Publications by authors named "Rhonda A Newman"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Site-specific phosphorylation and caspase cleavage of GFAP are new markers of Alexander disease severity.

Elife 2019 11 4;8. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, United States.

Alexander disease (AxD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which supports the structural integrity of astrocytes. Over 70 GFAP missense mutations cause AxD, but the mechanism linking different mutations to disease-relevant phenotypes remains unknown. We used AxD patient brain tissue and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived astrocytes to investigate the hypothesis that AxD-causing mutations perturb key post-translational modifications (PTMs) on GFAP. Our findings reveal selective phosphorylation of GFAP-Ser13 in patients who died young, independently of the mutation they carried. AxD iPSC-astrocytes accumulated pSer13-GFAP in cytoplasmic aggregates within deep nuclear invaginations, resembling the hallmark Rosenthal fibers observed in vivo. Ser13 phosphorylation facilitated GFAP aggregation and was associated with increased GFAP proteolysis by caspase-6. Furthermore, caspase-6 was selectively expressed in young AxD patients, and correlated with the presence of cleaved GFAP. We reveal a novel PTM signature linking different GFAP mutations in infantile AxD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.47789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6927689PMC
November 2019

Activation of Discs large by aPKC aligns the mitotic spindle to the polarity axis during asymmetric cell division.

Elife 2017 11 29;6. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Institute of Molecular Biology, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oregon, Eugene, United States.

Asymmetric division generates cellular diversity by producing daughter cells with different fates. In animals, the mitotic spindle aligns with Par complex polarized fate determinants, ensuring that fate determinant cortical domains are bisected by the cleavage furrow. Here, we investigate the mechanisms that couple spindle orientation to polarity during asymmetric cell division of neuroblasts. We find that the tumor suppressor Discs large (Dlg) links the Par complex component atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC) to the essential spindle orientation factor GukHolder (GukH). Dlg is autoinhibited by an intramolecular interaction between its SH3 and GK domains, preventing Dlg interaction with GukH at cortical sites lacking aPKC. When co-localized with aPKC, Dlg is phosphorylated in its SH3 domain which disrupts autoinhibition and allows GukH recruitment by the GK domain. Our work establishes a molecular connection between the polarity and spindle orientation machineries during asymmetric cell division.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.32137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5706957PMC
November 2017

Calcium-dependent energetics of calmodulin domain interactions with regulatory regions of the Ryanodine Receptor Type 1 (RyR1).

Biophys Chem 2014 Sep-Oct;193-194:35-49. Epub 2014 Jul 30.

Dept. of Biochemistry, Univ. of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109, United States. Electronic address:

Calmodulin (CaM) allosterically regulates the homo-tetrameric human Ryanodine Receptor Type 1 (hRyR1): apo CaM activates the channel, while (Ca(2+))4-CaM inhibits it. CaM-binding RyR1 residues 1975-1999 and 3614-3643 were proposed to allow CaM to bridge adjacent RyR1 subunits. Fluorescence anisotropy titrations monitored the binding of CaM and its domains to peptides encompassing hRyR(11975-1999) or hRyR1(3614-3643). Both CaM and its C-domain associated in a calcium-independent manner with hRyR1(3614-3643) while N-domain required calcium and bound ~250-fold more weakly. Association with hRyR1(11975-1999) was weak. Both hRyR1 peptides increased the calcium-binding affinity of both CaM domains, while maintaining differences between them. These energetics support the CaM C-domain association with hRyR1(3614-3643) at low calcium, positioning CaM to respond to calcium efflux. However, the CaM N-domain affinity for hRyR(11975-1999) alone was insufficient to support CaM bridging adjacent RyR1 subunits. Other proteins or elements of the hRyR1 structure must contribute to the energetics of CaM-mediated regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpc.2014.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4208696PMC
May 2015

Intramolecular interactions between the SRC homology 3 and guanylate kinase domains of discs large regulate its function in asymmetric cell division.

J Biol Chem 2009 May 4;284(19):12924-32. Epub 2009 Mar 4.

Department of Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA.

Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) regulate the formation and function of molecular assemblies at specialized regions of the membrane. Allosteric regulation of an intramolecular interaction between the Src homology 3 (SH3) and guanylate kinase (GK) domains of MAGUKs is thought to play a central role in regulating MAGUK function. Here we show that a mutant of the Drosophila MAGUK Discs large (Dlg), dlg(sw), encodes a form of Dlg that disrupts the intramolecular association while leaving the SH3 and GK domains intact, providing an excellent model system to assess the role of the SH3-GK intramolecular interaction in MAGUK function. Analysis of asymmetric cell division of maternal-zygotic dlg(sw) embryonic neuroblasts demonstrates that the intramolecular interaction is not required for Dlg localization but is necessary for cell fate determinant segregation to the basal cortex and mitotic spindle alignment with the cortical polarity axis. These defects ultimately result in improper patterning of the embryonic central nervous system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the sw mutation of Dlg results in unregulated complex assembly as assessed by GukHolder association with the SH3-GK versus PDZ-SH3-GK modules of Dlg(sw). From these studies, we conclude that allosteric regulation of the SH3-GK intramolecular interaction is required for regulation of MAGUK function in asymmetric cell division, possibly through regulation of complex assembly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M809304200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2676023PMC
May 2009

Thermodynamics and conformational change governing domain-domain interactions of calmodulin.

Methods Enzymol 2009 13;466:503-26. Epub 2009 Nov 13.

Department of Biochemistry, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

Calmodulin (CaM) is a small (148 amino acid), ubiquitously expressed eukaryotic protein essential for Ca(2+) regulation and signaling. This highly acidic polypeptide (pI<4) has two homologous domains (N and C), each consisting of two EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding sites. Despite significant homology, the domains have intrinsic differences in their Ca(2+)-binding properties and separable roles in regulating physiological targets such as kinases and ion channels. In mammalian full-length CaM, sites III and IV in the C-domain bind Ca(2+) cooperatively with ~10-fold higher affinity than sites I and II in the N-domain. However, the difference is only twofold when CaM is severed at residue 75, indicating that anticooperative interactions occur in full-length CaM. The Ca(2+)-binding properties of sites I and II are regulated by several factors including the interplay of interdomain linker residues far from the binding sites. Our prior thermodynamic studies showed that these residues inhibit thermal denaturation and decrease calcium affinity. Based on high-resolution structures and NMR spectra, there appear to be interactions between charged residues in the sequence 75-80 and those near the amino terminus of CaM. To explore electrostatic contributions to interdomain interactions in CaM, KCl was used to perturb the Ca(2+)-binding affinity, thermal stability, and hydrodynamic size of a nested set of recombinant mammalian CaM (rCaM) fragments terminating at residues 75, 80, 85, or 90. Potassium chloride is known to decrease Ca(2+)-binding affinity of full-length CaM. It may act directly by competition with acidic side chains that chelate Ca(2+) in the binding sites, and indirectly elsewhere in the molecule by changing tertiary constraints and conformation. In all proteins studied, KCl decreased Ca(2+)-affinity, decreased Stokes radius, and increased thermal stability, but not monotonically. Crystallographic structures of Ca(2+)-saturated rCaM(1-75) (3B32.pdb) and rCaM(1-90) (3IFK.pdb) were determined, offering cautionary notes about the effect of packing interactions on flexible linkers. This chapter describes an array of methods for characterizing system-specific thermodynamic properties that in concert govern structure and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(09)66021-3DOI Listing
October 2011

Interdomain cooperativity of calmodulin bound to melittin preferentially increases calcium affinity of sites I and II.

Proteins 2008 Jun;71(4):1792-812

Department of Biochemistry, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242-1109, USA.

Calmodulin (CaM) is the primary transducer of calcium fluxes in eukaryotic cells. Its two domains allosterically regulate myriad target proteins through calcium-linked association and conformational change. Many of these proteins have a basic amphipathic alpha-helix (BAA) motif that binds one or both CaM domains. Previously, we demonstrated domain-specific binding of melittin, a model BAA peptide, to Paramecium CaM (PCaM): C-domain mutations altered the interaction with melittin, whereas N-domain mutations had no discernable effect. Here, we report on the use of fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy to measure the domain-specific association of melittin with calcium-saturated ((Ca(2+))(4)-PCaM) or calcium-depleted (apo) PCaM, which has enabled us to determine the free energies of calcium binding to the PCaM-melittin complex, and to estimate interdomain cooperativity. Under apo conditions, melittin associated with each PCaM domain fragment (PCaM(1-80) and PCaM(76-148)), as well as with the C-domain of full-length PCaM (PCaM(1-148)). In the presence of calcium, all of these interactions were again observed, in addition to which an association with the N-domain of (Ca(2+))(4)-PCaM(1-148) occurred. This new association was made possible by the fact that melittin changed the calcium-binding preferences for the domains from sequential (C > N) to concomitant, decreasing the median ligand activity of calcium toward the N-domain 10-fold more than that observed for the C-domain. This selectivity may be explained by a free energy of cooperativity of -3 kcal/mol between the N- and C-domains. This study demonstrates multiple domain-selective differences in the interactions between melittin and PCaM. Our findings support a model that may apply more generally to ion channels that associate with the C-domain of CaM under low (resting) calcium conditions, but rearrange when calcium binding triggers an association of the N- domain with the channel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prot.21861DOI Listing
June 2008

Calcium binding to calmodulin mutants having domain-specific effects on the regulation of ion channels.

Biochemistry 2006 Dec;45(48):14311-24

Department of Biochemistry, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242-1109, USA.

Calmodulin (CaM) is an essential, eukaryotic protein comprised of two highly homologous domains (N and C). CaM binds four calcium ions cooperatively, regulating a wide array of target proteins. A genetic screen of Paramecia by Kung [Kung, C. et al. (1992) Cell Calcium 13, 413-425] demonstrated that the domains of CaM have separable physiological roles: "under-reactive" mutations affecting calcium-dependent sodium currents mapped to the N-domain, while "over-reactive" mutations affecting calcium-dependent potassium currents localized to the C-domain of CaM. To determine whether and how these mutations affected intrinsic calcium-binding properties of CaM domains, phenylalanine fluorescence was used to monitor calcium binding to sites I and II (N-domain) and tyrosine fluorescence was used to monitor sites III and IV (C-domain). To explore interdomain interactions, binding properties of each full-length mutant were compared to those of its corresponding domain fragments. The calcium-binding properties of six under-reactive mutants (V35I/D50N, G40E, G40E/D50N, D50G, E54K, and G59S) and one over-reactive mutant (M145V) were indistinguishable from those of wild-type CaM, despite their deleterious physiological effects on ion-channel regulation. Four over-reactive mutants (D95G, S101F, E104K, and H135R) significantly decreased the calcium affinity of the C-domain. Of these, one (E104K) also increased the calcium affinity of the N-domain, demonstrating that the magnitude and direction of wild-type interdomain coupling had been perturbed. This suggests that, while some of these mutations alter calcium-binding directly, others probably alter CaM-channel association or calcium-triggered conformational change in the context of a ternary complex with the affected ion channel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi061134dDOI Listing
December 2006

Biochemical properties of V91G calmodulin: A calmodulin point mutation that deregulates muscle contraction in Drosophila.

Protein Sci 2004 Dec;13(12):3285-97

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251, USA.

A mutation (Cam7) to the single endogenous calmodulin gene of Drosophila generates a mutant protein with valine 91 changed to glycine (V91G D-CaM). This mutation produces a unique pupal lethal phenotype distinct from that of a null mutation. Genetic studies indicate that the phenotype reflects deregulation of calcium fluxes within the larval muscles, leading to hypercontraction followed by muscle failure. We investigated the biochemical properties of V91G D-CaM. The effects of the mutation on free CaM are minor: Calcium binding, and overall secondary and tertiary structure are indistinguishable from those of wild type. A slight destabilization of the C-terminal domain is detectable in the calcium-free (apo-) form, and the calcium-bound (holo-) form has a somewhat lower surface hydrophobicity. These findings reinforce the indications from the in vivo work that interaction with a specific CaM target(s) underlies the mutant defects. In particular, defective regulation of ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels was indicated by genetic interaction analysis. Studies described here establish that the putative CaM binding region of the Drosophila RyR (D-RyR) binds wild-type D-CaM comparably to the equivalent CaM-RyR interactions seen for the mammalian skeletal muscle RyR channel isoform (RYR1). The V91G mutation weakens the interaction of both apo- and holo-D-CaM with this binding region, and decreases the enhancement of the calcium-binding affinity of CaM that is detectable in the presence of the RyR target peptide. The predicted functional consequences of these changes are consonant with the in vivo phenotype, and indicate that D-RyR is one, if not the major, target affected by the V91G mutation in CaM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1110/ps.04928204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2287309PMC
December 2004

Lobe-dependent regulation of ryanodine receptor type 1 by calmodulin.

J Biol Chem 2002 Oct 15;277(43):40862-70. Epub 2002 Aug 15.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Calmodulin activates the skeletal muscle Ca(2+) release channel RYR1 at nm Ca(2+) concentrations and inhibits the channel at microm Ca(2+) concentrations. Using a deletion mutant of calmodulin, we demonstrate that amino acids 2-8 are required for high affinity binding of calmodulin to RYR1 at both nm and microm Ca(2+) concentrations and are required for maximum inhibition of the channel at microm Ca(2+) concentrations. In contrast, the addition of three amino acids to the N terminus of calmodulin increased the affinity for RYR1 at both nm and microm Ca(2+) concentrations, but destroyed its functional effects on RYR1 at nm Ca(2+). Using both full-length RYR1 and synthetic peptides, we demonstrate that the calmodulin-binding site on RYR1 is likely to be noncontiguous, with the C-terminal lobe of both apocalmodulin and Ca(2+)-calmodulin binding to amino acids between positions 3614 and 3643 and the N-terminal lobe binding at sites that are not proximal in the primary sequence. Ca(2+) binding to the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin converted it from an activator to an inhibitor, but an interaction with the N-terminal lobe was required for a maximum effect on RYR1. This interaction apparently depends on the native sequence or structure of the first few amino acids at the N terminus of calmodulin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M206763200DOI Listing
October 2002