Publications by authors named "Ricardo Dias de Castro"

42 Publications

Cytotoxic and Antifungal Amides Derived from Ferulic Acid: Molecular Docking and Mechanism of Action.

Biomed Res Int 2021 1;2021:3598000. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB, Brazil.

Amides derived from ferulic acid have a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including antitumor and antifungal activity. In the present study, a series of ten amides were obtained by coupling reactions using the reagents (benzotriazol-1-yloxy) tripyrrolidinophosphonium hexafluorophosphate (PyBOP) and 'dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC). All the compounds were identified on the basis of their IR, H- and C-NMR, HRMS data, and with yields ranging from 43.17% to 91.37%. The compounds were subjected to cytotoxic tests by the alamar blue technique and antifungal screening by the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The amides and displayed the best result in both biological evaluations, and compound was the most potent and selective in HL-60 cancer cells, with no cytotoxicity on healthy cells. This amide had antifungal activity in all strains and had the lowest MIC against and . The possible mechanism of antifungal action occurs via the fungal cell wall. Molecular modeling suggested that compounds and interact with the enzymes GWT1 and GSC1, which are essential for the development of . The findings of the present study demonstrated that compounds and may be used as a platform in drug development in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/3598000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8575619PMC
November 2021

Toxicological Parameters of a Formulation Containing Cinnamaldehyde for Use in Treatment of Oral Fungal Infections: An Study.

Biomed Res Int 2021 22;2021:2305695. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Clinical and Social Dentistry, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Paraiba, João Pessoa PB, Brazil.

Objective: We aimed to define the safety and toxicity of both isolated and embedded cinnamaldehyde using a pharmaceutical formulation for the treatment of oral fungal infections in an study.

Materials And Methods: Acute toxicity was assessed in studies with larvae and embryos (zebrafish), and genotoxicity was assessed in a mouse model. The pharmaceutical formulation (orabase ointment) containing cinnamaldehyde was evaluated for verification of both antifungal activity and toxicity in keratinized oral rat mucosa.

Results: In larvae, cinnamaldehyde was not toxic up to the highest dose tested (20 mg/kg) and presented no genotoxicity up to the dose of 4 mg/kg in the model using mice. However, it was found to be toxic in zebrafish embryos up to a concentration of 0.035 g/mL; LC 0.311; EC 0.097 (egg hatching delay); and 0.105 (Pericardial edema). In the orabase antifungal susceptibility test, cinnamaldehyde exhibited activity in concentrations greater than 200 g/mL. As for safety in the animal model with rats, the orabase ointment proved to be safe for use on keratinized mucosa up to the maximum concentration tested (700 g/mL).

Conclusions: At the concentrations tested, cinnamaldehyde was not toxic in vertebrate and invertebrate animal models and did not exhibit genotoxic activity. In addition, when used in the form of an ointment in orabase, having already recognized antifungal activity, it was shown to be safe up to the highest concentration tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/2305695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8556081PMC
October 2021

antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of L. extracts and their toxicity on PBMCs and zebrafish embryos.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2021 Oct 1:1-11. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Graduate Program in Dentistry, Center of Health Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba - UFPB, João Pessoa, Brazil.

This study evaluated the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory action of crude extracts from L. (cashew tree) leaves and bark, and to determine their toxicity to peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and to zebrafish embryos and larvae. Chemical analysis of extracts was performed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against selected bacteria strains by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Cytotoxicity of the extracts was assessed using resazurin method, while the effect on production of ROS by PMN leukocytes was measured by luminol. Embryotoxicity to zebrafish was assessed using the fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) and quantification of toxicity marker enzymes (AChE, LDH, and GST). H-NMR results showed anacardic acid as the main component of the extracts. All bacterial species tested were sensitive to the extracts, with MICs ranging from 312.5 to 10,000 μg/mL. and were the most susceptible species. The extracts promoted cell viability above 75% at concentrations from 1.25 to 80 μg/mL. Both extracts reduced zymosan-induced ROS ( < 0.05) at concentrations of 1, 8, and 80 μg/mL compared to the control. , there were embryotoxic effects in zebrafish embryos exposed to both extracts through the presence of lethal and sublethal endpoints. The samples also acted by inhibiting the activities of biomarker enzymes. The L. bark and leaf extracts showed antimicrobial potential and modulated ROS production , but these also showed embryotoxic effects to zebrafish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2021.1981365DOI Listing
October 2021

COVID-19: Is reinfection possible?

EXCLI J 2021 2;20:522-536. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Psychopharmacology Laboratory, Institute of Drugs and Medicines Research, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil.

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly in many countries, overburdening health systems and causing numerous economic and social impacts. Most studies on the subject have focused on epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment, however, there remains a scientific gap concerning the possibility of reinfection. The purpose of this bibliographic review is to gather information from studies aimed at this possibility, and to clarify what we know so far. It was found that in many situations cured patients are being released from hospitals, however, in some cases, the discharge criteria are not effective. Patients are presenting positive RT-PCR tests. There are several factors that might interfere so that patients cured of COVID-19 continue to test positive, and this would not necessarily represent a case of recurrence, as the test cannot differentiate the viral RNA from the complete virus, which alone is capable of causing the active infection. This review demonstrates that in order to rule out the possibility of COVID-19 reinfection in cured patients, more robust methods need to be adopted as criteria for both clinical discharge and post-hospital follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17179/excli2021-3383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056061PMC
March 2021

Breakpoints for the Classification of Anti- Compounds in Antifungal Screening.

Biomed Res Int 2021 6;2021:6653311. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Clinic and Social Dentistry, Graduate Program in Natural and Synthetic Bioactive Products (PgPNSB), Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Paraiba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil.

Introduction: The absence of a standardized classification scheme for the antifungal potency of compounds screened against species may hinder the study of new drugs. This systematic review proposes a scheme of interpretative breakpoints for the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of bioactive compounds against species in tests.

Materials And Methods: A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs, and SciFinder databases for the period from January 2015 to April 2020. The following inclusion criterion was used: organic compounds tested by the microdilution technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocol against reference strains of the genus . A total of 545 articles were retrieved after removing duplicates. Of these, 106 articles were selected after applying the exclusion criteria and were evaluated according to the number of synthesized molecules and their chemical classes, the type of strain (reference or clinical) used in the antifungal test, the species, and the MIC (in g/mL) used.

Results: The analysis was performed based on the median, quartiles (25% and 75%), maximum, and minimum values of four groups: all strains, ATCC strains, strains, and ATCC strains. The following breakpoints were proposed to define the categories: MIC < 3.515 g/mL (very strong bioactivity); 3.516-25 g/mL (strong bioactivity); 26-100 g/mL (moderate bioactivity); 101-500 g/mL (weak bioactivity); 500-2000 g/mL (very weak bioactivity); and >2000 g/mL (no bioactivity).

Conclusions: A classification scheme of the antifungal potency of compounds against species is proposed that can be used to identify the antifungal potential of new drug candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6653311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046529PMC
May 2021

Integrated oral care contributes positively to the course of treatment of oncopediatric patients.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Sep 22;180(9):2757-2764. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Statistics Department, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil.

The purpose of this study was to implement a model of permanent oral health care for oncopediatric patients and to observe its effects on severe oral mucositis and subsequent treatment interruptions. We performed a quasi-experimental study in the Pediatric Department of Napoleão Laureano Hospital, in the city of João Pessoa, Brazil. A integrated oral care was implemented by a dentistry team for prevention of comorbidities, such as infections, oral pain, oral function maintenance, oral mucositis, and interventions for lesions due to severe oral mucositis. The oral comorbidities were compared before and after the implementation. The duration of severe oral mucositis (SOM) before and after the interventions and the interruptions in treatment due to SOM were the main outcome measures. Permanent oral health care reduced the duration of SOM and reduced pediatric chemotherapy interruptions due to SOM by 81.8%.Conclusion: The permanent oral health care to offer to oncopediatric patients increased surveillance regarding oral comorbidities and reduced chemotherapy interruptions due to severe oral mucositis. This care plan could be adopted anywhere around the world. What is Known: • Several studies on oral care for pediatric oncology patients, especially regarding both prevention of and treatment for oral mucositis during antineoplastic therapy, have been published. What is New: • This study describes the benefits of permanent oral care with daily oral surveillance for pediatric patients, which reduced the duration of severe oral mucositis, increased surveillance and the efficiency in diagnostic for signs of oral mucositis, enabling early intervention, and decreased chemotherapy interruptions, contributing positively to the course of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-021-04024-zDOI Listing
September 2021

The Use of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Compounds for the Treatment of Oral Candidiasis: A Literature Review.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 7;2021:1059274. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Clinical and Social Dentistry, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil.

In this literature review, we present the main scientific findings on the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) applicable for a new drug formulation to treat oral candidiasis. Seven literature databases were systematically searched for eligible in vitro and clinical trials. Selected articles were screened for biological activity, botanical species, phytochemical composition, study design, and methodological quality. A total of 26 articles were included in the review, of which 21 were in vitro studies and 5 clinical trials. The most promising EOs were obtained from , , , and L. Among the phytochemicals, citral and thymol were the most active. Clinical trials indicated that the EOs from and are potentially effective to treat oral candidiasis. Further nonclinical and clinical studies with these EO are warranted to determine their potential use and safety for the treatment of oral candidiasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/1059274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810551PMC
January 2021

Efficacy of essential oil of cinnamon for the treatment of oral candidiasis: A randomized trial.

Spec Care Dentist 2021 May 21;41(3):349-357. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Departament of Clinical and Social Dentistry, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil.

Aim: It was analyzed the efficacy of mouthwash and spray containing essential oil (EO) of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume for the treatment of oral candidiasis.

Methods And Results: A randomized, controlled, and blinded clinical trial was conducted with 36 individuals (probabilistic sample) with oral candidiasis who were divided into two treatment groups: C. zeylanicum (0.5 mg/mL), n = 18; nystatin (100,000IU/mL), n = 18. The efficacy of the products was evaluated by two parameters: (a) clinical evolution recorded by calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.822) according to Newton's classification and (b) reduction of colony-forming units/mL. Mycological and clinical parameters were analyzed before and at 15 days after treatment. Clinical examination of the mucosa showed that C. zeylanicum (p < 0.0339) and nystatin (p < .0139) had efficacy, resulting in a reduction of signs and symptoms (Mann-Whitney test). Mycological analysis showed that C. zeylanicum caused a reduction of 61% and 33% of Candida spp., isolates oral mucosa and dentures, respectively. Candida tropicalis strains were eliminated after C. zeylanicum, in both sites. The participants reported a pleasant taste and few product-related complaints.

Conclusion: C. zeylanicum EO and nystatin exhibited clinical efficacy, according to the Newton classification, and reducing in Candida spp. The clinical trial has been registered (Registration number: NBR-33s6 × 5, ensaiosclinicos.gov.br).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/scd.12570DOI Listing
May 2021

Risk factors for anterior open bite: A case-control study.

Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2020 Sep-Oct;17(5):388-394. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Brazilian Dental Association, University Hospital Lauro Wanderley, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil.

Background: Anterior open bite (AOB) is noteworthy because it is a complex dysplasia, and clinical studies on this malocclusion are usually epidemiological studies or experimental models with small samples and no control group, which renders the data on AOB incomplete and therefore inconclusive. The objective this study was to assess the risk factors involved in developing AOB.

Materials And Methods: A case-control study was provided with a total of 96 lateral cephalometric radiographs of male and female patients aged between 8 and 14 years were used, regardless of facial type. The dependent variable was the presence or absence of AOB, which divided the participants into case and control groups, respectively; these groups were matched for gender and age. The case and control groups data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential analysis by binary logistic regression using at the 5% significance level.

Results: The occurrence of AOB was associated with the presence of deleterious oral habits ( = 0.014; Chi-square test) and was approximately three times (odds ratio = 3.04) more likely to occur in participants with AOB. No significant association between the presence of mouth breathing and the occurrence of AOB was found ( = 0.151; Chi-square test). The odds associated with tongue interposition were 10.51 times higher than those of participants with no such deglutition. The odds associated with the dolichofacial pattern were 5.74 times those of participants with a nondolichofacial pattern.

Conclusion: Tongue interposition and dolichocephalic facial pattern were risk factors for developing AOB.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737827PMC
September 2020

Docking Prediction, Antifungal Activity, Anti-Biofilm Effects on spp., and Toxicity against Human Cells of Cinnamaldehyde.

Molecules 2020 Dec 16;25(24). Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Clinic and Social Dentistry, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Paraiba, João Pessoa-PB 58051-900, Brazil.

Objective: This study evaluated the antifungal activity of cinnamaldehyde on spp. In vitro and in situ assays were carried out to test cinnamaldehyde for its anti- effects, antibiofilm activity, effects on fungal micromorphology, antioxidant activity, and toxicity on keratinocytes and human erythrocytes. Statistical analysis was performed considering α = 5%.

Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of cinnamaldehyde ranged from 18.91 μM to 37.83 μM. MIC values did not change in the presence of 0.8 M sorbitol, whereas an 8-fold increase was observed in the presence of ergosterol, suggesting that cinnamaldehyde may act on the cell membrane, which was subsequently confirmed by docking analysis. The action of cinnamaldehyde likely includes binding to enzymes involved in the formation of the cytoplasmic membrane in yeast cells. Cinnamaldehyde-treated microcultures showed impaired cellular development, with an expression of rare pseudo-hyphae and absence of chlamydoconidia. Cinnamaldehyde reduced biofilm adherence by 64.52% to 33.75% ( < 0.0001) at low concentrations (378.3-151.3 µM). Cinnamaldehyde did not show antioxidant properties.

Conclusions: Cinnamaldehyde showed fungicidal activity through a mechanism of action likely related to ergosterol complexation; it was non-cytotoxic to keratinocytes and human erythrocytes and showed no antioxidant activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767272PMC
December 2020

Cinnamaldehyde is a biologically active compound for the disinfection of removable denture: blinded randomized crossover clinical study.

BMC Oral Health 2020 08 17;20(1):223. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Clinical and Social Dentistry, Federal University of Paraíba, Campus I, João Pessoa, PB, 58051-970, Brazil.

Background: Fungal infections associated with the use of dentures, like denture stomatitis, are difficult to prevent and treat. This in situ study aimed to investigate the efficacy of cinnamaldehyde for the disinfection of complete removable dentures, and the effect on the physical and mechanical properties (Vickers microhardness, color, and surface roughness) of the acrylic resin.

Methods: Acrylic resin disks were inserted into the dentures of a probabilistic sample of 33 complete denture users, that used cinnamaldehyde (27 μg/mL) and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solutions in a 20 min/7-days protocol of dentures immersion in each solution, with a wash-out period of 7 days, to constitute a crossover-study. The disks were analyzed before and after the immersion, for the presence of microorganisms (CFU/mL) and by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Also, the surface roughness (Ra) and Vickers microhardness were measured, and color parameters were analyzed using the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) method. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon and Friedman (microbiological evaluation), paired t-test (color and roughness) and independent t-test (Vickers hardness) (α = 0.05).

Results: A significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the number of microorganisms was observed for each species (total microorganisms, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida spp.), with no significant differences (P > 0.05) between hypochlorite and cinnamaldehyde. There was an increase in the roughness and a decrease in the hardness of the test specimens, with no difference between the two disinfectant substances (P > 0.05). Both hypochlorite and cinnamaldehyde also caused changes in color, considered as "perceptible" by the NBS classification, but with no significant difference between disinfectant substances (P < 0.05), and under the clinically acceptable limit (ΔE ≤ 3.7).

Conclusion: The 27 μg/mL cinnamaldehyde solution was effective against all evaluated microorganisms and caused minor alterations in hardness, surface roughness, and color parameters, with no clinical relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-020-01212-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7433048PMC
August 2020

Orofacial antinociceptive activity and anchorage molecular mechanism in silico of geraniol.

Braz Oral Res 2020 7;34:e094. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Clinical and Social Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil.

We aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of geraniol in mice and its molecular anchorage mechanism. Seven mice per group (probabilistic sample) were treated with geraniol (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.), morphine (6 mg/kg, i.p.) and vehicle (saline + Tween 80 at 0.2%, i.p.) 30 minutes prior to the beginning of the experiment. Injecting glutamate (25 μM), capsaicin (2.5 μg) and formalin (2%) into the right upper lip (perinasal) of the mouse induced nociception. Behavioral analysis of the animals considered the friction time (in seconds) of the mentioned region using hind or front paws by a researcher blinded to the treatment groups. The statistical analysis was performed blindly, considering α = 5%. The results showed that in the glutamate and capsaicin tests, concentrations of 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg presented antinociceptive activity (p < 0.005, power> 80%). In the formalin test, geraniol was able to reduce nociception at a concentration of 50 mg/kg (p < 0.005, power> 80%). In the molecular anchorage study, high values of binding between the evaluated substance and receptors of glutamate were observed (metabotropic glutamate receptor, -87.8501 Kcal/mol; N-methyl-D-aspartate, -86.4451 Kcal/mol; α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid, -85.6755 Kcal/mol). Geraniol presented orofacial antinociceptive activity, probably by interacting with glutamate-related receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2020.vol34.0094DOI Listing
September 2020

Antifungal activity of Punicalagin-nystatin combinations against Candida albicans.

Oral Dis 2020 Nov 29;26(8):1810-1819. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Surgery, Stomatology, Pathology and Radiology, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo (USP), Bauru, Brazil.

Objectives: Oral candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection of oral mucosa and results from an overgrowth of Candida, especially Candida albicans. The potential anti-C. albicans and cytotoxicity of punicalagin (PCG), isolated from Punica granatum, alone or with nystatin (NYS) were evaluated.

Methods: Activity of compounds alone or in combinations was determined against two C. albicans strains (ATCC 90028 and SC5314). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)-50 and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were assessed by XTT assay and CFU counts, respectively. For combinations, determination of fractional inhibitory concentration index was performed. Ergosterol pathway was investigated as a possible PCG antifungal mechanism. Cytotoxicity assays were undertaken on human primary oral keratinocytes and gingival fibroblasts incubated with antifungal concentrations of PCG and/or NYS for 24 hr.

Results: Combination of NYS and PCG increased antifungal efficacy, compared with compounds tested alone. Combinations 4 (PCG-6.25 μg/ml; NYS-3.9 μg/ml) and 5 (PCG-12.5 μg/ml; NYS-1.95 μg/ml) were more effective since they reduced the MIC-50 of PCG (50 μg/ml) by 8 and 4 times, respectively, increased the candidal inhibition and nullified the PCG cytotoxicity for keratinocytes. PCG antifungal mechanism did not involve ergosterol biosynthesis pathway.

Conclusions: The favorable outcomes for combination of PCG and NYS encourage further testing this therapeutic strategy against C. albicans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13507DOI Listing
November 2020

Perillyl alcohol has antibacterial effects and reduces ROS production in macrophages.

J Appl Oral Sci 2020 27;28:e20190519. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Odontologia, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil.

Natural products have emerged as a rich source of bioactive compounds for adjunctive treatments of many infectious and inflammatory conditions, including periodontitis. Among the monoterpenes with significant biological properties, there is the perillyl alcohol (POH), which can be found in several essential oils and has shown immunomodulatory properties in recent studies, which may be interesting in the treatment of non-neoplastic inflammatory disorders. Objective To determine the antibacterial and immune modulatory activities of the POH. Methodology The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the POH for two significant Gram-negative periodontal pathogens were determined by macrodilution and subculture, respectively. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 macrophages were determined by Trypan Blue and mitochondrial enzymatic activity assay. The modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was analyzed by flow cytometry and expression of TNF and arginase-1 by real-time PCR. Results The POH was effective against P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277) and F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) with MIC= MBC=1600 μM. No cytotoxicity up to 100 µM was observed on macrophages. The cell proliferation was inhibited from 48 hours at 100 μM (p<0.05) and 250 μM (p<0.01). The POH increased ROS production at both 10 μM and 100 μM (p<0.05) in unstimulated cells. The PMA-induced ROS production was not affected by POH, whereas 100 μM significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced (LPS-induced) ROS. The expression of TNF was not affected by POH in unstimulated cells or in cells polarized to M1 phenotype, whereas both concentrations of POH reduced (p<0.05) the expression of arginase-1 in M2-polarized macrophages. Conclusion The POH has antibacterial activity against periodontal pathogens and reduced proliferation of murine macrophages without significant cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 100 μM. In addition, the POH reduced the LPS-induced ROS and the expression of arginase-1 in M2-polarized macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-7757-2019-0519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185983PMC
May 2020

Differences between the oral changes presented by patients with solid and hematologic tumors during the chemotherapeutic treatment.

J Appl Oral Sci 2020 25;28:e20190020. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil.

Objective: This study sought to identify the differences between the oral changes presented by patients with solid and hematologic tumors during chemotherapeutic treatment.

Methodology: This is an observational, prospective and quantitative study using direct documentation by follow-up of 105 patients from 0 to 18 years using the modified Oral Assessment Guide (OAG). Of the 105 patients analyzed, 57 (54.3%) were boys with 7.3 years (±5.2) mean age. Hematologic neoplasms accounted for 51.4% of all cases.

Results: Voice, lips, tongue, and saliva changes were not significantly different (p>0.05) between patients with solid or hematologic tumors and during the follow-up. From the 6th until the 10th week of chemotherapeutic treatment alterations in swallowing function, in the mucous membrane (buccal mucosa and palate), in the labial mucosa, and in the gingiva occurred and were distributed differently between the two tumors groups (p<0.05). The main alterations were observed in patients with hematologic tumors.

Conclusion: It was concluded that the oral changes during the chemotherapeutic treatment occurred especially in swallowing function, in the mucous membrane, in the labial mucosa and in the gingiva, and these alterations were found mainly in patients with hematologic tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-7757-2019-0020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6882646PMC
January 2020

Amides Derived from Vanillic Acid: Coupling Reactions, Antimicrobial Evaluation, and Molecular Docking.

Biomed Res Int 2019 15;2019:9209676. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB, Brazil.

A series of amides derived from vanillic acid were obtained by coupling reactions using PyBOP ((Benzotriazol-1-yloxy)tripyrrolidinophosphonium hexafluorophosphate) and DCC (Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide) coupling reagents. These were submitted to biological evaluation for species of , , and . The microdilution method in broth was used for the antimicrobial testing to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and to verify the likely mechanism of action for antifungal activity. The ten amides were obtained with yields ranging from 28.81 to 86.44%, and three compounds were novel. In the antibacterial evaluation, the amides (in their greatest concentrations) were bioactive against strain ATCC 25925. Meanwhile, all of the tested amides presented antifungal activity against at least one strain. The amide with best antifungal profile was compound , which featured an MIC of 0.46 mol/mL, and a mechanism of action involving the plasma membrane and fungal cell wall. The presence of a methyl group in the position of the aromatic ring is suggested which enhances the activity of the compound against fungi. Docking studies of the ten compounds using the protein 14-demethylase as a biological target were also performed. The biological results presented good correlation with molecular docking studies demonstrating that a possible site of antifungal action for bioactive amides is the enzyme 14-demethylase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/9209676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6500666PMC
November 2019

Antifungal Activity, Mode of Action, Docking Prediction and Anti-biofilm Effects of (+)-β-pinene Enantiomers against Candida spp.

Curr Top Med Chem 2018 ;18(29):2481-2490

Federal University of Paraiba, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, PB, Brazil.

Aims: The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of (+)-β-pinene inhibition on Candida spp. growth, aiming at elucidation of the mechanism of action; to determine fungal cell enzyme binding activity (through molecular docking simulations) and its effects on biofilm reduction.

Methods: Candida strains (n=25) from referenced and clinical origins, either susceptible or resistant to standard clinical antifungals, were tested for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC); Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC); and microbial death curves upon treatment with (+)-β-pinene; the effects of (+)-β-pinene on the cell wall (sorbitol assay), membrane ergosterol binding, and effects on biofilm were evaluated by microdilution techniques. We also evaluated the interactions between (+)-β-pinene and cell wall and membrane enzymes of interest.

Results: The MIC values of (+)-β-pinene ranged from <56.25 to 1800 µmol/L. The MIC of (+)-β-pinene did not increase when ergosterol was added to the medium, however it did increase in the presence of sorbitol, leading to a doubled MIC for C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The results of the molecular docking simulations indicated better interaction with delta-14-sterol reductase (-51 kcal/mol). (+)-β-pinene presents anti-biofilm activity against multiples species of Candida.

Conclusion: (+)-β-pinene has antifungal activity and most likely acts through interference with the cell wall; through molecular interaction with Delta-14-sterol reductase and, to a lesser extent, with the 1,3-β- glucan synthase. This molecule was also found to effectively reduce Candida biofilm adhesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026618666181115103104DOI Listing
April 2019

Effect of Blume Essential Oil on spp. Involved in Oral Infections.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 17;2018:4045013. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Graduate Program in Dentistry, Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB), 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB, Brazil.

The present study demonstrates the antifungal potential of chemically characterized essential oil (EO) of Blume on spp. biofilm and establishes its mode of action, effect on fungal growth kinetics, and cytotoxicity to human cells. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values varied from 62.5 to 1,000 g/mL, and the effect seems to be due to interference with cell wall biosynthesis. The kinetics assay showed that EO at MICx2 (500 g/mL) induced a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of the fungal growth after exposure for 8 h. At this concentration, the EO was also able to hinder biofilm formation and reduce spp. monospecies and multispecies in mature biofilm at 24 h and 48 h (p < 0.05). A protective effect on human red blood cells was detected with the EO at concentrations up to 750 g/mL, as well as an absence of a significant reduction (p > 0.05) in the viability of human red blood cells at concentrations up to 1,000 g/mL. Phytochemical analysis identified eugenol as the main component (68.96%) of the EO. Blume EO shows antifungal activity, action on the yeast cell wall, and a deleterious effect on spp. biofilms. This natural product did not show evidence of cytotoxicity toward human cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/4045013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6207861PMC
October 2018

Effect of chitosan nanoparticles on the inhibition of Candida spp. biofilm on denture base surface.

Arch Oral Biol 2018 Oct 9;94:99-107. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Avenida Doutor Raimundo Rezende n. 330, Centro, Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, 35012-140, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: Chitosan nanoparticles (ChNPs) have antifungal effects, however there is a lack of information about the effects of ChNPs against Candida biofilm on denture base surface. This study investigated the ChNPs effect against C. albicans biofilm adhesion and formation, and against Candida spp. biofilm on heat-cured acrylic resin.

Design: The ChNPs were synthetized (3800 μg/mL) and characterized by infra-red spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy. The minimum inhibitory/fungicidal concentrations (MIC/MFC) against Candida spp. were determined. The time-kill assay and changes on C. albicans micromorphology were evaluated. The % inhibition of ChNPs on C. albicans biofilm formation and reduction were investigated using 1 min and 8 h exposure. Candida biofilm was developed on resin surfaces and ChNPs were applied every 8 h for 5 days. After, fungal cells were counted (CFU/mL) and the surface roughness (Ra) and vickers microhardness (HV) of resin were analysed. For all experiments, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) was used as control. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey and paired t-tests (α = 0.05).

Results: The MIC of ChNPs was 30.1 μg/mL. ChNPs at 4 MIC showed complete inhibition in the time-kill assays. Blastoconidia cells were predominant after ChNPs application. The % inhibition ChNPs on C. albicans was proportional to its concentration, regardless of the exposure time. ChNPs decreased the CFU/mL of Candida spp. and showed lower alteration of HV and Ra values of resin surface compared to NaOCl.

Conclusions: The ChNPs inhibited C. albicans biofilm, reduced Candida biofilm on resin and caused small changes in roughness and hardness of acrylic resin surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.07.004DOI Listing
October 2018

Factors Contributing to the Duration of Chemotherapy-Induced Severe Oral Mucositis in Oncopediatric Patients.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 06 1;15(6). Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Departament of Clinical and Social Dentistry, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Paraíba 50445, Brazil.

This study analyzes the factors contributing to the duration of severe oral mucositis in oncopediatric patients. A longitudinal study was conducted in the pediatric department of a cancer referral hospital between 2013 and 2017. Seventy-three patients diagnosed with cancer undergoing chemotherapy protocols were analyzed. Oral evaluations were performed using the criteria, and the data were collected from the patients' records. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival curves. Most patients were males (52.1%), of mixed race ("pardo") (49.3%), with a mean age of 7.56 years (±5.34). There was a predominance of patients diagnosed with solid tumors (52.1%), with no metastasis (86.3%), using natural product chemotherapeutics (56.2%), who had not undergone a bone marrow transplant (97.3%); amputation was observed in 35.6% of patients, while death rates were as high as 8.2%. The survival analysis estimated a mean time of 30.6 days until complete remission of severe oral mucositis. The regression analysis showed that patients over 10 years old had a median mucositis duration 1.4 times greater than those at the age of 10 years or younger. Patients without metastasis had a median mucositis duration 1.7 times greater than those with metastasis (-value ≤ 0.10). Increasing age and the absence of metastasis were conditions that prolonged the duration of severe oral mucositis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6025254PMC
June 2018

TiF4 varnish protects the retention of brackets to enamel after in vitro mild erosive challenge.

J Appl Oral Sci 2018 May 14;26:e20170222. Epub 2018 May 14.

Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Odontologia, Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brasil.

The effect of fluoride agents on the retention of orthodontic brackets to enamel under erosive challenge is little investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) and sodium fluoride (NaF) agents on the shear bond strength of brackets to enamel and on the enamel microhardness around brackets under erosive challenge. Brackets were bonded to bovine incisors. Five groups were formed according to fluoride application (n=10): TiF4 varnish, TiF4 solution, NaF varnish, NaF solution and control (without application). The specimens were submitted to erosive challenge (90 s cola drink/2h artificial saliva, 4x per day for 7 days). Solutions were applied before each erosive cycle and varnishes were applied once. Vickers Microhardness (VHN) was obtained before and after all cycles of erosion and the percentage of microhardness loss was calculated. Shear bond strength, adhesive remnant index and polarized light microscopy were conducted after erosion. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (α=0.05). The %VHN had no statistically significant differences among the experimental groups. However, considering the comparisons of all groups with the control group, TiF4 varnish showed the highest protection from enamel demineralization (effect size of 2.94, while the effect size for the other groups was >2.4). The TiF4 varnish group had significantly higher shear bond strength compared to other groups. There was no difference among groups for adhesive remnant index. Polarized light microscopy showed higher demineralization depth for the control group. Application of NaF and TiF4 agents during mild erosive challenge minimized the enamel mineral loss around brackets, however only the experimental TiF4 varnish was able to prevent the reduction of shear bond strength of brackets to enamel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-7757-2017-0222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5958938PMC
May 2018

Relationship between Risk Behavior for Eating Disorders and Dental Caries and Dental Erosion.

ScientificWorldJournal 2017 20;2017:1656417. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Department of Dentistry, State University of Paraíba, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is an association between risk behavior for eating disorders (EDs) and dental erosion and caries. A controlled cross-sectional study was conducted in Brazil, involving 850 randomly selected female adolescents. After evaluating risk behavior for eating disorders through the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh, 12 adolescents were identified with severe risk behavior for EDs and matched to 48 adolescents without such risk. Dental examinations, anthropometric measurements, and eating habits and oral hygiene were performed. Adolescents with high severity eating disorder condition were not more likely to show dental caries ( = 0.329; OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 0.35-13.72) or dental erosion ( = 0.590; OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 0.56-9.70). Adolescents with high body mass index (BMI) were five times more likely to have high severity eating disorder condition ( = 0.031; OR = 5.1; 95% CI: 1.61-23.07). Therefore, high severity risk behavior for EDs was not significantly associated with dental caries and dental erosion. However, high BMI was a risk factor for developing eating disorders and should be an alert for individuals with this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/1656417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5750506PMC
August 2018

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in the maxillary sinus with orbital involvement in a pediatric patient: Case report.

World J Clin Cases 2017 Dec;5(12):440-445

Department of Clinical and Social Dentistry, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58051-900, Brazil.

This report presents a case of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (eRMS) located in the left maxillary sinus and invading the orbital cavity in a ten-year-old male patient who was treated at a referral hospital. The images provided from the computed tomography showed a heterogeneous mass with soft-tissue density, occupying part of the left half of the face inside the maxillary sinus, and infiltrating and destroying the bone structure of the maxillary sinus, left orbit, ethmoidal cells, nasal cavity, and sphenoid sinus. An analysis of the histological sections revealed an undifferentiated malignant neoplasm infiltrating the skeletal muscle tissue. The immunohistochemical analysis was positive for the antigens: MyoD1, myogenin, desmin, and Ki67 (100% positivity in neoplastic cells), allowing the identification of the tumour as an eRMS. The treatment protocol included initial chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy and finally surgery. The total time of the treatment was nine months, and in 18-mo of follow-up period did not show no local recurrences and a lack of visual impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v5.i12.440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5740190PMC
December 2017

Oral Mucositis in Pediatric Patients in Treatment for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 11 28;14(12). Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Department of Clinical and Social Dentistry, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Paraíba 5045, Brazil.

Oral mucositis in oncologic patients is the most undesirable event of the chemotherapeutic treatment. This study aimed to identify damage to the oral cavity resulting from chemotherapy in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This is a prospective study with a sample of 42 children and adolescents evaluated for 10 consecutive weeks after diagnosis. The modified Oral Assessment Guide (OAG) was used, and data were analyzed by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (α = 5%). Changes to the normal lips and saliva were positively related to an increase in the OAG score during all 10 weeks of evaluation. Alterations to the labial mucosa were correlated with an increase in the OAG score from the 2nd to 10th week, which was also found for changes in the tongue and in the swallowing function in Weeks 1, 6, 8, 9, and 10 and for gum changes from the 5th to 7th week. No significant vocal changes were correlated with the total OAG score at any point during the monitoring period. Changes in lips, cheek and/or palatal mucosa, labial mucosa, and gum areas and in swallowing function were positively correlated with an increase in the severity of oral mucositis in patients with ALL after beginning chemotherapeutic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5750887PMC
November 2017

Antibiofilm Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Disinfectant Chloramine T on Candida spp., and Its Toxicity against Human Cells.

Molecules 2017 Sep 17;22(9). Epub 2017 Sep 17.

Graduate Program in Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), João Pessoa PB 58051900, Brazil.

We evaluated the antifungal and anti-biofilm activity, mechanism of action and cytotoxicity of chloramine T trihydrate (CAT) against spp. The Minimum Inhibitory and Fungicidal Concentrations (MIC/MFC) of CAT were determined. Changes in CAT-treated growth kinetics and micromorphology were evaluated, as well as the mechanism of action, and its effects on biofilm. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the hemolysis method. The data were analyzed by inferential statistics ( ≤ 0.05). CAT showed antifungal activity against all strains, with MIC values ranging between 1.38 and 5.54 mmol/L (MIC: 2.77 mmol/L). CAT demonstrated an immediate and sustained action on growth kinetics, particularly at 2 × MIC. This compound likely acts on the cell wall and membrane permeability simultaneously and was found to cause changes in micromorphology. Tha antibiofilm activity of CAT was similar to that of sodium hypochlorite ( > 0.05) against mature biofilms. CAT was more effective than NaOCl in reducing mature biofilm upon 1-min exposure at 2 × MIC (24 h) and 4 × MIC (48 h) ( < 0.05). Toxicological analysis revealed that CAT had hemolytic activity between 61 and 67.7% as compared to 100% by NaOCl. CAT has antifungal and anti-biofilm properties, probably acting on both cell wall and membrane permeability, and showed low toxicity in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6151619PMC
September 2017

Alternative Animal and Non-Animal Models for Drug Discovery and Development: Bonus or Burden?

Pharm Res 2017 04 17;34(4):681-686. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), 901 Limeira Ave., 13414-018, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.

Mammalian models have served as a basis for R&D over the past decades. Nevertheless, these models are expensive, laborious, may yield results that cannot always be translated into the human in vivo situation and, more recently, have reverberated great social and ethical dilemmas. Hence, the prospect of changes in the global scientific scenario and the Three Rs principle (Reduction, Replacement and Refinement) have encouraged the development of alternative methods to the use of mammals. Despite the efforts, suitable alternative tests are not available in all areas of biomedical research, as regulatory acceptance requires time, prior validation and robust financial and scientific investment. In this perspective, we aim to shed light on the concepts, challenges and perspectives for implementation of innovative alternative animal and non-animal methods in scientific research. The applicability and meaningfulness of invertebrate animal models, in silico analysis and reverse pharmacology are discussed, among other aspects of relevance in today's scenario. Overall, the use of alternative models, including Artemia salina (brine shrimp), Caenorhabditis elegans (roundworm), Danio rerio (zebra fish), Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), Galleria mellonella (greater waxmoth) and in silico modelling, increased 909% from 1990 to 2015, as compared to 154% of conventional mammals in the same period. Thus, technological and scientific advancements in the fields of toxicology and drug development seem to have diminished the need for mammalian models. Today, however, mammals still remain critically indispensable to provide - in most cases -reliable data subsidizing and validating translation into the clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-016-2069-zDOI Listing
April 2017

Accessibility to Specialized Public Oral Health Services from the Perspective of Brazilian Users.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016 10 19;13(10). Epub 2016 Oct 19.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Odontologia, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa 58051-900, PB, Brazil.

The Specialized Dental Clinics (SDCs) represent the first government initiative in Latin America aimed at providing specialized oral health services. This study sought to evaluate the organizational accessibility to specialized oral health care services in Brazil and to understand the factors that may be associated with accessibility from the user's perspective. This epidemiological, cross-sectional and quantitative study was conducted by means of interviews with individuals who sought specialized public oral health services in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, and consisted of a sample of 590 individuals. Users expressed a favorable view of the classification and resolutive nature of specialized services offered by Brazilian public health. The binary logistic regression analysis revealed weak points highlighting the difficulty involved in obtaining such treatments leading to unfavorable evaluations. In the resolutive nature item, difficulty in accessing the location, queues and lack of materials and equipment were highlighted as statistically significant unfavorable aspects. While many of the users considered the service to be resolutive, weaknesses were mentioned that need to be detected to promote improvements and to prevent other health models adopted worldwide from reproducing the same flaws.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5086765PMC
October 2016

Antifungal activity, mode of action and anti-biofilm effects of Laurus nobilis Linnaeus essential oil against Candida spp.

Arch Oral Biol 2017 Jan 18;73:179-185. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Graduate Program in Dentistry, Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB), João Pessoa, 58051-900, Paraíba, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: The present study demonstrated the antifungal potential of the chemically characterized essential oil (EO) of Laurus nobilis L. (bay laurel) against Candida spp. biofilm adhesion and formation, and further established its mode of action on C. albicans.

Methods: L. nobilis EO was obtained and tested for its minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations (MIC/MFC) against Candida spp., as well as for interaction with cell wall biosynthesis and membrane ionic permeability. Then we evaluated its effects on the adhesion, formation, and reduction of 48hC. albicans biofilms. The EO phytochemical profile was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

Results: The MIC and MFC values of the EO ranged from (250 to 500) μg/mL. The MIC values increased in the presence of sorbitol (osmotic protector) and ergosterol, which indicates that the EO may affect cell wall biosynthesis and membrane ionic permeability, respectively. At 2 MIC the EO disrupted initial adhesion of C. albicans biofilms (p<0.05) and affected biofilm formation with no difference compared to nystatin (p>0.05). When applied for 1min, every 8h, for 24h and 48h, the EO reduced the amount of C. albicans mature biofilm with no difference in relation to nystatin (p>0.05). The phytochemical analysis identified isoeugenol as the major compound (53.49%) in the sample.

Conclusions: L. nobilis EO has antifungal activity probably due to monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in its composition. This EO may affect cell wall biosynthesis and membrane permeability, and showed deleterious effects against C. albicans biofilms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.10.013DOI Listing
January 2017

Eugenia uniflora Dentifrice for Treating Gingivitis in Children: Antibacterial Assay and Randomized Clinical Trial.

Braz Dent J 2016 Jul-Aug;27(4):387-92

Department of Speech Therapy, UFPB - Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil.

School-age children are frequently at high risk for the onset of biofilm-dependent conditions, including dental caries and periodontal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a dentifrice containing Eugenia uniflora Linn. (Surinam cherry) extract versus a triclosan-based comparator in treating gingivitis in children aged 10-12 years. The in vitro antibacterial potential of the dentifrice was tested against oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus casei). Then a phase-II clinical trial was conducted with 50 subjects aged 10-12 years, with clinical signs of gingivitis. The subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=25) and control group (n=25), in which participants used the experimental dentifrice and a triclosan-based fluoridated dentifrice (Colgate Total 12(r)), respectively. Clinical examinations assessed the presence of gingivitis (primary outcome) and biofilm accumulation (secondary outcome) using the Gingival-Bleeding Index (GBI) and Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and after seven days of tooth brushing 3x/day. The data were analyzed using paired and unpaired t-test (GBI) and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney (OHI-S), with p≤0.05. The experimental dentifrice showed efficient antibacterial activity in vitro. In the clinical trial, a significant reduction in gingival bleeding was observed in both experimental and control groups (p<0.0001), with no statistical difference between them (p=0.178), although a small size effect was observed. Biofilm accumulation was only reduced in the control group (p=0.0039). In conclusion, E. uniflora dentifrice showed anti-gingivitis properties in children aged 10-12 years. Thus, it may be a potentially efficient and safe product to be used alternatively in preventive dental practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201600769DOI Listing
March 2017

Microbial contamination in intraoral phosphor storage plates: the dilemma.

Clin Oral Investig 2017 Jan 16;21(1):301-307. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

Department of Clinical and Preventive Dentistry, Federal University of Pernambuco, Av. Professor Morais Rego, 1235 - Cidade Universitária, Recife, Recife, Pernambuco, 50670-901, Brazil.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate microbial contamination in phosphor storage plates in dental radiology services and discuss the possible origin of this contamination.

Materials And Methods: The sample comprised 50 phosphor plates: 14 plates from service A, 30 from service B, and 6 in the control group, consisting of plates never used. Damp sterile swabs were rubbed on the phosphor plates, and then transferred to tests tubes containing sterile saline solution. Serial dilutions were made, and then inoculated in triplicate on Mueller Hinton agar plates and incubated at 37 °C/48 h, before counting the colony-forming units (CFU). The samples were also seeded in brain-heart infusion medium to confirm contamination by turbidity of the culture medium. All solutions, turbid and clean, were seeded in selective and non-selective media.

Results: At service A and B, 50 and 73.3 % of the phosphor plates were contaminated, respectively. This contamination was mainly due to bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus. CFU counts ranged from 26.4 to 80.0 CFU/plate.

Conclusions: Most of the phosphor plates evaluated shown to be contaminated, mainly by Staphylococcus ssp. Quantitatively, this contamination occurred at low levels, possibly arising from handling of the plates. The use of a second plastic barrier may have diminished contamination by microorganisms from the oral cavity.

Clinical Relevance: There is a risk of cross-contamination by phosphor storage plates used in dental radiology services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-016-1790-7DOI Listing
January 2017
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