysis were used to compare the models.

Results And Limitations: Overall, 659 (54.3%) and 555 (45.7%) patients had ≤pT1N0/Nx and ≥pT2/N+ disease, respectively. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis of our model, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.03, p = 0.013), high-grade biopsy (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.37-2.40, p < 0.001), biopsy cT1+ staging (OR 3.23, 95% CI 1.93-5.41, p < 0.001), preoperative hydronephrosis (OR 1.37 95% CI 1.04-1.80, p = 0.024), tumor size (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.17, p = 0.029), invasion on imaging (OR 5.10, 95% CI 3.32-7.81, p < 0.001), and sessile architecture (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.58-3.36, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with ≥pT2/pN+ disease. Compared with the existing models, our model had the highest performance accuracy (75% vs 66-71%) and an additional clinical net reduction (four per 100 patients).

Conclusions: Our proposed risk-stratification model predicts the risk of harboring ≥pT2/N+ UTUC with reliable accuracy and a clinical net benefit outperforming the current risk-stratification models.

Patient Summary: We developed a risk stratification model to better identify patients for endoscopic kidney-sparing surgery in upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2021.05.004DOI Listing
October 2021

Impact of the Implementation of the EAU Guidelines Recommendation on Reporting and Grading of Complications in Patients Undergoing Robot-assisted Radical Cystectomy: A Systematic Review.

Eur Urol 2021 08 19;80(2):129-133. Epub 2021 May 19.

University of Southern California Institute of Urology & Catherine and Joseph Aresty Department of Urology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

In 2012, the European Association of Urology (EAU) Ad Hoc Panel proposed a standardised methodology on reporting and grading complications after urological surgical procedures. The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of this implementation on complications reporting for patients undergoing robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). A systematic review of all English-language original articles published on RARC until March 2020 was performed using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. The study selection process followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) criteria. The quality of reporting and grading complication was evaluated according to the EAU recommendations. Our analysis failed to observe a statistically significant improvement in reporting outcomes after the EAU guidelines recommendations except for three of the 14 criteria proposed (ie, follow-up duration, utilisation of a severity grade system, and risk factors included in the analyses). A lower statistically significant adherence to outcome reporting in terms of inclusion of readmissions and causes (p = 0.02), was observed. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study, we evaluated the impact of the proposed European Association of Urology (EAU) standardised reporting tool for urological complications, in patients treated with robot-assisted radical cystectomy. A low adherence to EAU guidelines recommendations for complications reporting was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2021.04.030DOI Listing
August 2021

Risk Factors for Intravesical Recurrence after Minimally Invasive Nephroureterectomy for Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer (ROBUUST Collaboration).

J Urol 2021 Sep 21;206(3):568-576. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Purpose: Intravesical recurrence (IVR) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) has an incidence of approximately 20%-50%. Studies to date have been composed of mixed treatment cohorts-open, laparoscopic and robotic. The objective of this study is to assess clinicopathological risk factors for intravesical recurrence after RNU for UTUC in a completely minimally invasive cohort.

Materials And Methods: We performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of 485 patients with UTUC without prior or concurrent bladder cancer who underwent robotic or laparoscopic RNU. Patients were selected from an international cohort of 17 institutions across the United States, Europe and Asia. Univariate and multiple Cox regression models were used to identify risk factors for bladder recurrence.

Results: A total of 485 (396 robotic, 89 laparoscopic) patients were included in analysis. Overall, 110 (22.7%) of patients developed IVR. The average time to recurrence was 15.2 months (SD 15.5 months). Hypertension was a significant risk factor on multiple regression (HR 1.99, CI 1.06; 3.71, p=0.030). Diagnostic ureteroscopic biopsy incurred a 50% higher chance of developing IVR (HR 1.49, CI 1.00; 2.20, p=0.048). Treatment specific risk factors included positive surgical margins (HR 3.36, CI 1.36; 8.33, p=0.009) and transurethral resection for bladder cuff management (HR 2.73, CI 1.10; 6.76, p=0.031).

Conclusions: IVR after minimally invasive RNU for UTUC is a relatively common event. Risk factors include a ureteroscopic biopsy, transurethral resection of the bladder cuff, and positive surgical margins. When possible, avoidance of transurethral resection of the bladder cuff and alternative strategies for obtaining biopsy tissue sample should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000001786DOI Listing
September 2021

Mechanical and Ablative Minimally Invasive Techniques for Male LUTS due to Benign Prostatic Obstruction: A Systematic Review according to BPH-6 Evaluation.

Urol Int 2021 13;105(9-10):858-868. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Urology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

The treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic obstruction represents one of the major interesting aspects in urological clinical practice. Although transurethral resection of the prostate is still considered the surgical gold standard for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with prostate volume <80 mL, various minimally invasive surgical treatments (MITs) have been developed to overcome the limitations of the "conventional" surgery. To date, there are no validated tools to evaluate the surgical outcomes of MITs; however, in the past, BPH-6 has been used for this purpose. In this systematic review, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of MITs according to BPH-6 score system. We focused our attention on MITs based on mechanical devices (prostatic urethral lift and the temporary implantable nitinol device) and techniques for prostate ablation (image guided robotic waterjet ablation and convective water vapor energy ablation). Evidence shows that MITs are capable of leading to an improvement in LUTS without having an overwhelming impact on complications and are a valid alternative to other treatments in patients who wish to preserve their sexual function or in case of inapplicability of conventional surgery. However, comparative studies between these techniques are still missing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514438DOI Listing
January 2022

Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy versus standard laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: an evidence-based analysis of comparative outcomes.

World J Urol 2021 Oct 11;39(10):3721-3732. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Division of Urology, VCU Health, Richmond, VA, 23298-0118, USA.

Purpose: To provide a systematic analysis of the comparative outcomes of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) versus laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) in the treatment of prostate cancer based on the best currently available evidence.

Methods: An independent systematic review of the literature was performed up to February 2021, using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) recommendations were followed to design search strategies, selection criteria, and evidence reports. The quality of the included studies was determined using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for non-randomized controlled trials. Demographics and clinical characteristics, surgical, pathological, and functional outcomes were collected.

Results: Twenty-six studies were identified. Only 16 "high-quality" (RCTs and Newcastle-Ottawa scale 8-9) studies were included in the meta-analysis. Among the 13,752 patients included, 6135 (44.6%) and 7617 (55.4%) were RARP and LRP, respectively. There was no difference between groups in terms of demographics and clinical characteristics. Overall and major complication (Clavien-Dindo ≥ III) rates were similar in LRP than RARP group. The biochemical recurrence (BCR) rate at 12months was significantly lower for RARP (OR: 0.52; 95% CI 0.43-0.63; p < 0.00001). RARP reported lower urinary incontinence rate at 12months (OR: 0.38; 95% CI 0.18-0.8; p = 0.01). The erectile function recovery rate at 12months was higher for RARP (OR: 2.16; 95% CI 1.23-3.78; p = 0.007).

Conclusion: Current evidence shows that RARP offers favorable outcomes compared with LRP, including higher potency and continence rates, and less likelihood of BCR. An assessment of longer-term outcomes is lacking, and higher cost remains a concern of robotic versus laparoscopic prostate cancer surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03687-5DOI Listing
October 2021

Incidental Prostate Cancer (cT1a-cT1b) Is a Relevant Clinical and Research Entity and Should Be Fully Discussed in the International Prostate Cancer Guidelines.

Eur Urol Oncol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Unit of Urology, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; Division of Experimental Oncology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euo.2021.03.005DOI Listing
April 2021

Incidence and OR team awareness of "near-miss" and retained surgical sharps: a national survey on United States operating rooms.

Patient Saf Surg 2021 Apr 3;15(1):14. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Division of Urology Denver Health Medical Center and University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Denver, USA.

Introduction: A retained surgical sharp (RSS) is a never event and defined as a lost sharp (needle, blade, instrument, guidewire, metal fragment) that is not recovered prior to the patient leaving the operating room. A "near-miss" sharp (NMS) is an intraoperative event where there is a lost surgical sharp that is recovered prior to the patient leaving the operating room. With underreporting of such incidents, it is unrealistic to expect aggressive development of new prevention and detection strategies. Moreover, awareness about the issue of "near-miss" or retained surgical sharps remains limited. The aim of this large-scale national survey-based study was to estimate the incidence of these events and to identify the challenges surrounding the use of surgical sharps in daily practice.

Methods: We hypothesized that there was a larger number of RSS and NMS events than what was being reported. We survived the different OR team members to determine if there would be discordance in reported incidence between groups and to also evaluate for user bias. An electronic survey was distributed to OR staff between December 2019 and April 2020. Respondents included those practicing within the United States from both private and academic institutions. Participants were initially obtained by designating three points of contact who identified participants at their respective academic institutions and while attending specialty specific medical conferences. Together, these efforts totaled 197 responses. To increase the number of respondents, additional emails were sent to online member registries. Approximately 2650 emails were sent resulting in an additional 250 responses (9.4% response rate). No follow up reminders were sent. In total, there were 447 survey responses, in which 411 were used for further analysis. Thirty-six responses were removed due to incomplete respondent data. Those who did not meet the definition of one of the three categories of respondents were also excluded. The 411 were then categorized by group to include 94 (22.9%) from anesthesiologist, 132 (32.1%) from resident/fellow/attending surgeon and 185 (45%) from surgical nurse and technologist.

Survey: The survey was anonymous. Participants were asked to answer three demographic questions as well as eight questions related to their personal perception of NMS and RSS (Fig. 1). Demographic questions were asked with care to ensure no identifiable information was obtained and therefore unable to be traced back to a specific respondent or institution. Perception questions 4-6 and 11 were designed to understand the incidence of various sharp events (e.g. lost, retained, miscounted). Questions 7 and 10 were dedicated to understanding time spent managing sharps and questions 8 and 9 were dedicated to understanding the use x-ray and its effectiveness.

Results: Overall, most of each respondent group reported 1-5 lost sharp events over the last year. Roughly 20% of surgeons believed they never had a miscounted sharp over the last year, where only 5.3% of anesthesiologist reported the same (p = 0.002). Each group agreed that roughly 4 lost events occur every 1000 surgeries, but a significant difference was found between the three groups regarding the number of lost sharps not recovered per 10,000 surgeries with anesthesiologist, surgeon and nurse/technologist groups estimating 2.37, 2.56 and 2.94 respectively (p = 0.001). All groups noted x-ray to offer poor effectiveness at 26-50% with 31-40 min added for each time x-ray was used. More than half (56.8%) of surgeons reported using x-ray 100% of the time when managing a lost sharp whereas anesthesiologists and nurses/technologists believe it is closer to 1/3 of the time. An average of 21-30 min is spent managing each NMS, making a lost sharp event result in up to 70 min of added OR time.

Conclusions: "Near-miss" and RSS are more prevalent than what is reported in current literature. Surgeons perceive a higher rate of success in retrieving the RSS when compared to anesthesiologists and OR nurses/technologists. We recognize several challenges surrounding "near-miss" and never events as contributing factors to their underreported nature and the higher degree of surgeon recall bias associated with these events. Additionally, we highlight that current methods for prevention are costly in time and resources without improvement in patient safety. As NMS and RSS have significant health system implications, a strong understanding of these implications is important as we strive to improve patient safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13037-021-00287-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019169PMC
April 2021
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