Publications by authors named "Ricardo Sousa"

96 Publications

Major ocean currents may shape the microbiome of the topshell Phorcus sauciatus in the NE Atlantic Ocean.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12480. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Casilla 297, Concepción, Chile.

Studies on microbial communities are pivotal to understand the role and the evolutionary paths of the host and their associated microorganisms in the ecosystems. Meta-genomics techniques have proven to be one of the most effective tools in the identification of endosymbiotic communities of host species. The microbiome of the highly exploited topshell Phorcus sauciatus was characterized in the Northeastern Atlantic (Portugal, Madeira, Selvagens, Canaries and Azores). Alpha diversity analysis based on observed OTUs showed significant differences among regions. The Principal Coordinates Analysis of beta-diversity based on presence/absence showed three well differentiated groups, one from Azores, a second from Madeira and the third one for mainland Portugal, Selvagens and the Canaries. The microbiome results may be mainly explained by large-scale oceanographic processes of the study region, i.e., the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, and specifically by the Canary Current. Our results suggest the feasibility of microbiome as a model study to unravel biogeographic and evolutionary processes in marine species with high dispersive potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91448-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203703PMC
June 2021

Effects of physical exercise on memory in type 2 diabetes: a brief review.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Multicenter Post Graduation Program in Physiological Sciences, Brazilian Society of Physiology, Federal University of the Valleys of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder that can lead to memory impairment. T2D main features are insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Physical exercise is a non-pharmacological intervention that can regulate glycemic levels and fight insulin resistance in T2D, but whether it influences memory has been discussed. There are 2 main types of physical exercise: aerobic exercise and resistance exercise. Here, we review about the consequences of different physical exercise protocols on memory in diabetic subjects and animal models of T2D. Physical exercise, aerobic or resistance training, most of the times, is a capable agent to prevent and treat memory loss on diabetic subjects and animal models of T2D. However, whether aerobic and resistance training combined improve memory in subjects with T2D remains controversial. Regarding animal models of T2D, aerobic and resistance training have been showed to be capable to prevent and treat memory loss. Acute and chronic protocols of exercise, generally, induce positive physiological responses and adaptations in T2D, such as a better glucose control. The ideal physical exercise protocol that will produce the best benefits to diabetic subjects and to animal models of T2D has not been described yet. A variety of combination between intensity, volume, frequency, and duration of the physical exercise protocol on future studies is necessary to both diabetic subjects and animal models of T2D to determine the best protocol that will induce more benefits on memory in T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-021-00752-1DOI Listing
June 2021

Physical exercise consequences on memory in obesity: A systematic review.

Obes Rev 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Physical Education Department, Federal University of the Valleys of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, Brazil.

Obesity is associated with changes in memory. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate the physical exercise consequences on memory in obesity. A search was carried out in the PubMed, Lilacs, and Scielo databases with the following descriptors: "physical exercise," "memory," and "obesity." A total of 16 studies were analyzed in this review. Low, moderate, and high intensity exercise training showed positive effects on memory in patients with obesity (100%). The animal models of obesity used in their physical exercise protocols: treadmill (72.7%) or wheel running (27.3%). Most of the animal studies (81.8%) revealed positive effects of the physical exercise protocol on memory in obesity. Mouse was the most commonly used animal (54.5%), and a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) was the most commonly method used to induce obesity (82%). We did not identify any knockout model of obesity that was used to evaluate memory and used physical exercise as the main intervention. Thus, exercise training, independently if it is resistance or endurance training, seems to be an excellent intervention to prevent and inhibit cognitive impairment and memory loss on obese patients and animal models of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13298DOI Listing
June 2021

Exercise-linked consequences on epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 28;121(Pt A):108079. Epub 2021 May 28.

Physiological Science Multicentric Program, Federal University of Valleyś Jequitinhonha and Mucuri, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Neuroscience and Exercise Study Group (Grupo de Estudos em Neurociências e Exercício - GENE), UFVJM, Diamantina, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: Epilepsy is a brain disorder that leads to seizures and neurobiological, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences. Physical inactivity can contribute to worse epilepsy pathophysiology. Here, we review how physical exercise affects epilepsy physiopathology.

Methods: An extensive literature search was performed and the mechanisms of physical exercise on epilepsy were discussed. The search was conducted in Scopus and PubMed. Articles with relevant information were included. Only studies written in English were considered.

Results: The regular practice of physical exercise can be beneficial for individuals with neurodegenerative diseases, such as epilepsy by decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory and stress biomarkers, increasing socialization, and reducing the incidence of epileptic seizures. Physical exercise is also capable of reducing the symptoms of depression and anxiety in epilepsy. Physical exercise can also improve cognitive function in epilepsy. The regular practice of physical exercise enhances the levels of brain-derived neuro factor (BDNF) in the hippocampi, induces neurogenesis, inhibits oxidative stress and reactive gliosis, avoids cognitive impairment, and stimulates the production of dopamine in the epileptic brain.

Conclusion: Physical exercise is an excellent non-pharmacological tool that can be used in the treatment of epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.108079DOI Listing
May 2021

Genomic sequencing of a frog virus 3 strain from cultured American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) in Brazil.

Arch Virol 2021 Jul 13;166(7):1961-1964. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Frog virus 3 (FV3) was detected in cultured bullfrogs in Southeast Brazil. Phylodynamic analysis revealed recombination events in this strain that were nearly identical to those detected in North American and Brazilian FV3 strains. These data suggest that international trade of live bullfrogs has spread recombinant strains of FV3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-05094-yDOI Listing
July 2021

If, when, and how to use rifampin in acute staphylococcal periprosthetic joint infections, a multicentre observational study.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Prevention, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: Rifampin is generally advised in the treatment of acute staphylococcal periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). However, if, when, and how to use rifampinremains a matter of debate. We evaluated the outcome of patients treated with and without rifampin, and analyzed the influence of timing, dose and co-antibiotic.

Methods: Acute staphylococcal PJIs treated with surgical debridement between 1999 and 2017, and a minimal follow-up of 1 year were evaluated. Treatment failure was defined as the need for any further surgical procedure related to infection, PJI-related death or the need for suppressive antimicrobial treatment.

Results: A total of 669 patients were analyzed. Treatment failure was 32.2% (131/407) in patients treated with rifampin and 54.2% (142/262) in whom rifampin was withheld (P < 0.001). The most prominent effect of rifampin was observed in knees (treatment failure 28.6% versus 63.9%, respectively, P < 0.001). The use of rifampin was an independent predictor of treatment success in the multi-variate analysis (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.20 - 0.45). In the rifampin group, the use of a co-antibiotic other than a fluoroquinolone or clindamycin (OR 10.1, 95% CI 5.65 - 18.2) and the start of rifampin within 5 days after surgical debridement (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.08 - 3.65) were predictors of treatment failure. The dosing of rifampin had no effect on outcome.

Conclusions: Our data supports the use of rifampin in acute staphylococcal PJIs treated with surgical debridement, particularly in knees. Immediate start of rifampin after surgical debridement should probably be discouraged, but requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab426DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of triploid induction on innate immunity and hematology in Astyanax altiparanae.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Laboratory of Fish Biotechnology, National Center for Research and Conservation of Continental Fish, Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation, Rodovia Pref. Euberto Nemésio Pereira de Godoy, Pirassununga, SP 13630-970, Brazil.

Triploid induction is a promising biotechnique that could be used to enhance aquaculture yields in the near future. However, studies conducted with several fish species have demonstrated that the presence of an extra set of chromosomes may result in deleterious health effects. Furthermore, studies of fish immune responses still need to be conducted before these specimens can be readily commercialized. In the study presented herein, we evaluated the effects of triploid induction on hematology, erythrocyte morphometry and morphology, phagocytosis, and the expression levels of IL-1β and TGF-β using specimens of the Neotropical species, Astyanax altiparanae. In general, the cell counts of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and neutrophils in triploid fish were lower than those in diploid fish. The erythrocytes of triploid fish were larger than those found in diploid fish, but also demonstrated considerably higher frequencies of cellular and nuclear abnormalities. Although not statistically significant, triploid induction resulted in a phagocytic capacity (PC) 20% lower than that found with diploid fish. No notable differences were observed in phagocytic index (PI). Gene expression levels for the cytokine IL-1 were lower in tissues from the head kidney, liver, and spleen of triploid fish with respect to diploid fish. Gene expression levels of TGF-β were lower only in the spleen of triploids compared to diploids. In conclusion, triploid induction resulted in A. altiparanae specimens with immune impairments and potentially lower resistances to disease and low-quality environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2021.05.004DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparative cytogenetics of two species of (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in Midwestern Brazil.

Comp Cytogenet 2021 2;15(2):89-99. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias, Biológicas e Sociais Aplicadas, Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso, Av. Prof. Dr. Renato Figueiro Varella, s/n, Nova Xavantina, MT, Brazil Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso Cuiabá Brazil.

Gervais, 1856 is represented by small frugivorous bats of the Stenodermatinae subfamily. The taxonomy of this group presents controversies and has been subject to changes, especially since the morphological characters evaluated have left gaps that are difficult to fill regarding good species characterization. Previous studies performed in Gervais, 1856 found that the karyotype of this species has a diploid number of chromosomes equal to 30 and 56 autosomal arms. The objective of the present study was to describe, for the first time, the karyotypes of the species (Osgood, 1916) and (Handley, 1987) based on classical cytogenetic markers. For both species, the diploid number found was 2n = 30 and NFa = 56. Two pairs of chromosomes showed markings of the nucleolus organizing regions (AgNORs) in the species and only one pair in , differing from what has already been described for . The two species analyzed here also showed differences in the sex chromosome system, with showing a neo-XY type system while in the classic XY sexual system was observed. In both species, visualization of the constitutive heterochromatin occurred in the pericentromeric region of all chromosomes, as well as in the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosomes. The present work represents an important expansion of karyotypic information for the subfamily Stenodermatinae, bringing chromosomal features that are possible to use in the taxonomic implications of the group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/CompCytogen.v15i2.60577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035126PMC
April 2021

Molecular mechanisms of physical exercise on depression in the elderly: a systematic review.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 17;48(4):3853-3862. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Physical Education Department, Federal University of the Valleys of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG, Brazil.

Depressive disorders are common among the elderly. Major depressive disorder will be one of the highest healthcare costs in middle and higher income countries by 2030. It is known that physical inactivity leads to negative effects on mental health in the elderly.The purpose of this review was to explore investigate the consequences of physical exercise (aerobic and resistance exercise) on major depressive disorder among elderly, and presenting its potential biological mechanisms. This study was designed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Clinical trials or randomized clinical trials or cohort studies participated of the study design. Ten studies were evaluated and the main outcomes of each were reported. Aerobic and resistance training revealed to be effective in fighting the symptoms of depression. The most common physical exercise protocol adopted to reduce the consequences of major depressive disorder in humans was the prescription of aerobic exercise at moderate-intensity lasting 60 min per session, 3 times per week, for 24 weeks. Physical exercise enhances IGF-I and activates PGC-1α/FNDC5/Irisin pathway. Physical exercise also increases expression of BDNF and its receptor, TrkB, in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex leading to upstream of ERK and inhibiting depressive-like behavior. Physical exercise brings mental health benefits and plays a crucial role in avoiding the development of major depressive disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06330-zDOI Listing
April 2021

The importance of appropriate diagnostics in prosthetic joint infection: letter to the editor of BMC musculoskeletal disorders.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 03 8;22(1):255. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Head of Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Assessment of a new diagnostic test must be performed against an acceptable and validated standard to allow comparison with other studies. We are concerned that the adoption of lower diagnostic criteria in this paper has contributed to an over-diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection and makes interpretation of the results difficult.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04117-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941875PMC
March 2021

Exercise-Linked Irisin: Consequences on Mental and Cardiovascular Health in Type 2 Diabetes.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 23;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Center for Biotechnology and Cell Therapy, São Rafael Hospital, Bahia CEP 41.253-190, Brazil.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Chronic exposure to a T2DM microenvironment with hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, oxidative stress and increased levels of proinflammatory mediators, has negative consequences to the cardiovascular system and mental health. Therefore, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mental health issues have been strongly associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications, including physical exercise training, are necessary to prevent T2DM development and its associated complications. It is widely known that the regular practice of exercise provides several physiological benefits to subjects with T2DM, such as managing glycemic and blood pressure levels. Different types of exercise, from aerobic to resistance training, are effective to improve mental health and cognitive function in T2DM. Irisin is a myokine produced in response to exercise, which has been pointed as a relevant mechanism of action to explain the benefits of exercise on cardiovascular and mental health in T2DM patients. Here, we review emerging clinical and experimental evidence about exercise-linked irisin consequences to cardiovascular and mental health in T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926886PMC
February 2021

Physical exercise effects on the brain during COVID-19 pandemic: links between mental and cardiovascular health.

Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 25;42(4):1325-1334. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Multicenter Post Graduation Program in Physiological Sciences (PMPGCF), Brazilian Society of Physiology, Federal University of the Valleys of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, Brazil.

The current pandemic was caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The quarantine period during corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19) outbreak might affect the quality of life leading thousands of individuals to diminish the daily caloric expenditure and mobility, leading to a sedentary behavior and increase the number of health disorders. Exercising is used as a non-pharmacological treatment in many chronic diseases. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of physical exercise in COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. We also point links between exercise, mental, and cardiovascular health. The infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 affects host cells binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), which is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. If there is not enough oxygen supply the lungs and other tissues, such as the heart or brain, are affected. SARS-CoV-2 enhances ACE2 leading to inflammation and neuronal death with possible development of mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Physical exercise also enhances the ACE2 expression. Conversely, the activation of ACE2/Ang 1-7/Mas axis by physical exercise induces an antiinflammatory and antifibrotic effect. Physical exercise has beneficial effects on mental health enhancing IGF-1, PI3K, BDNF, ERK, and reducing GSK3β levels. In addition, physical exercise enhances the activity of PGC-1α/ FNDC5/Irisin pathway leading to neuronal survival and the maintenance of a good mental health. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to elevation of ACE2 levels through pathological mechanisms that lead to neurological and cardiovascular complications, while the physiological response of ACE2 to physical exercise improves cardiovascular and mental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-021-05082-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7829117PMC
April 2021

Animal models of gestational diabetes: characteristics and consequences to the brain and behavior of the offspring.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 02 5;36(2):199-204. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

School of Biological Sciences and Health, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Gestational diabetes (GD) is the glucose intolerance that occurs during pregnancy. Mothers who develop diabetes during gestation are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) later in life, and the risk of adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes are also increased as a function of maternal hyperglycemia. Infants who are exposed to fetal hyperglycemia show an increased risk of becoming obese and developing T2DM later in life. Due to the need of new research on this field, and the difficulty of performing studies in human brain, studies using experimental models are necessary to suggest possible ways to avoid or inhibit offspring brain damage or harmful metabolic alterations. Here, it was made a review about the characteristics of the main animal models of GD, and what are the consequences to the brain and behavior of the offspring. In many experimental models, either by pharmacological induction, diet manipulation, or in the use of transgenic animals, glycemic conditions are severe. S961, a selective insulin receptor antagonist, revealed an increased fasting blood glucose level and glucose intolerance during mid-gestation, which returned to basal levels postpartum in mice. GD contributes to offspring neuroinflammation, influences neuronal distribution in central nervous system (CNS), and apoptosis during embryogenesis, which in turn may contribute to changes in behavior and memory in adult life and aging. The usage of animal models to study GD allows to examine extensively the characteristics of this condition, the molecular mechanisms involved and the consequences to the brain and behavior of the offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-020-00661-9DOI Listing
February 2021

The EBJIS definition of periprosthetic joint infection.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jan;103-B(1):18-25

Orthopaedic Hospital Valdoltra, Ankaran, Slovenia.

Aims: The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be difficult. All current diagnostic tests have problems with accuracy and interpretation of results. Many new tests have been proposed, but there is no consensus on the place of many of these in the diagnostic pathway. Previous attempts to develop a definition of PJI have not been universally accepted and there remains no reference standard definition.

Methods: This paper reports the outcome of a project developed by the European Bone and Joint Infection Society (EBJIS), and supported by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) and the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Study Group for Implant-Associated Infections (ESGIAI). It comprised a comprehensive review of the literature, open discussion with Society members and conference delegates, and an expert panel assessment of the results to produce the final guidance.

Results: This process evolved a three-level approach to the diagnostic continuum, resulting in a definition set and guidance, which has been fully endorsed by EBJIS, MSIS, and ESGIAI.

Conclusion: The definition presents a novel three-level approach to diagnosis, based on the most robust evidence, which will be useful to clinicians in daily practice. Cite this article: 2021;103-B(1):18-25.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B1.BJJ-2020-1381.R1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954183PMC
January 2021

Does calorie restriction improve cognition?

IBRO Rep 2020 Dec 1;9:37-45. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Physical Education, Federal University of the Valleys of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG, Brazil.

Calorie restriction (CR) has been considered the most effective non-pharmacological intervention to counteract aging-related diseases and improve longevity. This intervention has shown beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases and functional declines related to aging, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and neuroendocrine disorders. However, the effects of CR on cognition show controversial results since its effects vary according to intensity, duration, and the period of CR. This review focuses on the main studies published in the last ten years regarding the consequences of CR on cognition in different neurological diseases and conditions of experimental animals. Also, possible CR mimetics are discussed. These findings highlight the potential beneficial effects of CR of up to 40 % on cognition when started early in life in non human animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibror.2020.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733132PMC
December 2020

Neurological consequences of exercise during prenatal Zika virus exposure to mice pups.

Int J Neurosci 2020 Dec 21:1-11. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Multicenter Graduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Brazilian Society of Physiology, São Paulo, Brazil.

Purpose/aim: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during the pregnancy period is related to microcephaly and neurobehavioral disorders at birth, while prenatal exercise is supposed to provide neuroprotection in newborns pups. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurological consequences of exercise during prenatal ZIKV exposure to mice pups.

Material And Methods: Twelve weeks female mice were randomly assigned into three groups: Control group, intraperitoneally injected with saline (Control); untrained group, intraperitoneally injected with ZIKV (ZIKV); and trained group, intraperitoneally injected with ZIKV (ZIKV/swim). There was one familiarization week prior to the beginning of the swimming training. Dams swam for 60 min/session, 5 days/week, during 4 weeks. Mating occurred between the fifth and seventh day of the first week of the swimming training. ZIKV 10 plaque-forming units/100 µl (10 PFUs/100 µl) or an equal volume of saline was intraperitoneally injected in the pregnant mice at embryonic day 10.5. Pup's body mass and brain weight were measured at postnatal day 1 (P1). Behavioral tests were performed from P30 to P35. Thereafter, hippocampal levels of syntaxin-1, GFAP, IBA-1, and BDNF were measured.

Results: Exercise during prenatal ZIKV exposure prevented brain atrophy, development of depression, anxiety, and disruption of social behavior. Exercise during prenatal ZIKV exposure inhibited the overexpression of microglia (IBA-1) and astrocytes (GFAP), with reduction of BDNF levels in the hippocampi of female and male mice pups. No significant changes were seen in syntaxin-1 levels.

Conclusion: Our findings reveal beneficial effects of exercise during pregnancy exposure to ZIKV in mice pups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2020.1860970DOI Listing
December 2020

Physical exercise protocols in animal models of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 01 23;36(1):85-95. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Multicenter Post Graduation Program in Physiological Sciences, Brazilian Society of Physiology, Federal University of the Valleys of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Several animal studies have showed the beneficial effects of physical exercise (PE) on brain function and health. Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, characterized by the presence of aggregated extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles, with progressive cognitive decline. Therapeutic approaches such as PE showed to be effective in halting AD progression. Here, we present a systematic review about PE and AD. The search was carried out using the PubMed and LILACS databases. The following keywords were used: Alzheimer; PE; animal model. All found studies adopted aerobic exercise training as the PE protocol (100%). We identified running on treadmill as the most commonly used PE routine (62.5%). The duration of each session, intensity, frequency, and period of training most used were 60 min/day (62.5%), moderate intensity (87.5%), 5 days/week (62.5%), and 4 (37.5%) or 12 (37.5%) weeks, respectively. The AD animal models most used were the Tg APP/PS1ΔE9 (25%), models based on i.c.v. infusion of AβOs (25%) and streptozotocin (25%). All protocols used rodents to their experiments (100%), but mice were the most common (62.5%). Finally, the main results presented in all studies were capable to reduce significantly AD consequences, such as reducing Aβ or pro-inflammatory proteins levels (100%). The lack of resistance training protocols in animal models of AD indicates a huge gap that should be investigated in future studies. We suggest that PE protocols must be adapted according to the specie, lineage and life span of the animal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-020-00633-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Is Preoperative Staphylococcus aureus Screening and Decolonization Effective at Reducing Surgical Site Infection in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Surgery? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis With a Special Focus on Elective Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2021 02 14;36(2):752-766.e6. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Orthopedics, Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Porto Bone and Joint Infection Group (GRIP), Centro Hospitalar do Porto and Grupo TrofaSaude - Hospital em Alfena, Portugal.

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen implicated in orthopedic infections worldwide. Preoperative decolonization has been promoted but different strategies present mixed results. Thus, the goals of this study are to determine (1) whether S aureus screening and/or decolonization is effective at reducing surgical site infection in orthopedic surgery, (2) with a special focus on elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA), and (3) which preoperative S aureus screening/treatment strategy is most cost-effective for TJA.

Methods: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases were searched on January 1, 2020, using a systematic strategy. We included papers with data comparing surgical site infection and periprosthetic joint infection rate in orthopedic surgery and/or elective total hip and knee arthroplasty patients before/after S aureus screening and/or decolonization protocol and papers evaluating the cost-effectiveness of different S aureus screening/treatment strategies.

Results: A total of 1260 papers were screened, and 32 papers were ultimately included. Results showed an increased risk of developing any infection (relative risk [RR] = 1.71 ± 0.16) and S aureus infection (RR = 2.79 ± 0.45) after orthopedic surgery without previous nares and whole-body decolonization. Focusing exclusively on elective TJA, there was an increased risk of developing any infection (RR = 1.70 ± 0.17) and S aureus infection (RR = 2.18 ± 0.41) if no decolonization is performed. All strategies appeared to be cost-effective, although universal decolonization without screening seemed to be the most advantageous.

Conclusion: Preoperative S aureus screening/decolonization protocol lowered the risk of infection after elective orthopedic and TJA surgeries. However, further studies are needed to determine optimal clinical and cost-effective methodologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.08.014DOI Listing
February 2021

Synthesis and characterization of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for solid-phase extraction of the antidiabetic gliclazide from human plasma.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Nov 13;116:111191. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Laboratório de Controle de Qualidade de Medicamentos e Cosméticos, Departamento de Produtos Farmacêuticos, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil. Electronic address:

Gliclazide is a sulfonylurea frequently prescribed for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in elderly patients and for patients with chronic renal or hepatic diseases. Even though it is considered a safer alternative, the drug can provoke side effects in some patients, especially hypoglycemia, due to the high interindividual variability. Therefore, the quantification of gliclazide in biological samples is usually recommended in order to assure efficacy and safety of the pharmacotherapy. However, due to the complexity of biological matrices, therapeutic monitoring can be very challenging, especially in the sample preparation step. For that reason, the synthesis and characterization of a novel and selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was proposed to be employed as sorbent for the extraction of gliclazide from human plasma samples by a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) procedure. Synthesis conditions were optimized (monomer, crosslinker and porogen) and the polymer was characterized for its morphological, physicochemical and stability properties. The influence of drug concentration, solvent composition and pH on the coefficient of distribution (K) and imprinting factor (IF) were studied, as well as repeatability between batches and selectivity. A bioanalytical method was developed applying the developed MIP as sorbent in solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography using a Poroshell 120 C18 (100 × 4.6 mm, 4 μm) column, acetonitrile and 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer pH 3.0 (50:50) at a flow-rate of 1.2 mL/min as mobile phase, temperature of 30 °C, injection volume of 40 μL and detection at 230 nm. The best reaction yield, extraction capacity, and selectivity was obtained using 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and acetonitrile. The optimized MIP showed coefficient of distribution (K) of 59.85 μg/g, imprinting factor (IF) of 1.60, and selectivity for gliclazide and other sulfonylureas compared to possible concurrent drugs. The developed method by MISPE-HPLC-UV showed to be appropriate to determine gliclazide in human plasma samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111191DOI Listing
November 2020

Severe shifts of Zostera marina epifauna: Comparative study between 1997 and 2018 on the Swedish Skagerrak coast.

Mar Pollut Bull 2020 Sep 8;158:111434. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Kristineberg, 45178 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden. Electronic address:

The interaction between bottom-up and top-down processes in coastal ecosystems has been scarcely studied so far. Temporal changes in trophic interactions of Zostera marina along the Swedish west coast are relatively well studied, with the exception of epifaunal communities. Epifauna was used as a model study to explore resource (bottom-up) or predator (top-down) regulated in a vegetated ecosystem. We conducted a 21-year comparative study (1997 and 2018) using epifauna of 19 Zostera marina meadows along the Swedish Skagerrak coast. Large changes were observed in the composition of small (0.2-1 mm) and large (>1 mm) epifauna. In the small-sized epifauna, the nematode Southernia zosterae and harpacticoids showed an increase of 90% and a decrease of 50% of their abundances, respectively. In the large-sized epifauna, the polychaete Platynereis dumerilii and chironomid larvae were absent in 1997 but thrived in 2018 (>2000 ind. m). Mesoherbivores (Idoteids and gammarids) were locally very abundant in 1997 but disappeared in 2018. An 83% decline of mytilids settling in Zostera marina leaves was observed. Our results showed that epifauna is predominantly top-down regulated. An integrative framework of the study area is outlined to shed light on the causes and consequences of the environmental shifts reported in Zostera meadows from the northern Skagerrak area throughout the last three decades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111434DOI Listing
September 2020

An update on potential links between type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Aug 1;47(8):6347-6356. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Programa Multicêntrico de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas- Sociedade Brasileira de Fisiologia (SBFis), Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha E Mucuri (UFVJM), Campus JK, Rodovia MGT 367, Km 583, Alto da Jacuba, no 5000, Diamantina, MG, CEP 39100-000, Brazil.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) major feature is insulin resistance. Brain and peripheral insulin resistance lead to hyperglycemia, which contributes to the development of T2D-linked comorbidities, such as obesity and dyslipidemia. Individuals with hyperglycemia in AD present with neuronal loss, formation of plaques and tangles and reduced neurogenesis. Inflammation seems to play an essential role in the development of insulin resistance in AD and T2D. We conducted a literature review about the links between AD and T2D. Alterations in glucose metabolism result from changes in the expression of the insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS-1 and IRS-2), and seem to be mediated by several inflammatory pathways being present in both pathologies. Although there are some similarities in the insulin resistance of AD and T2D, brain and peripheral insulin resistance also have their discrete features. Failure to activate IRS-1 is the hallmark of AD, while inhibition of IRS-2 is the main feature in T2D. Inflammation mediates the alterations in glucose metabolism in AD and T2D. Targeting inflammation and insulin receptors may be a successful strategy to prevent and ameliorate T2D and AD symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05693-zDOI Listing
August 2020

Modulation of MicroRNAs as a Potential Molecular Mechanism Involved in the Beneficial Actions of Physical Exercise in Alzheimer Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 14;21(14). Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Center for Biotechnology and Cell Therapy, São Rafael Hospital, Bahia 40110-909, Brazil.

Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, affecting middle-aged and elderly individuals worldwide. AD pathophysiology involves the accumulation of beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, along with chronic neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Physical exercise (PE) is a beneficial non-pharmacological strategy and has been described as an ally to combat cognitive decline in individuals with AD. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the beneficial adaptations induced by PE in AD are not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, inhibiting or degrading their target mRNAs. MicroRNAs are involved in physiological processes that govern normal brain function and deregulated microRNA profiles are associated with the development and progression of AD. It is also known that PE changes microRNA expression profile in the circulation and in target tissues and organs. Thus, this review aimed to identify the role of deregulated microRNAs in the pathophysiology of AD and explore the possible role of the modulation of microRNAs as a molecular mechanism involved in the beneficial actions of PE in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21144977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403962PMC
July 2020

The cement-in-cement technique is a reliable option in hip arthroplasty revision surgery: a systematic review.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Jan 14;31(1):7-22. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

GRIP Unit, Orthopaedics Department, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário do Porto, Largo do Prof Abel Salazar, 4099-001, Porto, Portugal.

Introduction: The cement-in-cement technique for revision hip arthroplasty has many potential advantages and has recently gained widespread interest but still lacks evidence to support it. Our aim was to examine the surgical and patient-reported outcomes after cement-in-cement revision hip arthroplasty.

Materials And Methods: A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched up to February 2019 for original studies reporting the outcomes of revision hip arthroplasty surgeries using the cement-in-cement technique. The methodological quality was assessed using the methodological index for non-randomized studies scale.

Results: Sixteen non-comparative studies met the eligibility criteria, comprising 1899 hips in 1856 patients (72.2 mean age, 37% male), with a mean follow-up of 7.2 years. Most studies reported only primary revisions and focused on the stem component. Intraoperative complications such as femoral or acetabular fractures (5.3%) were low and easily manageable with no relevant sequelae, as were dislocation rates (2.8% of uncomplicated events and 1.6% of cases requiring re-revision). Failure (considered if there was aseptic loosening of the cement-in-cement revised component, 2%), re-revision (9.3%), implant survival and late complication rates were favourable. Functional patient-reported outcomes showed an overall improvement above the minimal clinically important difference at final follow-up.

Conclusion: The cement-in-cement technique is a viable option for hip arthroplasty revision surgery with low intraoperative and late complication rates, dislocations and immediate post-operative morbidity, resulting in good functional patient-reported outcomes and favourable medium-term implant survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-020-02736-wDOI Listing
January 2021

2020 Frank Stinchfield Award: Identifying who will fail following irrigation and debridement for prosthetic joint infection.

Bone Joint J 2020 Jul;102-B(7_Supple_B):11-19

Rothman Orthopaedic Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Aims: Failure of irrigation and debridement (I&D) for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is influenced by numerous host, surgical, and pathogen-related factors. We aimed to develop and validate a practical, easy-to-use tool based on machine learning that may accurately predict outcome following I&D surgery taking into account the influence of numerous factors.

Methods: This was an international, multicentre retrospective study of 1,174 revision total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasties (TKA) undergoing I&D for PJI between January 2005 and December 2017. PJI was defined using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria. A total of 52 variables including demographics, comorbidities, and clinical and laboratory findings were evaluated using random forest machine learning analysis. The algorithm was then verified through cross-validation.

Results: Of the 1,174 patients that were included in the study, 405 patients (34.5%) failed treatment. Using random forest analysis, an algorithm that provides the probability for failure for each specific patient was created. By order of importance, the ten most important variables associated with failure of I&D were serum CRP levels, positive blood cultures, indication for index arthroplasty other than osteoarthritis, not exchanging the modular components, use of immunosuppressive medication, late acute (haematogenous) infections, methicillin-resistant infection, overlying skin infection, polymicrobial infection, and older age. The algorithm had good discriminatory capability (area under the curve = 0.74). Cross-validation showed similar probabilities comparing predicted and observed failures indicating high accuracy of the model.

Conclusion: This is the first study in the orthopaedic literature to use machine learning as a tool for predicting outcomes following I&D surgery. The developed algorithm provides the medical profession with a tool that can be employed in clinical decision-making and improve patient care. Future studies should aid in further validating this tool on additional cohorts. Cite this article: 2020;102-B(7 Supple B):11-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.102B7.BJJ-2019-1628.R1DOI Listing
July 2020

Preparation and Microstructural Characterization of a High-Cr White Cast Iron Reinforced with WC Particles.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Jun 6;13(11). Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.

High-chromium white cast iron (WCI) specimens locally reinforced with WC-metal matrix composites were produced via an ex situ technique: powder mixtures of WC and Fe cold-pressed in a pre-form were inserted in the mold cavity before pouring the base metal. The microstructure of the resulting reinforcement is a matrix of martensite (α') and austenite (γ) with WC particles evenly distributed and (Fe,W,Cr)C carbides that are formed from the reaction between the molten metal and the inserted pre-form. The (Fe,W,Cr)C precipitation leads to the hypoeutectic solidification of the matrix and the final microstructure consists of martensite, formed from primary austenite during cooling and eutectic constituent with (Fe,Cr)C and (Fe,W,Cr)C carbides. The presence of a reaction zone with 200 µm of thickness, between the base metal and the composite should guarantee a strong bonding between these two zones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13112596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321594PMC
June 2020

High-intensity resistance training induces changes in cognitive function, but not in locomotor activity or anxious behavior in rats induced to type 2 diabetes.

Physiol Behav 2020 09 4;223:112998. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Programa Multicêntrico de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas (PMPGCF), UFVJM, Sociedade Brasileira de Fisiologia, Diamantina, MG, Brazil.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder that can lead to cognitive decline through impairment of insulin signaling. Resistance training, a type of physical exercise, is a non-pharmacological approach used to improve insulin resistance in T2D. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of high-intensity resistance training (HIRT) over cognitive function, locomotor activity, and anxious behavior in rats induced to T2D. Thirty young adult male wistar rats were distributed into 3 groups (n = 10): Control; dexamethasone (D); and dexamethasone + exercise (DE), that performed the HIRT during 4 weeks. Blood glucose, water intake, and total body fat were measured. Locomotor activity, and anxious behavior where evaluated through the open field task. Cognitive function was assessed through the novel object recognition task. Insulin resistance and neuronal death were evaluated through western blot analysis. Rats induced to T2D had higher blood glucose levels, and consumed more water when compared to control group, but DE had better blood glucose levels than D. Total body fat was reduced in DE compared to D. Locomotor activity, and anxious behavior were not significantly altered. T2D rats which performed HIRT maintained cognitive function, while those induced to T2D that did not exercise developed cognitive decline. DE group showed a reduction in the inhibition of the activation of hippocampal IRS-1 and higher expression of GSk3β phosphorylated in serine compared to D group, revealing insulin signaling impairment, and neuronal death were identified in the hippocampus of D group. Lifestyle intervention through the regular practice of HIRT plays a fundamental role in the treatment of T2D preventing cognitive decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.112998DOI Listing
September 2020

Roller Compaction Scale-Up Made Simple: An Approximate Analytical Solution to Johanson's Rolling Theory.

J Pharm Sci 2020 08 19;109(8):2536-2543. Epub 2020 May 19.

Sanofi S.A., Paris, France.

An approximate analytical solution to Johanson's rolling theory is derived. It is shown that the solution yields a single dimensionless parameter invariant in process scale-up or equipment transfer, which relates the densification factor with process parameters (roll force and gap), geometric parameters (roll diameter and width) and material properties. It is shown that, to a first approximation, the model prediction does not depend on the nip angle evading the need to powder rheometry measurements such as wall friction and internal shear angle. The model is benchmarked against data obtained from pilot-scale roller compactors from different manufacturers as well as literature data from Nesarikar. The model yields good ribbon density predictions even when calibrating material properties from uniaxial die compression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2020.05.004DOI Listing
August 2020

Preparing to Perform Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery on Patients with COVID-19.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2020 Jun;102(11):946-950

Department of Orthopaedics, Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.00454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197341PMC
June 2020

Traditional distance "tip-apex" vs. new calcar referenced "tip-apex" - which one is the best peritrochanteric osteosynthesis failure predictor?

Injury 2020 Mar 21;51(3):674-677. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Orthopaedic Surgeon, Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto - Hospital de Santo António, Portugal.

Introduction: In the treatment of trochanteric fractures, the distance between the tip of the screw and the apex of the femoral head or tip-to-apex distance (TAD) was popularized by Baumgaertner about 20 years ago as an important predictor of failure. Recently, a new reference point for determining the apex has been advocated. In this new calcar tip-to-apex (calTAD) the femoral head apex is referenced to the femoral calcar and not the center of the neck. The aim of this study is to evaluate which of these two indexes is better in predicting failure of pertrochanteric fracture fixation.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective study focusing on pertrochanteric fractures operated in our institution between 2010-2013. Radiographic measurement of both indexes was performed. Demographic information, as well as several variables with recognized influence on the rate of failure, were collected. Finally, logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables independently associated with fixation failure.

Results: A total of 463 pertrochanteric fractures were operated during this time period. One hundred and seventy cases were excluded because of early loss of follow-up (n = 143) or inadequate fluroscopic imaging (n = 27) control precluding accurate measurements. Two hundred and ninety-three fractures were included. Traditional TAD and calTAD were significantly different in the failure group: 24.9 vs. 18.0 mm (p < 0.001) and 29.2 vs. 22.6 mm (p < 0.001) respectively. No other registered variable was significantly different. Multivariate analysis confirms traditional TAD (p = 0.003; OR = 1.10) and calTAD (p = 0.002; OR = 1.12) as independent risk factors for failure.

Discussion/conclusion: Both the traditional TAD and the new calTAD have shown to be relevant indexes and independently predictive of the likelihood of failure of pertrochanteric fracture fixation. Interestingly, we found the optimal threshold for the traditional TAD to be lower (<20 mm) than the traditional cutoff (<25 mm). Our study did not confirm calTAD to be superior to the traditional TAD. From the surgical practice point of view, the authors argue that the ideal position of the screw is the central region of the femoral head (minimal traditional TAD). In case of deviation, it must be infero-central in order to maintain a low calTAD thus minimizing the risk of fixation failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2020.01.024DOI Listing
March 2020

Early Debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) in patients with suspected acute infection after hip or knee arthroplasty - safe, effective and without negative functional impact.

J Bone Jt Infect 2019 10;4(6):300-305. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Orthopaedics, Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) is known to be effective in treating acute periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, deciding to perform additional surgery in the early postoperative period may be challenging as there is the concern of adding morbidity and clinical presentation is often subtle. We mean to assess the impact of early DAIR on final functional outcome. A case-control comparison was performed between patients that underwent DAIR for suspected PJI between 2010-2016 and controls randomly selected (1:2 ratio) from a list of primary joint replacements. Patients were matched for anatomic site, age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, body mass index and follow-up time. The outcome of surgical treatment and complications were assessed and Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) or Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) were performed. Thirty-eight cases were included at a mean follow-up of 42 months. Infection was not confirmed in one patient. There was one infection related-death and three other cases of treatment failure that required a two-stage revision. Overall success rate was 89.2%. There were no significant patient reported differences regarding final functional outcome between both groups: pain 91±6 vs. 87±13; other symptoms 90±8 vs. 90±9; activities of day living 86±8 vs. 85±14; sport 63±13 vs. 57±16; quality of life 78±17 vs. 76±16. These findings support that DAIR for suspected acute PJI is safe, effective and causes no impact on final functional results. Thus, a low threshold for assuming infection and subsequent DAIR may safely be adopted in the early postoperative period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jbji.39168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960028PMC
December 2019