Publications by authors named "Rianne van der Kleij"

33 Publications

Patients' and healthcare professionals' beliefs, perceptions and needs towards chronic kidney disease self-management in China: a qualitative study.

BMJ Open 2021 Mar 4;11(3):e044059. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To support the adaptation and translation of an evidence-based chronic kidney disease (CKD) self-management intervention to the Chinese context, we examined the beliefs, perceptions and needs of Chinese patients with CKD and healthcare professionals (HCPs) towards CKD self-management.

Design: A basic interpretive, cross-sectional qualitative study comprising semistructured interviews and observations.

Setting: One major tertiary referral hospital in Henan province, China.

Participants: 11 adults with a diagnosis of CKD with CKD stages G1-G5 and 10 HCPs who worked in the Department of Nephrology.

Results: Four themes emerged: (1) CKD illness perceptions, (2) understanding of and motivation towards CKD self-management, (3) current CKD practice and (4) barriers, (anticipated) facilitators and needs towards CKD self-management. Most patients and HCPs solely mentioned medical management of CKD, and self-management was largely unknown or misinterpreted as adherence to medical treatment. Also, the majority of patients only mentioned performing disease-specific acts of control and not, for instance, behaviour for coping with emotional problems. A paternalistic patient-HCP relationship was often present. Finally, the barriers, facilitators and needs towards CKD self-management were frequently related to knowledge and environmental context and resources.

Conclusions: The limited understanding of CKD self-management, as observed, underlines the need for educational efforts on the use and benefits of self-management before intervention implementation. Also, specific characteristics and needs within the Chinese context need to guide the development or tailoring of CKD self-management interventions. Emphasis should be placed on role management and emotional coping skills, while self-management components should be tailored by addressing the existing paternalistic patient-HCP relationship. The use of electronic health innovations can be an essential facilitator for implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-044059DOI Listing
March 2021

A systematic approach to context-mapping to prepare for health interventions: development and validation of the SETTING-tool in four countries.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Jan;6(1)

Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Effectiveness of health interventions can be substantially impaired by implementation failure. Context-driven implementation strategies are critical for successful implementation. However, there is no practical, evidence-based guidance on how to map the context in order to design context-driven strategies. Therefore, this practice paper describes the development and validation of a systematic context-mapping tool. The tool was cocreated with local end-users through a multistage approach. As proof of concept, the tool was used to map beliefs and behaviour related to chronic respiratory disease within the FRESH AIR project in Uganda, Kyrgyzstan, Vietnam and Greece. Feasibility and acceptability were evaluated using the modified Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity. Effectiveness was assessed by the degree to which context-driven adjustments were made to implementation strategies of FRESH AIR health interventions. The resulting Setting-Exploration-Treasure-Trail-to-Inform-implementatioN-strateGies (SETTING-tool) consisted of six steps: (1) Coset study priorities with local stakeholders, (2) Combine a qualitative rapid assessment with a quantitative survey (a mixed-method design), (3) Use context-sensitive materials, (4) Collect data involving community researchers, (5) Analyse pragmatically and/or in-depth to ensure timely communication of findings and (6) Continuously disseminate findings to relevant stakeholders. Use of the tool proved highly feasible, acceptable and effective in each setting. To conclude, the SETTING-tool is validated to systematically map local contexts for (lung) health interventions in diverse low-resource settings. It can support policy-makers, non-governmental organisations and health workers in the design of context-driven implementation strategies. This can reduce the risk of implementation failure and the waste of resource potential. Ultimately, this could improve health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-003221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805378PMC
January 2021

The Role of Health Technologies in Multicomponent Primary Care Interventions: Systematic Review.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jan 11;23(1):e20195. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Centre for Population Health Sciences (CePHaS), Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Several countries around the world have implemented multicomponent interventions to enhance primary care, as a way of strengthening their health systems to cope with an aging chronically ill population and rising costs. Some of these efforts have included technology-based enhancements as one of the features to support the overall intervention, but their details and impacts have not been explored.

Objective: This study aimed to identify the role of digital/health technologies within wider multifeature interventions that are aimed at enhancing primary care, and to describe their aims and stakeholders, types of technologies used, and potential impacts.

Methods: A systematic review was performed following Cochrane guidelines. An electronic search, conducted on May 30, 2019, was supplemented with manual and grey literature searches in December 2019, to identify multicomponent interventions that included at least one technology-based enhancement. After title/abstract and full text screening, selected articles were assessed for quality based on their study design. A descriptive narrative synthesis was used for analysis and presentation of the results.

Results: Of 37 articles, 14 (38%) described the inclusion of a technology-based innovation as part of their multicomponent interventions to enhance primary care. The most commonly identified technologies were the use of electronic health records, data monitoring technologies, and online portals with messaging platforms. The most common aim of these technologies was to improve continuity of care and comprehensiveness, which resulted in increased patient satisfaction, increased primary care visits compared to specialist visits, and the provision of more health prevention education and improved prescribing practices. Technologies seem also to increase costs and utilization for some parameters, such as increased consultation costs and increased number of drugs prescribed.

Conclusions: Technologies and digital health have not played a major role within comprehensive innovation efforts aimed at enhancing primary care, reflecting that these technologies have not yet reached maturity or wider acceptance as a means for improving primary care. Stronger policy and financial support, and advocacy of key stakeholders are needed to encourage the introduction of efficient technological innovations, which are backed by evidence-based research, so that digital technologies can fulfill the promise of supporting strong sustainable primary care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/20195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834942PMC
January 2021

Effectiveness and implementation of palliative care interventions for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review.

Palliat Med 2020 Dec 18:269216320981294. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Public Health & Primary care, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Although guidelines recommend palliative care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of palliative care interventions for this patient group specifically.

Aim: To describe the characteristics of palliative care interventions for patients with COPD and their informal caregivers and review the available evidence on effectiveness and implementation outcomes.

Design: Systematic review and narrative synthesis (PROSPERO CRD42017079962).

Data Sources: Seven databases were searched for articles reporting on multi-component palliative care interventions for study populations containing ⩾30% patients with COPD. Quantitative as well as qualitative and mixed-method studies were included. Intervention characteristics, effect outcomes, implementation outcomes and barriers and facilitators for successful implementation were extracted and synthesized qualitatively.

Results: Thirty-one articles reporting on twenty unique interventions were included. Only four interventions (20%) were evaluated in an adequately powered controlled trial. Most interventions comprised of longitudinal palliative care, including care coordination and comprehensive needs assessments. Results on effectiveness were mixed and inconclusive. The feasibility level varied and was context-dependent. Acceptability of the interventions was high; having someone to call for support and education about breathlessness were most valued characteristics. Most frequently named barriers were uncertainty about the timing of referral due to the unpredictable disease trajectory (referrers), time availability (providers) and accessibility (patients).

Conclusion: Little high-quality evidence is yet available on the effectiveness and implementation of palliative care interventions for patients with COPD. There is a need for well-conducted effectiveness studies and adequate process evaluations using standardized methodologies to create higher-level evidence and inform successful implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269216320981294DOI Listing
December 2020

Factors critical to implementation success of cleaner cooking interventions in low-income and middle-income countries: protocol for an umbrella review.

BMJ Open 2020 12 7;10(12):e041821. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Over a third of the world's population relies on solid fuels as their primary energy source. These fuels have damaging effects on health, air quality and forest resources. Interventions to promote access to cleaner solid fuel cookstoves and clean fuels have existed for decades. However, the adoption by local communities has largely failed, which led to a waste of resources and suboptimal outcomes. Therefore, the objective of this umbrella review is to identify factors that determine implementation success for cleaner cooking interventions in low-resource settings and weigh their level of confidence in the evidence.

Methods And Analysis: We identified systematic and narrative reviews examining factors that influence the acquisition, initial adoption or sustained use of cleaner solid fuel cookstoves and clean fuels at any scale by a literature search in PubMed, Embase, Global Health Database, Cochrane, PsycINFO, Emcare, Web of Science and CINAHL, without date or language restrictions. The search was conducted on 23 October 2017 and updated on 10 July 2019. Reviews based on qualitative, quantitative or mixed-methods studies were included and will be appraised using the Meta Quality Appraisal Tool combined with the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews. Data will be extracted and factors affecting implementation will be coded using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation-Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research tool will be used to determine the level of confidence in the coded factors. Two researchers will independently conduct these steps.

Ethics And Dissemination: This umbrella review does not require the approval of an ethical review board. Study results will be published in an international peer-reviewed journal. The outcomes will be converted into two practical tools: one for cleaner solid fuel cookstoves and one for clean fuels. These tools can guide the development of evidence-based implementation strategies for cleaner cooking interventions in low-income and middle-income countries to improve implementation success. These tools should be pilot-tested and promoted among regional and global initiatives.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42018088687.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722821PMC
December 2020

Development and evaluation of an eHealth self-management intervention for patients with chronic kidney disease in China: protocol for a mixed-method hybrid type 2 trial.

BMC Nephrol 2020 11 19;21(1):495. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, Netherlands.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health concern. In patients with CKD, interventions that support disease self-management have shown to improve health status and quality of life. At the moment, the use of electronic health (eHealth) technology in self-management interventions is becoming more and more popular. Evidence suggests that eHealth-based self-management interventions can improve health-related outcomes of patients with CKD. However, knowledge of the implementation and effectiveness of such interventions in general, and in China in specific, is still limited. This study protocol aims to develop and tailor the evidence-based Dutch 'Medical Dashboard' eHealth self-management intervention for patients suffering from CKD in China and evaluate its implementation process and effectiveness.

Methods: To develop and tailor a Medical Dashboard intervention for the Chinese context, we will use an Intervention Mapping (IM) approach. A literature review and mixed-method study will first be conducted to examine the needs, beliefs, perceptions of patients with CKD and care providers towards disease (self-management) and eHealth (self-management) interventions (IM step 1). Based on the results of step 1, we will specify outcomes, performance objectives, and determinants, select theory-based methods and practical strategies. Knowledge obtained from prior results and insights from stakeholders will be combined to tailor the core interventions components of the 'Medical Dashboard' self-management intervention to the Chinese context (IM step 2-5). Then, an intervention and implementation plan will be developed. Finally, a 9-month hybrid type 2 trial design will be employed to investigate the effectiveness of the intervention using a cluster randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms, and the implementation integrity (fidelity) and determinants of implementation (IM step 6).

Discussion: Our study will result in the delivery of a culturally tailored, standardized eHealth self-management intervention for patients with CKD in China, which has the potential to optimize patients' self-management skills and improve health status and quality of life. Moreover, it will inform future research on the tailoring and translation of evidence-based eHealth self-management interventions in various contexts.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04212923 ; Registered December 30, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-02160-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7678219PMC
November 2020

Development and implementation of guidelines for the management of depression: a systematic review.

Bull World Health Organ 2020 Oct 27;98(10):683-697H. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, 399 Bathurst St 9MP-325, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate the development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines for the management of depression globally.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of existing guidelines for the management of depression in adults with major depressive or bipolar disorder. For each identified guideline, we assessed compliance with measures of guideline development quality (such as transparency in guideline development processes and funding, multidisciplinary author group composition, systematic review of comparative efficacy research) and implementation (such as quality indicators). We compared guidelines from low- and middle-income countries with those from high-income countries.

Findings: We identified 82 national and 13 international clinical practice guidelines from 83 countries in 27 languages. Guideline development processes and funding sources were explicitly specified in a smaller proportion of guidelines from low- and middle-income countries (8/29; 28%) relative to high-income countries (35/58; 60%). Fewer guidelines (2/29; 7%) from low- and middle-income countries, relative to high-income countries (22/58; 38%), were authored by a multidisciplinary development group. A systematic review of comparative effectiveness was conducted in 31% (9/29) of low- and middle-income country guidelines versus 71% (41/58) of high-income country guidelines. Only 10% (3/29) of low- and middle-income country and 19% (11/58) of high-income country guidelines described plans to assess quality indicators or recommendation adherence.

Conclusion: Globally, guideline implementation is inadequately planned, reported and measured. Narrowing disparities in the development and implementation of guidelines in low- and middle-income countries is a priority. Future guidelines should present strategies to implement recommendations and measure feasibility, cost-effectiveness and impact on health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.20.251405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652558PMC
October 2020

Publisher Correction: Implementing a context-driven awareness programme addressing household air pollution and tobacco: a FRESH AIR study.

NPJ Prim Care Respir Med 2020 Oct 20;30(1):49. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Groningen Research Institute for Asthma and COPD (GRIAC) & Department of General Practice & Elderly Care Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41533-020-00208-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576582PMC
October 2020

A cluster randomized controlled trial on a multifaceted implementation strategy to promote integrated palliative care in COPD: study protocol of the COMPASSION study.

BMC Palliat Care 2020 Oct 10;19(1):155. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Public Health and Primary care, Leiden University Medical Centre, Post zone V0-P, Postbox 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Despite the urgent need for palliative care for patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), it is not yet daily practice. Important factors influencing the provision of palliative care are adequate communication skills, knowing when to start palliative care and continuity of care. In the COMPASSION study, we address these factors by implementing an integrated palliative care approach for patients with COPD and their informal caregivers.

Methods: An integrated palliative care intervention was developed based on existing guidelines, a literature review, and input from patient and professional organizations. To facilitate uptake of the intervention, a multifaceted implementation strategy was developed, comprising a toolbox, (communication) training, collaboration support, action planning and monitoring. Using a hybrid effectiveness-implementation type 2 design, this study aims to simultaneously evaluate the implementation process and effects on patient, informal caregiver and professional outcomes. In a cluster randomized controlled trial, eight hospital regions will be randomized to receive the integrated palliative care approach or to provide care as usual. Eligible patients are identified during hospitalization for an exacerbation using the Propal-COPD tool. The primary outcome is quality of life (FACIT-Pal) at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures include spiritual well-being, anxiety and depression, unplanned healthcare use, informal caregiver burden and healthcare professional's self-efficacy to provide palliative care. The implementation process will be investigated by a comprehensive mixed-methods evaluation assessing the following implementation constructs: context, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, implementation level, recruitment, maintenance and acceptability. Furthermore, determinants to implementation will be investigated using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research.

Discussion: The COMPASSION study will broaden knowledge on the effectiveness and process of palliative care integration into COPD-care. Furthermore, it will improve our understanding of which strategies may optimize the implementation of integrated palliative care.

Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NL7644 . Registration date: April 7, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12904-020-00657-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548043PMC
October 2020

SERIES: eHealth in primary care. Part 4: Addressing the challenges of implementation.

Eur J Gen Pract 2020 Dec;26(1):140-145

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: The implementation of eHealth applications in primary care remains challenging. Enhancing knowledge and awareness of implementation determinants is critical to build evidence-based implementation strategies and optimise uptake and sustainability.

Objectives: We consider how evidence-based implementation strategies can be built to support eHealth implementation.

Discussion: What implementation strategies to consider depends on (potential) barriers and facilitators to eHealth implementation in a given situation. Therefore, we first discuss key barriers and facilitators following the five domains of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Cost is identified as a critical barrier to eHealth implementation. Privacy, security problems, and a lack of recognised standards for eHealth applications also hinder implementation. Engagement of key stakeholders in the implementation process, planning the implementation of the intervention, and the availability of training and support are important facilitators. To support care professionals and researchers, we provide a stepwise approach to develop and apply evidence-based implementation strategies for eHealth in primary care. It includes the following steps: (1) specify the eHealth application, (2) define problem, (3) specify desired implementation behaviour, and (4) choose and (5) evaluate the implementation strategy. To improve the fit of the implementation strategy with the setting, the stepwise approach considers the phase of the implementation process and the specific context.

Conclusion: Applying an approach, as provided here, may help to improve the implementation of eHealth applications in primary care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13814788.2020.1826431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7580793PMC
December 2020

Implementing a context-driven awareness programme addressing household air pollution and tobacco: a FRESH AIR study.

NPJ Prim Care Respir Med 2020 10 6;30(1):42. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Groningen Research Institute for Asthma and COPD (GRIAC) & Department of General Practice & Elderly Care Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Most patients with chronic respiratory disease live in low-resource settings, where evidence is scarcest. In Kyrgyzstan and Vietnam, we studied the implementation of a Ugandan programme empowering communities to take action against biomass and tobacco smoke. Together with local stakeholders, we co-created a train-the-trainer implementation design and integrated the programme into existing local health infrastructures. Feasibility and acceptability, evaluated by the modified Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity, were high: we reached ~15,000 Kyrgyz and ~10,000 Vietnamese citizens within budget (~€11,000/country). The right engaged stakeholders, high compatibility with local contexts and flexibility facilitated programme success. Scores on lung health awareness questionnaires increased significantly to an excellent level among all target groups. Behaviour change was moderately successful in Vietnam and highly successful in Kyrgyzstan. We conclude that contextualising the awareness programme to diverse low-resource settings can be feasible, acceptable and effective, and increase its sustainability. This paper provides guidance to translate lung health interventions to new contexts globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41533-020-00201-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538921PMC
October 2020

Impact of a Blended Periconception Lifestyle Care Approach on Lifestyle Behaviors: Before-and-After Study.

J Med Internet Res 2020 09 30;22(9):e19378. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Periconception lifestyle behaviors affect maternal, paternal, offspring, and transgenerational health outcomes. Previous research in other target populations has shown that personalized lifestyle interventions, in which face-to-face counseling and eHealth ("blended care") are combined, may effectively target these lifestyle behaviors.

Objective: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a periconceptional lifestyle intervention on the improvement of specific lifestyle components.

Methods: A blended periconception lifestyle care approach was developed, combining the outpatient lifestyle counseling service "Healthy Pregnancy" with the eHealth platform "Smarter Pregnancy" (www.smarterpregnancy.co.uk) in which lifestyle was coached for 24 weeks. All couples contemplating pregnancy or already pregnant (≤12 weeks of gestation) who visited the outpatient clinics of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Erasmus University Medical Center (Erasmus MC), Rotterdam, the Netherlands, between June and December 2018, were invited to participate. We measured changes in lifestyle behaviors at weeks 12 and 24 compared with baseline. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the changes in lifestyle behaviors over time. Subgroup analyses were performed for women with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m), women pregnant at the start of the intervention, and those participating as a couple.

Results: A total of 539 women were screened for eligibility, and 450 women and 61 men received the blended periconception intervention. Among the participating women, 58.4% (263/450) were included in the preconception period. Moreover, 78.9% (403/511) of the included participants completed the online lifestyle coaching. At baseline, at least one poor lifestyle behavior was present in most women (379/450, 84.2%) and men (58/61, 95.1%). In the total group, median fruit intake increased from 1.8 to 2.2 pieces/day (P<.001) and median vegetable intake increased from 151 to 165 grams/day (P<.001) after 24 weeks of online coaching. The probability of taking folic acid supplementation among women increased from 0.97 to 1 (P<.001), and the probability of consuming alcohol and using tobacco in the total group decreased from 0.25 to 0.19 (P=.002) and from 0.20 to 0.15 (P=.63), respectively. Overall, the program showed the strongest effectiveness for participating couples. Particularly for vegetable and fruit intake, their consumption increased from 158 grams/day and 1.8 pieces/day at baseline to 190 grams/day and 2.7 pieces/day at the end of the intervention, respectively.

Conclusions: We succeeded in including most participating women in the preconception period. A high compliance rate was achieved and users demonstrated improvements in several lifestyle components. The blended periconception lifestyle care approach seems to be an effective method to improve lifestyle behaviors. The next step is to further disseminate this approach and to perform a randomized trial to compare the use of blended care with the provision of only eHealth. Additionally, the clinical relevance of these results will need to be substantiated further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/19378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557440PMC
September 2020

Digital health competencies for primary healthcare professionals: A scoping review.

Int J Med Inform 2020 11 27;143:104260. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Centre for Population Health Sciences (CePHaS), Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background: Despite digital health providing opportunities to enhance the quality, efficiency and safety of primary healthcare, the adoption of digital tools and technologies has been slow, partly because of poor digital health literacy. For primary healthcare systems to take full advantage of these technologies, a capable, digitally literate workforce is necessary. Still, the essential digital health competencies (DHCs) for primary healthcare have not been explored. This review aims to examine the broad literature on DHCs as it applies to Primary Care (PC) settings.

Methods: We performed a scoping review on all types of research linking DHCs to PC. We searched all major databases including Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library in November 2019. Concurrently, a thorough grey literature search was performed through OpenGrey, ResearchGate, Google Scholar, and key government and relevant professional associations' websites. Screening and selection of studies was performed in pairs, and data was analysed and presented using a narrative, descriptive approach. Thematic analysis was performed to identify key DHC domains.

Results: A total of 28 articles were included, most of them (54 %) published before 2005. These articles were primarily aimed at PC physicians or general practitioners, and focused on improving knowledge about information technologies and medical informatics, basic computer and information literacy, and optimal use of electronic medical records. We identified 17 DHC domains, and important knowledge gaps related to digital health education and curriculum integration, the need for evidence of the impact of services, and the importance of wider support for digital health.

Conclusions: Literature explicitly linking DHCs to PC was mostly published over a decade ago. There is a need for an updated and current set of DHCs for PC professionals to more consistently reap the benefits of digital technologies. This review identified key DHC domains and statements that may be used to guide on the development of a set of DHC for PC, and critical knowledge gaps and needs to be considered. Such a DHC set may be used for curricula development and for ensuring that the essential DHC for PC are met at a clinical or organizational level, and eventually improve health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2020.104260DOI Listing
November 2020

SERIES: eHealth in primary care. Part 3: eHealth education in primary care.

Eur J Gen Pract 2020 Dec;26(1):108-118

Department of Public Health and Primary Care (PHEG), Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Education is essential to the integration of eHealth into primary care, but eHealth is not yet embedded in medical education.

Objectives: In this opinion article, we aim to support organisers of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and teachers delivering medical vocational training by providing recommendations for eHealth education. First, we describe is required to help primary care professionals and trainees learn about eHealth. Second, we elaborate on eHealth education might be provided.

Discussion: We consider four essential topics. First, an understanding of existing evidence-based eHealth applications and conditions for successful development and implementation. Second, required digital competencies of providers and patients. Third, how eHealth changes patient-provider and provider-provider relationships and finally, understanding the handling of digital data. Educational activities to address these topics include eLearning, blended learning, courses, simulation exercises, real-life practice, supervision and reflection, role modelling and community of practice learning. More specifically, a CanMEDS framework aimed at defining curriculum learning goals can support eHealth education by describing roles and required competencies. Alternatively, Kern's conceptual model can be used to design eHealth training programmes that match the educational needs of the stakeholders using eHealth.

Conclusion: Vocational and CPD training in General Practice needs to build on eHealth capabilities now. We strongly advise the incorporation of eHealth education into vocational training and CPD activities, rather than providing it as a separate single module. How learning goals and activities take shape and how competencies are evaluated clearly requires further practice, evaluation and study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13814788.2020.1797675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7470053PMC
December 2020

Improving the Primary Care Consultation for Diabetes and Depression Through Digital Medical Interview Assistant Systems: Narrative Review.

J Med Internet Res 2020 08 28;22(8):e18109. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Centre for Population Health Sciences, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Background: Digital medical interview assistant (DMIA) systems, also known as computer-assisted history taking (CAHT) systems, have the potential to improve the quality of care and the medical consultation by exploring more patient-related aspects without time constraints and, therefore, acquiring more and better-quality information prior to the face-to-face consultation. The consultation in primary care is the broadest in terms of the amount of topics to be covered and, at the same time, the shortest in terms of time spent with the patient.

Objective: Our aim is to explore how DMIA systems may be used specifically in the context of primary care, to improve the consultations for diabetes and depression, as exemplars of chronic conditions.

Methods: A narrative review was conducted focusing on (1) the characteristics of the primary care consultation in general, and for diabetes and depression specifically, and (2) the impact of DMIA and CAHT systems on the medical consultation. Through thematic analysis, we identified the characteristics of the primary care consultation that a DMIA system would be able to improve. Based on the identified primary care consultation tasks and the potential benefits of DMIA systems, we developed a sample questionnaire for diabetes and depression to illustrate how such a system may work.

Results: A DMIA system, prior to the first consultation, could aid in the essential primary care tasks of case finding and screening, diagnosing, and, if needed, timely referral to specialists or urgent care. Similarly, for follow-up consultations, this system could aid with the control and monitoring of these conditions, help check for additional health issues, and update the primary care provider about visits to other providers or further testing. Successfully implementing a DMIA system for these tasks would improve the quality of the data obtained, which means earlier diagnosis and treatment. Such a system would improve the use of face-to-face consultation time, thereby streamlining the interaction and allowing the focus to be the patient's needs, which ultimately would lead to better health outcomes and patient satisfaction. However, for such a system to be successfully incorporated, there are important considerations to be taken into account, such as the language to be used and the challenges for implementing eHealth innovations in primary care and health care in general.

Conclusions: Given the benefits explored here, we foresee that DMIA systems could have an important impact in the primary care consultation for diabetes and depression and, potentially, for other chronic conditions. Earlier case finding and a more accurate diagnosis, due to more and better-quality data, paired with improved monitoring of disease progress should improve the quality of care and keep the management of chronic conditions at the primary care level. A somewhat simple, easily scalable technology could go a long way to improve the health of the millions of people affected with chronic conditions, especially if working in conjunction with already-established health technologies such as electronic medical records and clinical decision support systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/18109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7486669PMC
August 2020

Associations Between Obesity and Multidimensional Frailty in Older Chinese People with Hypertension.

Clin Interv Aging 2020 8;15:811-820. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Faculty of Health, Sports and Social Work, Inholland University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of multidimensional frailty in older people with hypertension and to examine a possible relationship of general obesity and abdominal obesity to frailty in older people with hypertension.

Patients And Methods: A sample of 995 community-dwelling older people with hypertension, aged 65 years and older and living in Zhengzhou (China), completed the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI), a validated self-report questionnaire for assessing multidimensional frailty. In addition, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were assessed by self-report, and obesity was determined by measuring waist circumference and calculating the body mass index.

Results: The prevalence of multidimensional frailty in this older population with hypertension was 46.5%. Using multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index was significantly associated with physical frailty (p = 0.001), and waist circumference was significantly positively associated with multidimensional frailty and all three frailty domains. Older age was positively associated with multidimensional frailty, physical frailty, and psychological frailty, while gender (woman) was positively associated with multidimensional, psychological, and social frailty. Furthermore, comorbid diseases and being without a partner were positively associated with multidimensional, physical, psychological, and social frailty. Of the lifestyle characteristics, drinking alcohol was positively associated with frailty domains.

Conclusion: Multidimensional frailty was highly prevalent among Chinese community-dwelling older people with hypertension. Abdominal obesity could be a concern in physical frailty, psychological frailty, and social frailty, while general obesity was concerning in relation to physical frailty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S234815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294100PMC
November 2020

ARIA digital anamorphosis: Digital transformation of health and care in airway diseases from research to practice.

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Tari Haahtela Torsten Zuberbier Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Anna Bedbrook Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich G Walter Canonica Victoria Cardona Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Marina Erhola Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Maddalena Illario Juan-Carlos Ivancevich Marek Jutel Ludger Klimek Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Ltt Le Désirée E Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Olga M Lourenço Erik Melén Joaquim Mullol Marek Niedoszytko Mikaëla Odemyr Yoshitaka Okamoto Nikos G Papadopoulos Vincenzo Patella Oliver Pfaar Nhân Pham-Thi Christine Rolland Boleslaw Samolinski Aziz Sheikh Mikhail Sofiev Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Ana Todo-Bom Peter-Valentin Tomazic Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Sian Williams Arzu Yorgancioglu Ioana Agache Cezmi A Akdis Rute Almeida Ignacio J Ansotegui Isabella Annesi-Maesano Sylvie Arnavielhe Xavier Basagaña Eric D Bateman Annabelle Bédard Martin Bedolla-Barajas Sven Becker Kazi S Bennoor Samuel Benveniste Karl C Bergmann Michael Bewick Slawomir Bialek Nils E Billo Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Leif Bjermer Hubert Blain Matteo Bonini Philippe Bonniaud Isabelle Bosse Jacques Bouchard Louis-Philippe Boulet Rodolphe Bourret Koen Boussery Fluvio Braido Vitalis Briedis Andrew Briggs Christopher E Brightling Jan Brozek Guy Brusselle Luisa Brussino Roland Buhl Roland Buonaiuto Moises A Calderon Paulo Camargos Thierry Camuzat Luis Caraballo Ana-Maria Carriazo Warner Carr Christine Cartier Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Niels H Chavannes Ekaterine Chkhartishvili Derek K Chu Cemal Cingi Jaime Correia de Sousa David J Costa Anne-Lise Courbis Adnan Custovic Biljana Cvetkosvki Gennaro D'Amato Jane da Silva Carina Dantas Dejan Dokic Yves Dauvilliers Giulia De Feo Govert De Vries Philippe Devillier Stefania Di Capua Gerard Dray Ruta Dubakiene Stephen R Durham Mark Dykewicz Motohiro Ebisawa Mina Gaga Yehia El-Gamal Enrico Heffler Regina Emuzyte John Farrell Jean-Luc Fauquert Alessandro Fiocchi Antje Fink-Wagner Jean-François Fontaine José M Fuentes Perez Bilun Gemicioğlu Amiran Gamkrelidze Judith Garcia-Aymerich Philippe Gevaert René Maximiliano Gomez Sandra González Diaz Maia Gotua Nick A Guldemond Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Jawad Hajjam Yunuen R Huerta Villalobos Marc Humbert Guido Iaccarino Despo Ierodiakonou Tomohisa Iinuma Ewa Jassem Guy Joos Ki-Suck Jung Igor Kaidashev Omer Kalayci Przemyslaw Kardas Thomas Keil Musa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Jorg Kleine-Tebbe Rostislav Kouznetsov Marek L Kowalski Vicky Kritikos Inger Kull Stefania La Grutta Lisa Leonardini Henrik Ljungberg Philip Lieberman Brian Lipworth Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Catarina Lopes-Pereira Claudia C Loureiro Renaud Louis Alpana Mair Bassam Mahboub Michaël Makris Joao Malva Patrick Manning Gailen D Marshall Mohamed R Masjedi Jorge F Maspero Pedro Carreiro-Martins Mika Makela Eve Mathieu-Dupas Marcus Maurer Esteban De Manuel Keenoy Elisabete Melo-Gomes Eli O Meltzer Enrica Menditto Jacques Mercier Yann Micheli Neven Miculinic Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Dimitirios I Mitsias Giuliana Moda Maria-Dolores Mogica-Martinez Yousser Mohammad Steve Montefort Ricardo Monti Mario Morais-Almeida Ralph Mösges Lars Münter Antonella Muraro Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Luigi Napoli Leyla Namazova-Baranova Hugo Neffen Kristoff Nekam Angelo Neou Björn Nordlund Ettore Novellino Dieudonné Nyembue Robyn O'Hehir Ken Ohta Kimi Okubo Gabrielle L Onorato Valentina Orlando Solange Ouedraogo Julia Palamarchuk Isabella Pali-Schöll Peter Panzner Hae-Sim Park Gianni Passalacqua Jean-Louis Pépin Ema Paulino Ruby Pawankar Jim Phillips Robert Picard Hilary Pinnock Davor Plavec Todor A Popov Fabienne Portejoie David Price Emmanuel P Prokopakis Fotis Psarros Benoit Pugin Francesca Puggioni Pablo Quinones-Delgado Filip Raciborski Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Frederico S Regateiro Sietze Reitsma Daniela Rivero-Yeverino Graham Roberts Nicolas Roche Erendira Rodriguez-Zagal Christine Rolland Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Nelson Rosario Antonino Romano Menachem Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Mario M Sanchez-Borges Joaquin Sastre Glenis K Scadding Sophie Scheire Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier Holger J Schünemann Faradiba Sarquis Serpa Mohamed Shamji Juan-Carlos Sisul Mikhail Sofiev Dirceu Solé David Somekh Talant Sooronbaev Milan Sova François Spertini Otto Spranger Cristiana Stellato Rafael Stelmach Michel Thibaudon Teresa To Mondher Toumi Omar Usmani Antonio A Valero Rudolph Valenta Marylin Valentin-Rostan Marilyn Urrutia Pereira Rianne van der Kleij Michiel Van Eerd Olivier Vandenplas Tuula Vasankari Antonio Vaz Carneiro Giorgio Vezzani Frédéric Viart Giovanni Viegi Dana Wallace Martin Wagenmann De Yun Wang Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Dennis M Williams Gary Wong Piotr Wroczynski Panayiotis K Yiallouros Osman M Yusuf Heather J Zar Stéphane Zeng Mario E Zernotti Luo Zhang Nan Shan Zhong Mihaela Zidarn

Allergy 2021 01 23;76(1):168-190. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.

Digital anamorphosis is used to define a distorted image of health and care that may be viewed correctly using digital tools and strategies. MASK digital anamorphosis represents the process used by MASK to develop the digital transformation of health and care in rhinitis. It strengthens the ARIA change management strategy in the prevention and management of airway disease. The MASK strategy is based on validated digital tools. Using the MASK digital tool and the CARAT online enhanced clinical framework, solutions for practical steps of digital enhancement of care are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14422DOI Listing
January 2021

Let's stop dumping cookstoves in local communities. It's time to get implementation right.

NPJ Prim Care Respir Med 2020 01 10;30(1). Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41533-019-0160-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6954235PMC
January 2020

The socioeconomic burden of chronic lung disease in low-resource settings across the globe - an observational FRESH AIR study.

Respir Res 2019 Dec 21;20(1):291. Epub 2019 Dec 21.

Department of General Practice & Elderly Care Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen Research Institute for Asthma and COPD (GRIAC), Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Low-resource settings are disproportionally burdened by chronic lung disease due to early childhood disadvantages and indoor/outdoor air pollution. However, data on the socioeconomic impact of respiratory diseases in these settings are largely lacking. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the chronic lung disease-related socioeconomic burden in diverse low-resource settings across the globe. To inform governmental and health policy, we focused on work productivity and activity impairment and its modifiable clinical and environmental risk factors.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, observational FRESH AIR study in Uganda, Vietnam, Kyrgyzstan, and Greece. We assessed the chronic lung disease-related socioeconomic burden using validated questionnaires among spirometry-diagnosed COPD and/or asthma patients (total N = 1040). Predictors for a higher burden were studied using multivariable linear regression models including demographics (e.g. age, gender), health parameters (breathlessness, comorbidities), and risk factors for chronic lung disease (smoking, solid fuel use). We applied identical models per country, which we subsequently meta-analyzed.

Results: Employed patients reported a median [IQR] overall work impairment due to chronic lung disease of 30% [1.8-51.7] and decreased productivity (presenteeism) of 20.0% [0.0-40.0]. Remarkably, work time missed (absenteeism) was 0.0% [0.0-16.7]. The total population reported 40.0% [20.0-60.0] impairment in daily activities. Breathlessness severity (MRC-scale) (B = 8.92, 95%CI = 7.47-10.36), smoking (B = 5.97, 95%CI = 1.73-10.22), and solid fuel use (B = 3.94, 95%CI = 0.56-7.31) were potentially modifiable risk factors for impairment.

Conclusions: In low-resource settings, chronic lung disease-related absenteeism is relatively low compared to the substantial presenteeism and activity impairment. Possibly, given the lack of social security systems, relatively few people take days off work at the expense of decreased productivity. Breathlessness (MRC-score), smoking, and solid fuel use are potentially modifiable predictors for higher impairment. Results warrant increased awareness, preventive actions and clinical management of lung diseases in low-resource settings from health policymakers and healthcare workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-019-1255-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925865PMC
December 2019

Electronic Health Self-Management Interventions for Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: Systematic Review of Quantitative and Qualitative Evidence.

J Med Internet Res 2019 11 5;21(11):e12384. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, Netherlands.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) poses a major challenge to public health. In CKD patients, adequate disease self-management has been shown to improve both proximal and distal outcomes. Currently, electronic health (eHealth) interventions are increasingly used to optimize patients' self-management skills.

Objective: This study aimed to systematically review the existing evidence regarding the implementation and effectiveness of eHealth self-management interventions for patients with CKD.

Methods: Following a search in 8 databases (up to November 2017), quantitative and qualitative data on process and effect outcomes were extracted from relevant studies. Quality was appraised using the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool; narrative synthesis was performed to analyze the data extracted.

Results: Of the 3307 articles retrieved, 24 (comprising 23 studies) were included in this review; of these, almost half were appraised to be of low to moderate quality. There was considerable heterogeneity in the types of interventions used and the outcomes measured. A total of 10 effect and 9 process outcome indicators were identified. The most frequently reported effect outcome indicators were specific laboratory tests and blood pressure (BP), whereas satisfaction was the most frequently reported process outcome indicator. Positive effects were found for proximal outcomes (eg, BP control and medication adherence), and mixed effects were found for more distal outcomes (eg, quality of life). High feasibility, usability, and acceptability of and satisfaction with eHealth self-management interventions were reported. The determinant ability of health care professionals to monitor and, if necessary, anticipate on patient measurements online was mostly cited to influence patients' adherence to interventions.

Conclusions: eHealth self-management interventions have the potential to improve disease management and health outcomes. To broaden the evidence base and facilitate intervention upscaling, more detailed descriptions and thorough analysis of the intervention components used are required. In addition, our review reveals that outcomes closely related to the scope and duration of the intervention implemented are most likely to be impacted. For instance, if a 4-week Web-based training to optimize disease management skills is implemented, the outcome perceived control would more likely be affected than kidney function. Although this seems obvious, most studies evaluate only distal outcomes and thereby fail to capture intervention effects that might contribute to long-term health improvement. We advise future researchers to carefully consider their choice of outcomes based on their sensitivity for change. In this way, we ensure that relevant effects are captured and legitimate conclusions are drawn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/12384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864489PMC
November 2019

SERIES: eHealth in primary care. Part 2: Exploring the ethical implications of its application in primary care practice.

Eur J Gen Pract 2020 Dec 30;26(1):26-32. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands.

eHealth promises to increase self-management and personalised medicine and improve cost-effectiveness in primary care. Paired with these promises are ethical implications, as eHealth will affect patients' and primary care professionals' (PCPs) experiences, values, norms, and relationships. We argue what ethical implications related to the impact of eHealth on four vital aspects of primary care could (and should) be anticipated. (1) EHealth influences dealing with predictive and diagnostic uncertainty. Machine-learning based clinical decision support systems offer (seemingly) objective, quantified, and personalised outcomes. However, they also introduce new loci of uncertainty and subjectivity. The decision-making process becomes opaque, and algorithms can be invalid, biased, or even discriminatory. This has implications for professional responsibilities and judgments, justice, autonomy, and trust. (2) EHealth affects the roles and responsibilities of patients because it can stimulate self-management and autonomy. However, autonomy can also be compromised, e.g. in cases of persuasive technologies and eHealth can increase existing health disparities. (3) The delegation of tasks to a network of technologies and stakeholders requires attention for responsibility gaps and new responsibilities. (4) The triangulate relationship: patient-eHealth-PCP requires a reconsideration of the role of human interaction and 'humanness' in primary care as well as of shaping Shared Decision Making. Our analysis is an essential first step towards setting up a dedicated ethics research agenda that should be examined in parallel to the development and implementation of eHealth. The ultimate goal is to inspire the development of practice-specific ethical recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13814788.2019.1678958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034078PMC
December 2020

Next-generation care pathways for allergic rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity: a model for multimorbid non-communicable diseases-Meeting Report (Part 2).

J Thorac Dis 2019 Sep;11(9):4072-4084

Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Uniersität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Comprehensive Allergy-Centre, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Member of GA2LEN, Berlin, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2019.09.38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790426PMC
September 2019

SERIES: eHealth in primary care. Part 1: Concepts, conditions and challenges.

Eur J Gen Pract 2019 Oct 10;25(4):179-189. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Primary care is challenged to provide high quality, accessible and affordable care for an increasingly ageing, complex, and multimorbid population. To counter these challenges, primary care professionals need to take up new and innovative practices, including eHealth. eHealth applications hold the promise to overcome some difficulties encountered in the care of people with complex medical and social needs in primary care. However, many unanswered questions regarding (cost) effectiveness, integration with healthcare, and acceptability to patients, caregivers, and professionals remain to be elucidated. What conditions need to be met? What challenges need to be overcome? What downsides must be dealt with? This first paper in a series on eHealth in primary care introduces basic concepts and examines opportunities for the uptake of eHealth in primary care. We illustrate that although the potential of eHealth in primary care is high, several conditions need to be met to ensure that safe and high-quality eHealth is developed for and implemented in primary care. eHealth research needs to be optimized; ensuring evidence-based eHealth is available. Blended care, i.e. combining face-to-face care with remote options, personalized to the individual patient should be considered. Stakeholders need to be involved in the development and implementation of eHealth via co-creation processes, and design should be mindful of vulnerable groups and eHealth illiteracy. Furthermore, a global perspective on eHealth should be adopted, and eHealth ethics, patients' safety and privacy considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13814788.2019.1658190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6853224PMC
October 2019

Next-generation care pathways for allergic rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity: a model for multimorbid non-communicable diseases-Meeting Report (Part 1).

J Thorac Dis 2019 Aug;11(8):3633-3642

Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Uniersität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Comprehensive Allergy-Centre, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Member of GA2LEN, Berlin, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2019.08.64DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6753463PMC
August 2019

Next-generation ARIA care pathways for rhinitis and asthma: a model for multimorbid chronic diseases.

Authors:
J Jean Bousquet Holger J Schünemann Alkis Togias Marina Erhola Peter W Hellings Torsten Zuberbier Ioana Agache Ignacio J Ansotegui Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Sven Becker Martin Bedolla-Barajas Michael Bewick Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Isabelle Bosse Louis P Boulet Jean Marc Bourrez Guy Brusselle Niels Chavannes Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Mina Gaga Tari Haahtela Maddalena Illario Ludger Klimek Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene L T T Le Desiree Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Olga M Lourenço Enrica Menditto Joaquin Mullol Yashitaka Okamoto Nikos Papadopoulos Nhân Pham-Thi Robert Picard Hilary Pinnock Nicolas Roche Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Christine Rolland Boleslaw Samolinski Aziz Sheikh Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Tuula Vasankari Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Sian Williams Cezmi A Akdis Isabella Annesi-Maesano Sylvie Arnavielhe Xavier Basagana Eric Bateman Anna Bedbrook K S Bennoor Samuel Benveniste Karl C Bergmann Slawomir Bialek Nils Billo Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Leif Bjermer Hubert Blain Mateo Bonini Philippe Bonniaud Jacques Bouchard Vitalis Briedis Christofer E Brightling Jan Brozek Roland Buhl Roland Buonaiuto Giorgo W Canonica Victoria Cardona Ana M Carriazo Warner Carr Christine Cartier Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Eka Chkhartishvili Derek K Chu Cemal Cingi Elaine Colgan Jaime Correia de Sousa Anne Lise Courbis Adnan Custovic Biljana Cvetkosvki Gennaro D'Amato Jane da Silva Carina Dantas Dejand Dokic Yves Dauvilliers Antoni Dedeu Giulia De Feo Philippe Devillier Stefania Di Capua Marc Dykewickz Ruta Dubakiene Motohiro Ebisawa Yaya El-Gamal Esben Eller Regina Emuzyte John Farrell Antjie Fink-Wagner Alessandro Fiocchi Jean F Fontaine Bilun Gemicioğlu Peter Schmid-Grendelmeir Amiran Gamkrelidze Judith Garcia-Aymerich Maximiliano Gomez Sandra González Diaz Maia Gotua Nick A Guldemond Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Jawad Hajjam John O'B Hourihane Marc Humbert Guido Iaccarino Despo Ierodiakonou Maddalena Illario Juan C Ivancevich Guy Joos Ki-Suck Jung Marek Jutel Igor Kaidashev Omer Kalayci Przemyslaw Kardas Thomas Keil Mussa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Jorg Kleine-Tebbe Marek L Kowalski Vicky Kritikos Inger Kull Lisa Leonardini Philip Lieberman Brian Lipworth Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Claudia C Loureiro Renaud Louis Alpana Mair Gert Marien Bassam Mahboub Joao Malva Patrick Manning Esteban De Manuel Keenoy Gailen D Marshall Mohamed R Masjedi Jorge F Maspero Eve Mathieu-Dupas Poalo M Matricardi Eric Melén Elisabete Melo-Gomes Eli O Meltzer Enrica Menditto Jacques Mercier Neven Miculinic Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Giuliana Moda Maria-Dolores Mogica-Martinez Yousser Mohammad Steve Montefort Ricardo Monti Mario Morais-Almeida Ralf Mösges Lars Münter Antonella Muraro Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Luigi Napoli Leila Namazova-Baranova Hugo Neffen Kristoff Nekam Angelo Neou Enrico Novellino Dieudonné Nyembue Robin O'Hehir Ken Ohta Kimi Okubo Gabrielle Onorato Solange Ouedraogo Isabella Pali-Schöll Susanna Palkonen Peter Panzner Hae-Sim Park Jean-Louis Pépin Ana-Maria Pereira Oliver Pfaar Ema Paulino Jim Phillips Robert Picard Davor Plavec Ted A Popov Fabienne Portejoie David Price Emmanuel P Prokopakis Benoit Pugin Filip Raciborski Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Sietze Reitsma Xavier Rodo Antonino Romano Nelson Rosario Menahenm Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Mario M Sanchez-Borges Juan-Carlos Sisul Dirceu Solé David Somekh Talant Sooronbaev Milan Sova Otto Spranger Cristina Stellato Rafael Stelmach Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Michel Thibaudon Teresa To Ana Todo-Bom Peter V Tomazic Antonio A Valero Rudolph Valenta Marylin Valentin-Rostan Rianne van der Kleij Olivier Vandenplas Giorgio Vezzani Frédéric Viart Giovanni Viegi Dana Wallace Martin Wagenmann De Y Wang Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Dennis M Williams Gary Wong Piotr Wroczynski Panayiotis K Yiallouros Arzu Yorgancioglu Osman M Yusuf Heahter J Zar Stéphane Zeng Mario Zernotti Luo Zhang Nan S Zhong Mihaela Zidarn

Clin Transl Allergy 2019 9;9:44. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

260University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.

Background: In all societies, the burden and cost of allergic and chronic respiratory diseases are increasing rapidly. Most economies are struggling to deliver modern health care effectively. There is a need to support the transformation of the health care system into integrated care with organizational health literacy.

Main Body: As an example for chronic disease care, MASK (Mobile Airways Sentinel NetworK), a new project of the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) initiative, and POLLAR (Impact of Air POLLution on Asthma and Rhinitis, EIT Health), in collaboration with professional and patient organizations in the field of allergy and airway diseases, are proposing real-life ICPs centred around the patient with rhinitis, and using mHealth to monitor environmental exposure. Three aspects of care pathways are being developed: (i) Patient participation, health literacy and self-care through technology-assisted "patient activation", (ii) Implementation of care pathways by pharmacists and (iii) Next-generation guidelines assessing the recommendations of GRADE guidelines in rhinitis and asthma using real-world evidence (RWE) obtained through mobile technology. The EU and global political agendas are of great importance in supporting the digital transformation of health and care, and MASK has been recognized by DG Santé as a Good Practice in the field of digitally-enabled, integrated, person-centred care.

Conclusion: In 20 years, ARIA has considerably evolved from the first multimorbidity guideline in respiratory diseases to the digital transformation of health and care with a strong political involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13601-019-0279-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734297PMC
September 2019

The role of context in implementation research for non-communicable diseases: Answering the 'how-to' dilemma.

PLoS One 2019 8;14(4):e0214454. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

The George Institute for Global Health at Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Introduction: Understanding context and how this can be systematically assessed and incorporated is crucial to successful implementation. We describe how context has been assessed (including exploration or evaluation) in Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) implementation research projects focused on improving health in people with or at risk of chronic disease and how contextual lessons were incorporated into the intervention or the implementation process.

Methods: Using a web-based semi-structured questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to collect quantitative and qualitative data across GACD projects (n = 20) focusing on hypertension, diabetes and lung diseases. The use of context-specific data from project planning to evaluation was analyzed using mixed methods and a multi-layered context framework across five levels; 1) individual and family, 2) community, 3) healthcare setting, 4) local or district level, and 5) state or national level.

Results: Project teams used both qualitative and mixed methods to assess multiple levels of context (avg. = 4). Methodological approaches to assess context were identified as formal and informal assessments, engagement of stakeholders, use of locally adapted resources and materials, and use of diverse data sources. Contextual lessons were incorporated directly into the intervention by informing or adapting the intervention, improving intervention participation or improving communication with participants/stakeholders. Provision of services, equipment or information, continuous engagement with stakeholders, feedback for personnel to address gaps, and promoting institutionalization were themes identified to describe how contextual lessons are incorporated into the implementation process.

Conclusions: Context is regarded as critical and influenced the design and implementation of the GACD funded chronic disease interventions. There are different approaches to assess and incorporate context as demonstrated by this study and further research is required to systematically evaluate contextual approaches in terms of how they contribute to effectiveness or implementation outcomes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214454PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453477PMC
December 2019

Determinants of providing smoking cessation care in five groups of healthcare professionals: A cross-sectional comparison.

Patient Educ Couns 2019 06 23;102(6):1140-1149. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Objective To investigate implementation of a tobacco dependence treatment guideline among five groups of healthcare professionals. Methods Data collected in The Netherlands (2016-2017) were compared among gynaecologists (N = 49), midwives (N = 68), respiratory nurses (N = 72), practice nurses (N = 84) and paediatricians (N = 38). Intentions to use the guideline, satisfaction with own implementation, and dosage delivered of quit-advice and assisting in quitting were predicted using linear regression analyses and regression tree analyses. Results Implementation of smoking cessation care (SCC) and barriers differed between the groups, with nurses reporting better implementation and fewer barriers. Main barriers were lacking training (gynecologists, pediatricians) and time (midwives). Regression tree analyses showed that self-efficacy and training interacted; participants with weaker self-efficacy provided more quit advice if they had participated in SCC training. Training was positively related to intentions to use the guideline, satisfaction, providing quit-advice, and assisting smokers in quitting. Conclusion Implementation of SCC is suboptimal, such that patients who smoke do not receive the highest quality of care. Profession and training in SCC are important determinants of implementation of SCC. Practice implications Efforts to improve implementation should be targeted at profession. Training is indicated, and may focus on skills for nurses, and knowledge for gynecologists, midwives and pediatricians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2019.01.015DOI Listing
June 2019

High COPD prevalence at high altitude: does household air pollution play a role?

Eur Respir J 2019 02 7;53(2). Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Dept of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Studies comparing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence across altitudes report conflicting results. However, household air pollution (HAP), a major COPD risk factor, was mostly not accounted for in previous analyses and never objectively measured. We aimed to compare the prevalence of COPD and its risk factors between low-resource highlands and lowlands, with a particular focus on objectively measured HAP.We conducted a population-based, observational study in a highland (∼2050 m above sea level) and a lowland (∼750 m above sea level) setting in rural Kyrgyzstan. We performed spirometry in randomly selected households, measured indoor particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM) and administered a questionnaire on other COPD risk factors. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regressions were used for analyses.We included 392 participants: 199 highlanders and 193 lowlanders. COPD was more prevalent among highlanders (36.7% 10.4%; p<0.001). Their average PM exposure was also higher (290.0 72.0 µg·m; p<0.001). In addition to high PM exposure (OR 3.174, 95% CI 1.061-9.493), the altitude setting (OR 3.406, 95% CI 1.483-7.825), pack-years of smoking (OR 1.037, 95% CI 1.005-1.070) and age (OR 1.058, 95% CI 1.037-1.079) also contributed to a higher COPD prevalence among highlanders.COPD prevalence and HAP were highest in the highlands, and were independently associated. Preventive interventions seem warranted in these low-resource, highland settings. With this study being one of the first spirometry-based prevalence studies in Central Asia, generalisability needs to be assessed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01193-2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428658PMC
February 2019

From research to evidence-informed decision making: a systematic approach.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2018 03;40(suppl_1):i3-i12

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, Postbus 9600 zone V-0-P, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Knowledge creation forms an integral part of the knowledge-to-action framework aimed at bridging the gap between research and evidence-informed decision making. Although principles of science communication, data visualisation and user-centred design largely impact the effectiveness of communication, their role in knowledge creation is still limited. Hence, this article aims to provide researchers a systematic approach on how knowledge creation can be put into practice.

Methods: A systematic two-phased approach towards knowledge creation was formulated and executed. First, during a preparation phase the purpose and audience of the knowledge were defined. Subsequently, a developmental phase facilitated how the content is 'said' (language) and communicated (channel). This developmental phase proceeded via two pathways: a translational cycle and design cycle, during which core translational and design components were incorporated. The entire approach was demonstrated by a case study.

Results: The case study demonstrated how the phases in this systematic approach can be operationalised. It furthermore illustrated how created knowledge can be delivered.

Conclusion: The proposed approach offers researchers a systematic, practical and easy-to-implement tool to facilitate effective knowledge creation towards decision-makers in healthcare. Through the integration of core components of knowledge creation evidence-informed decision making will ultimately be optimized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdx153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5896638PMC
March 2018

National guidelines for smoking cessation in primary care: a literature review and evidence analysis.

NPJ Prim Care Respir Med 2017 01 20;27(1). Epub 2017 Jan 20.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

National guidelines for smoking cessation in primary care can be effective in improving clinical practice. This study assessed which parties are involved in the development of such guidelines worldwide, which national guidelines address primary care, what recommendations are made for primary care settings, and how these recommendations correlate with each other and with current evidence. We identified national guidelines using an online resource. Only the most recent version of a guideline was included. If an English version was not available, we requested a translation or summary of the recommendations from the authors. Two researchers independently extracted data on funding sources, development methodologies, involved parties, and recommendations made within the guidelines. These recommendations were categorised using the pile-sort method. Each recommendation was cross-checked with the latest evidence and was awarded an evidence-rating. We identified 43 guidelines from 39 countries and after exclusion, we analysed 26 guidelines (22 targeting general population, 4 targeted subpopulations). Twelve categories of recommendations for primary care were identified. There was almost universal agreement regarding the need to identify smokers, advice them to quit and offer behavioural and pharmacological quit smoking support. Discrepancies were greatest for specific recommendations regarding behavioural and pharmacological support, which are likely to be due to different interpretations of evidence and/or differences in contextual health environments. Based on these findings, we developed a universal checklist of guideline recommendations as a practice tool for primary care professionals and future guideline developers.

Smoking Cessation Support In Primary Care: UNIVERSAL GUIDELINES SOUGHT: An international team call for a universal guideline for primary-care practitioners who help patients to stop smoking. Although many nations have such guidelines, no studies have examined whether these guidelines are consistent with the current evidence. Marjolein Verbiest at the National Institute for Health Innovation, The University of Auckland, New Zealand, and co-workers of the International Primary Care Respiratory Group and the National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training reviewed, evaluated and compared 26 national guidelines. Almost all guidelines place importance on identifying smokers, advising them to quit and providing behavioural and medication-based support. However, there were discrepancies in the support offered, which could be due to different interpretations of evidence, costs of medication and cultural differences. The authors offer a checklist for primary care that can inform future universal guidelines suitable for primary care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41533-016-0004-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5434788PMC
January 2017