Publications by authors named "Reza Shariat Moharari"

56 Publications

Clinical significance of prognostic nutrition index in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: Results from single-center experience with systematic review and meta-analysis.

Nutr Clin Pract 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: We aimed to ascertain risk indicators of in-hospital mortality and severity as well as to provide a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the prognostic significance of the prognostic nutrition index (PNI) as a predictor of adverse outcomes in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we studied patients with COVID-19 who were referred to our hospital from February 16 to November 1, 2020. Patients with either a real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test that was positive for COVID-19 or high clinical suspicion based on the World Health Organization (WHO) interim guidance were enrolled. A parallel systematic review/meta-analysis (in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science) was performed.

Results: A total of 504 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were included in this study, among which 101 (20.04%) patients died during hospitalization, and 372 (73.81%) patients were categorized as severe cases. At a multivariable level, lower PNI, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and higher D-dimer levels were independent risk indicators of in-hospital mortality. Additionally, patients with a history of diabetes, lower PNI, and higher LDH levels had a higher tendency to develop severe disease. The meta-analysis indicated the PNI as an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 0.80; P < .001) and disease severity (OR = 0.78; P = .009).

Conclusion: Our results emphasized the predictive value of the PNI in the prognosis of patients with COVID-19, necessitating the implementation of a risk stratification index based on PNI values in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ncp.10750DOI Listing
July 2021

Nasogastric tube insertion in intubated patients with the guide of wire rope: A prospective randomised controlled study.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 12:e14508. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion is sometimes required in intubated patients. NGTs are prone to kink and coil during blind insertion. We hypothesised that wire rope guide-assisted NGT insertion with chin lift can significantly improve the first-attempt success rate over the conventional technique during its insertion in intubated patients.

Objective: Mean time to successful insertion of NGT, the failure rate of NGT insertion in the first attempt, the failure rate of NGT insertion in the second attempt and overall failure rate were assessed along with the incidence of any complications.

Method: This prospective clinical trial conducted 100 adult patients presenting for abdominal surgery under general anaesthesia. These patients were randomised to an experimental technique of Wire rope guide with chin lift (wire group) or a control technique of head flexion (control group) for insertion of the NGT.

Results: The first-attempt success rate was 98% in wire group compared with 74% in the control group (P = .001). Thus, the first-attempt failure rate was 2% in wire group compared with 26% in the control group (P = .001). The median time required to insert the NGT was significantly shorter in wire group (35.3 ± 4.8 vs 61.5 ± 6.2 seconds, P = .001). The incidences of kinking/coiling, bleeding, and moderate injuries were significantly lower in wire group.

Conclusion: The use of rope wire guide for correct positioning of the NGT in intubated patients is less time-consuming with the high first-attempt success rate and lower incidence of procedure-related injuries compared to the conventional method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14508DOI Listing
June 2021

Prophylactic administration of diphenhydramine/paracetamol reduced emergence agitation and postoperative pain following maxillofacial surgeries: a randomized controlled trial.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Emergence agitation after maxillofacial surgeries is an anxious and problematic complication for the surgeon and anesthesiologist that may lead to self-extubation, haemorrhage, and surgical destruction. In this study, we investigated the effects of preemptive administration of diphenhydramine on emergence agitation and quality of recovery after maxillofacial surgery in adult patients.

Methods: Eighty-five patients undergoing maxillofacial surgery were randomized into two groups. The diphenhydramine group (Group D, n = 40) received diphenhydramine premedication 0.5 mg/kg before anesthesia induction, while the control group (Group C, n = 40) received volume-matched normal saline as a placebo. Before incision, all patients receive 0.1 mg/kg morphine sulfate slowly intravenously within 5 min. Continuous infusion of remifentanil 0.2 μg/kg/h and inhalation of isoflurane was maintained during the anesthesia period. Paracetamol 1 g was infused 15 min before extubation. We evaluated the incidence of agitation during the extubation period after general anesthesia, hemodynamic parameters, and recovery characteristics during the postoperative period.

Results: During extubation time, the incidence of emergence agitation was lower in Group D than in Group C (16% vs. 49%, P = 0.041). The time from isoflurane discontinuation to extubation (7.7 min in Group D vs. 6.8 min in Group C, P = 0.082) was not different. Grade of cough during emergence, the severity of pain, analgesic requirements, and hemodynamic changes were lower in group D compared with Group C.

Conclusions: Preemptive administration of diphenhydramine provided smooth emergence from anesthesia. It also improved the quality of recovery after maxillofacial surgery.

Trial Registration Number: This study was registered at http://irct.ir (registration number IRCT20130304012695N3).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-021-06904-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Prophylactic postoperative condom sheet placement: A randomized clinical trial to test a new concept.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Feb 19;62:415-418. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is one of the most common complications after surgery with several risk factors. However, its precise etiology is not completely understood. So far, the effect of prophylactic condom sheet placement on the prevention of POUR has not been addressed. This study was designed to understand whether preventive condom sheet decreases the rate of POUR.

Materials And Methods: This randomized clinical trial was carried out in an educational hospital during 2018-2019. All male patients, who underwent anorectal surgery with spinal anesthesia, were included and randomly allocated into two groups (with and without postoperative condom sheet placement).

Results: A total of 172 patients were included in this study (86 patients per group). Twenty-three (13.4%) patients developed POUR. The incidence of POUR was 15.1% among patients with condom sheets and 11.6% in patients without condom sheets, which was not significantly different (P > 0.5). POUR development had a significant correlation with the use of morphine and history of hypertension in both univariate and multivariate analyses.

Conclusion: Based on the present results, it seems that condom sheet placement did not effectively prevent POUR in patients; therefore, ambulation of patients after surgery is a more effective strategy for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2021.01.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7858678PMC
February 2021

Risk indicators associated with in-hospital mortality and severity in patients with diabetes mellitus and confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2021 Jan 7:1-11. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Endocrinology Medicine, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Hasan Abad Sq, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: This study aims to investigate risk indicators of in-hospital mortality and severity of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods: In this retrospective study, we studied patients with COVID-19 referred to Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from February 20 to May 14, 2020. Patients with either a positive real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction test of swab specimens or high clinical suspicion according to the World Health Organization interim guidance were included. We accurately divided all patients into two groups based on diabetes affection and followed-up patients with DM based on incurring death, severe COVID-19, and in-hospital complications.

Results: We enrolled 574 patients with COVID-19 in the final analysis, of whom 176 (30.7%) patients had DM. In this study, 104 (18.1%) patients deceased, and 380 (66.2%) patients incurred severe COVID-19. We found that COVID-19 patients with DM had a significantly higher mortality rate ( value<0.001), severe disease ( value<0.001), and in-hospital complications (all values<0.05). Besides that, in patients with DM, admission temperature (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, P value: 0.024), oxygen saturation (OR: 0.92, P value: 0.004), and urea (OR: 1.01, P value: 0.048) were independent risk indicators of in-hospital mortality. In addition, subgroup analysis of diabetic patients based on admission glucose level showed significant differences between these groups regarding acute cardiac injury ( value: 0.044) and acute liver injury (P value: 0.002).

Conclusions: Patients with DM admitted with lower oxygen saturation, elevated temperature, and higher urea are more susceptible to progress to more severe COVID-19 and poor prognosis. This indicates a necessity for more precise care during hospitalization for these patients.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40200-020-00701-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00701-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7788281PMC
January 2021

Comparison of Coagulation Conditions in Patients With Liver Cirrhosis Due to Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Nonbiliary Causes of Cirrhosis Before Orthotopic Liver Transplant.

Exp Clin Transplant 2020 11 16;18(6):696-700. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

From the Liver Transplantation Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Orthotopic liver transplant can be accompanied by an obscure bleeding pattern in patients with severe hepatic malfunction. In the present study, coagulation conditions of patients with cirrhosis of the liver due to primary sclerosing cholangitis and nonbiliary causes of cirrhosis were compared using rotational thromboelastometry assays obtained before orthotopic liver transplant.

Materials And Methods: This case control study analyzed patients who were candidates for orthotopic liver transplant from 2010 to 2016. Eighty patients with cirrhosis of the liver (40 patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and 40 with nonbiliary causes of cirrhosis) were randomly selected and enrolled into the study. Patients received rotational thromboelastometry assays under anesthesia just before the start of the operation, and results were compared between the 2 patient groups.

Results: Of 80 patients, 52 were men and 28 were women. In the assays, we found that maximum amplitudes in 10 and in 20 minutes and maximum clot firmness parameters were higher in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. The alpha angle and clot formation time were different in the intrinsic and extrinsic assay panels. In the intrinsic assay, we found clotting time to be shorter (P < .05). The average of all parameters in all 3 assays (intrinsic, extrinsic, and fibrinogen contribution) was lower in patients with nonbiliary causes of cirrhosis than in those with primary sclerosing cholangitis.

Conclusions: In contrast with previous studies that found that patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis are hypercoagulable, our study observed that they have normal coagulable results. Furthermore, we found that, although mean coagulation indexes in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis were within normal ranges, in patients with nonbiliary causes of cirrhosis, these indexes were generally lower.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2018.0374DOI Listing
November 2020

Prevalence of Abnormal Methemoglobinemia and Its Determinants in Patients Receiving Nitroglycerin During Anesthesia.

Anesth Pain Med 2019 Jun 3;9(3):e85852. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: One of the complications of nitroglycerin infusion during surgery is methemoglobinemia.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of methemoglobinemia and its association with nitroglycerin infusion for the treatment of hypertension during general anesthesia.

Methods: Patients received nitroglycerin infusion at a dose of 2 μ/kg/min. The aim of controlling blood pressure was to set the blood pressure at 20% of the patient's baseline. Then, the amount of methemoglobin was recorded at 15-minute intervals. Backward stepwise logistic regression test was used to determine the factors affecting methemoglobinemia.

Results: Based on the criterion of methemoglobin level above 2%, the prevalence of pathologic methemoglobinemia was 56.6%. After adjusting for confounding variables in the final model, the total prescribed dose was the only factor affecting pathologic methemoglobinemia.

Conclusions: For the first time, we showed that more than half of the patients undergoing surgery suffered from methemoglobin level above 2% after prescribing nitroglycerin, and the only predictor of abnormal methemoglobin level was the rate of nitroglycerin prescription. Anesthesiologists are recommended to be more careful about the speed of nitroglycerin infusion, and if the patient needs higher doses, patient care for the early detection of methemoglobinemia should be the priority.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.85852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6712357PMC
June 2019

The Efficacy of Intraoperative Ketamine-Haloperidol for Prevention of Catheter-related Bladder Discomfort After Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Surgery.

Oman Med J 2019 May;34(3):212-217

Department of Anesthesiology, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Catheterization of urinary bladder during surgery frequently leads to agitation of the patient in the recovery room, especially in those patients who remain catheterized after gaining consciousness. We hypothesized that administration of a combination of ketamine-haloperidol (KH) before urinary catheterization would reduce the incidence of catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) while reducing some adverse effects of ketamine in the postoperative period.

Methods: A total of 119 male patients who underwent lumbar spinal stenosis surgery were randomized into three groups. The KH group consisted of 39 patients who received KH just before urinary catheterization. The second arm of the study including 40 patients who received pethidine-haloperidol (PH). The control (C) group consisted of 40 patients who received normal saline as a placebo. We sought to determine the incidence and severity of CRBD at arrival in recovery and one, six, and 24 hours after.

Results: The incidence of CRBD upon arrival in the recovery room was 17.9% in the KH group, and 52.5% and 55% in the PH and C groups, respectively. The incidence of CRBD was significantly lower in the KH group at arrival in the recovery room. The severity of CRBD was lower in the KH group at one and six hours of surgery ( < 0.007). There was no significant difference 24 hours after surgery.

Conclusions: Intravenous administration of KH before urinary catheterization effectively decreases the incidence and severity of postoperative CRBD while reducing adverse effects attributed to ketamine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2019.41DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6505337PMC
May 2019

Low-dose preoperative pregabalin improves postoperative pain management in septorhinoplasty surgery: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Aug 4;276(8):2243-2249. Epub 2019 May 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of single low dose (75 mg) preoperative pregabalin in reducing post-operative pain of septorhinoplasty.

Methods: A double blind single center Randomized controlled trial based on block randomization. In the pregabalin group (PG) 34 participants received 75 mg pregabalin orally one hour before anesthesia induction while in control group (CG) 34 participants received a placebo. Pain and sedation were repeatedly measured with Visual Analouge Scale (VAS) and Riker Sedation-Agitation Scale (RSAS) respectively, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 24 hours postextubation. Cumulative doses of fentanyl and ibuprofen received in both groups were compared.

Results: Thirty-two of the participants in PG and 33 of the participants in CG completed the study. The Mean VAS pain score was less in PG versus CG 30 min postoperatively (2.30 ± 1.30 vs. 4.85 ± 1.17), one hour (2.28 ± 0.92 vs. 4.27 ± 0.78), two hours (2.11 ± 0.88 vs. 3.60 ± 0.61) and six hours (1.47 0.62 vs. 2.76 ± 0.91) but not 24-hours postoperatively (0.84 ± 0.62 vs. 1.09 ± 0.92). Participants in the PG were less agitated during early post-extubation period (at 10 min: RSAS 3.93 ± 0.43 vs. 4.42 ± 0.50) and more alert during the first hour post-extubation (at 60 min: RSAS 3.90 ± 0.29 vs. 3.36 ± 0.69). The total dose of rescue fentanyl and ibuprofen was lower in the PG compared to the CG.

Conclusions: A single dose of 75 mg pregabalin is very effective for pain control after septorhinoplasty procedure when administered one hour before anesthesia induction. Side effects are rare and opioid sparing was noted.

Trial Registration: Clinical trial number: IRCT2017043033706N1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-019-05448-yDOI Listing
August 2019

Half Saline-Bicarbonate Solution as Intraoperative Fluid Replacement Therapy Leads to Less Acidosis and Better Early Renal Function During Deceased-Donor Transplant.

Exp Clin Transplant 2020 02 17;18(1):34-38. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

From the Department of Anesthesiology, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Normal saline is the most common crystalloid solution that is used in renal transplant surgery. In this study, our aim was to determine the effects of a combination of half saline and bicarbonate versus normal saline as a routine solution.

Materials And Methods: For this double-blind random-ized clinical trial, we enrolled 100 adult patients undergoing kidney transplant. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who received normal saline and those who received half saline and bicarbonate infusion as fluid replacement therapy during renal transplant. All patients received about 40 mL/kg of crystalloids during surgery. Serial creatinine con-centrations (primary outcomes) were compared between groups at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after surgery. Urine output (secondary outcome) was compared between groups at recovery and at 6 and 24 hours after surgery. In addition, base excess, chloride, and sodium levels were measured before and 6 hours after surgery. Each liter of half saline-bircarbonate, which is relatively isoosmotic to human plasma, was composed of 70 mEq bicarbonate, 77 mEq chloride, and 147 mEq sodium.

Results: Patients who received half saline-bicarbonate had significantly lower postoperative creatinine levels at all time points than patients who received normal saline (P = .019). Serum chloride and sodium levels (P = .001) were significantly higher and base excess (P = .007) was significantly lower in the normal saline group at 6 hours after transplant. At all time points, urine output levels were significantly higher in the half saline-bicarbonate group (P = .001).

Conclusions: The use of half saline-bicarbonate was associated with better early graft function compared with normal saline in the first 7 days after transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2018.0328DOI Listing
February 2020

Comparison of the Effect of Intra-Rectal Administration of Lidocaine Gel and Lidocaine Plus Fentanyl on Pain Reduction in Prostate Biopsy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Anesth Pain Med 2018 Dec 28;8(6):e82778. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Urology, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intra-rectal administration of lidocaine gel alone versus lidocaine gel plus topical fentanyl on pain reduction in prostate biopsy.

Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 96 patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned into two groups. 1) The treatment group: Lidocaine gel (2%) 50 g and 2) the intervention group: Lidocaine gel (2%) 50 g and fentanyl gel 50 µg. During the prostate biopsy, the VAS score was recorded. Blood pressure, heart rate, and patient level of consciousness were also analyzed.

Results: The mean VAS score was 5.1 ± 2 and 3.0 ± 2, which was lower in the intervention group (P value < 0.001). In terms of consciousness after biopsy, there was no difference between the two groups (P value = 0.358). There was no difference between the groups in terms of mean blood pressure and heart rate before and during the prostate biopsy. Finally, in terms of consciousness after the prostate biopsy, there was no difference between the current treatment and intervention groups.

Conclusions: The combination of lidocaine gel and fentanyl with a dose of 50 µg has a significant effect on reducing the pain associated with prostate biopsy in comparison with lidocaine gel alone. The antinociceptive effect of the above regimens is not associated with hemodynamic changes and changes in patients' consciousness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.82778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347735PMC
December 2018

Preemptive Effect of Intraurethral Instillation of Ketamine-lidocaine Gel on Postoperative Catheter-related Bladder Discomfort after Lumbar Spine Surgery.

Asian J Neurosurg 2018 Oct-Dec;13(4):1057-1060

Department of Neurosurgery, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) is one of the main reasons of agitation after surgery, leading to urgency and frequency during recovery. Ketamine has been used as an effective drug for reducing the signs and severity of this problem. We hypothesized that intraurethral instillation of ketamine-lidocaine gel before urinary catheterization can reduce the incidence of CRBD in the postoperative period.

Materials And Methods: A total of 136 male patients, who underwent two-level laminectomy/discectomy were enrolled in this randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomized into the two groups before urinary catheterization. The ketamine group received urethral lubrication with 5 mL xylocaine jelly (2%) in conjunction with 2 mL (100 mg) ketamine. Patients in control group received urethral lubrication with 5 mL xylocaine jelly (2%) in conjunction with 2 mL distilled water. The primary outcome was the incidence of CRBD. CRBD was assessed using four-stage criteria when arriving in the recovery room and at 1, 2, and 6 h after surgery. Postsurgical pain and the number of sedatives given and opioid requirement were also the secondary outcomes in this study.

Results: Intraurethral instillation of ketamine-lidocaine gel reduced the incidence of CRBD at recovery ( < 0.001) along with a reduction in the severity of CRBD ( < 0.05) during the 1 and 2 visit compared with control group. The mean pain intensity score (visual analog scale) and opioid requirement to relieve postsurgical pain were lower in the ketamine group during all the study timepoints from recovery and after transfer to the ward ( < 0.008). A higher rate of sedation (72% vs. 11%) also was seen at recovery period in the ketamine group ( < 0.008).

Conclusion: Intraurethral instillation of ketamine-lidocaine gel before bladder catheterization is an effective technique for reducing the incidence and severity of postoperative CRBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ajns.AJNS_314_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6208219PMC
November 2018

Comparison of Nasal Intubations by GlideScope With and Without a Bougie Guide in Patients Who Underwent Maxillofacial Surgeries: Randomized Clinical Trial.

Anesth Analg 2018 05;126(5):1641-1645

From the Department of Anesthesiology, Sina Hospital.

Background: Nasotracheal intubation is commonly performed to provide a secure airway for the maintenance of general anesthesia in maxillofacial surgeries. Routine nasotracheal intubation is performed under general anesthesia by direct laryngoscopy, frequently with the aid of Magill forceps. This method can be time-consuming and may cause bleeding in the field of view. A gum elastic bougie (GEB) is a cheap, slender, and flexible device that could expedite nasotracheal intubation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a GEB during nasotracheal intubation to facilitate the procedure and reduce the rate of complications.

Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 110 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II from 15 to 65 years of age were randomized into 2 equal groups. In both groups, a GlideScope and armored tube were used. In the GEB group, GEB was used to facilitate nasal intubation while the nasal intubation was performed without the aid of GEB in the routine group. The difficult intubation (defined as >1 attempt for intubation) was the primary outcome, and the duration of the intubation, the presence of traces of bleeding, the need for a tube replacement, and the usage of Magill forceps were the secondary outcomes.

Results: The incidence of bleeding in the GEB group was 1.81% vs 43.63% in the routine group (P < .001). In 5.5% of the GEB group, Magill forceps were used to advance the tube versus 67.3% in the routine group (P < .001). The mean time for intubation in GEB group was 48.63 ± 8.53 vs 55.9 ± 10.76 seconds in the routine group (P < .001).

Conclusions: The GEB is a useful aid to nasotracheal intubation, reducing bleeding, the requirement for Magill forceps and, to a small degree, intubation time. A case exists for its routine use for this purpose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000002853DOI Listing
May 2018

Comparison Effect of Promethazine/Dexamethasone and Metoclopramide /Dexamethasone on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting after Laparascopic Gastric Placation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Anesth Pain Med 2017 Aug 22;7(4):e57810. Epub 2017 Jul 22.

MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Sina Hospital, Hassan Abad Square, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Laparoscopic gastric plication (LGP) is a technique in the restrictive category of bariatric procedures that reduces the gastric volume and increases intragastric pressure. Nausea and vomiting are the most common complications after this procedure. The goal of this research is to compare the combined effect of promethazine/dexamethasone versus Metoclopramide/ dexamethasone on the prevention of nausea and vomiting after LGP.

Methods: In recovery, the patients were divided into two groups, the Metoclopramide group which was given Metoclopramide 10 mg plus dexamethasone 4 mg/8 hours intravenous for 48 hours, and the promethazine group which was given promethazine 50 mg /12 hours, intramuscular for the first 24 hours and then promethazine 25 mg/12 hours for the next 24 hours plus dexamethasone 4 mg/8 hours intravenous for 48 hours. The frequency of nausea and vomiting, number of reflux episodes, frequency of epigastric fullness, and the duration of walking around q12 hours were recorded in the first 48 hours post-operation.

Results: Eighty patients were enrolled into the study. Promethazine group were found to significantly reduce the incidence of PONV in the first 24 hours compared with the other group (41% vs. 97.5%), relative risk = 0.042 [95% CI = 0.006, 0.299]. The mean numbers of epigastric fullness and severity of epigastria pain were lower in the promethazine group (P = 0.01) and the total opioid requirement was also reduced in promethazine group (32.1 ± 2.6 VS .68.5 ± 4.6 mg). However, the patients in the promethazine group were more sedated, which caused the duration of walking q12 hours in this group to decrease.

Conclusions: In morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric plication, promethazine/dexametasone was more effective than Metoclopramide/dexametasone in preventing and reducing the incidence of nausea, epigastric fullness, and reflux. That combination was also more effective than Metoclopramide in reducing the severity of epigastric pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.57810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712203PMC
August 2017

An Assessment of Intubation Skill Training in Novice Anesthesiology Residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences With the Use of Mannequins.

Anesth Pain Med 2016 Dec 19;6(6):e39184. Epub 2016 Sep 19.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of intubation skill training involving the use of mannequins on novice anesthesiology residents in a knowledge, attitudes, and practices designed study in which three different types of evaluation were implemented.

Methods: All first-year anesthesiology residents (24) of Sina Hospital, affiliated to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, were invited to participate in an intubating skills training course. The program comprised two theoretical and three practical sessions, lasting a total of 16 hours over four days. Faculty assessment of residents' practices was carried out using the questionnaire results, measured using a Likert scale, as the primary outcome. An improvement in the theoretical knowledge of the novice anesthesiology residents (using the Likert scale) and their attitudes towards the educational course in general (via a multiple choice question examination), were also evaluated.

Results: The mean score following faculty assessment of the residents' practical skills was 4.6 out of 5.0 (92%) [standard deviation (SD) of 0.13]. The mean score with respect to the attitudes of the residents was 4.8 out of 5.0 (96%) (SD of 0.16). The overall mean theoretical score of the residents improved significantly upon completion of the training program (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the personnel in the five participating faculties were highly satisfied with the practical performance of the residents, who were found to hold good attitudes towards the program as a whole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.39184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5560575PMC
December 2016

Local Administration of Tranexamic Acid During Prostatectomy Surgery: Effects on Reducing the Amount of Bleeding.

Nephrourol Mon 2016 Nov 23;8(6):e40409. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: One of the issues in prostatectomy surgery is bleeding. Although tranexamic acid (TRA) is an antifibrinolytic agent for reducing bleeding, controversies surround its use.

Objectives: In this study, the effect of local administration of TRA on reducing bleeding during prostatectomy surgery was evaluated.

Methods: A total of 186 patients who underwent prostatectomy surgery were assessed in this clinical trial study. Patients were divided randomly into two groups. After prostate removal, TRA (500 mg TRA with 5 mL total volume) to the intervention group and normal saline to the control group were sprayed with the same volume. At the end of surgery, the prescribed blood bags were measured and recorded. Hemoglobin and platelet levels were recorded 6 hours after the test. Moreover, the amounts of blood inside the blood bags in the first 24 hours, the second 24 hours, and the total length of hospital stay were recorded and compared in each group.

Results: By comparing the measured values before and after surgery, we found that the amounts of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet decreased. The mean blood loss in the intervention group was recorded at 340 mL and that in the control group was 515 mL. The maximum bleeding in the control group was almost twice as much as that in the intervention group. Blood loss in the intervention group with the administration of TRA was significantly lesser than that in the control group (P = 0.01). The decrease in platelet level in the intervention group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P = 0.03).

Conclusions: The present study showed that local administration of TRA significantly reduces bleeding after prostatectomy surgery and is effective in preventing postoperative hemoglobin decrease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/numonthly.40409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5120251PMC
November 2016

Combined Ketamine-Tramadol Subcutaneous Wound Infiltration for Multimodal Postoperative Analgesia: A Double-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial after Renal Surgery.

Anesth Pain Med 2016 Oct 26;6(5):e37778. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Pain is an important consideration after renal surgery. A multimodal approach to postoperative pain management could enhance analgesia by risking fewer side effects after surgery.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the subcutaneous infiltration of ketamine and tramadol at the incision site to reduce postoperative pain.

Methods: Sixty-four patients between 18 and 80 years old who were scheduled for elective renal surgery were enrolled in a double-blind randomized controlled study. At the end of the surgery, patients were divided into four groups with 16 patients in each group: the saline group, who were treated with 10 mL of saline solution; the K group, who were treated with 1 mg/kg etamine in 10 mL of saline solution; the T group, who were treated with 1 mg/kg tramadol in 10 mL of saline solution; and the K/T group, who were treated with 0.5 mg/kg ketamine with 0.5 mg/kg tramadol in 10 mL of saline solution. In each group, the solution was infiltrated subcutaneously at the incision site. The postoperative pain scores and rescue analgesic consumption of the patients in each group were recorded for 24 hours and compared. The primary goal of the study was to compare the results of patients treated with a combined ketamine and tramadol subcutaneous wound infiltration, patients treated with a tramadol subcutaneous wound infiltration, and patients treated with a ketamine subcutaneous wound infiltration.

Results: Sixty-four patients were enrolled in the study. Pain intensity and cumulative meperidine consumption were significantly lower in the K/T group (27 mg; 95% confidence interval, 25.2 - 53.2) in comparison with the group that received a saline infusion during the first 24 hours after surgery (P < 0.001). The sedation score of the K, T, and K/T groups were significantly higher than the saline group (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The combined subcutaneous infiltration of ketamine and tramadol at the incision site produces better analgesia and an opioid-sparing effect during the first 24 hours when compared with the control group and the groups that received a subcutaneous infiltration of only ketamine or tramadol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.37778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5101596PMC
October 2016

Multimodal Analgesia With Ketamine or Tramadol in Combination With Intravenous Paracetamol After Renal Surgery.

Nephrourol Mon 2016 Jul 7;8(4):e36491. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Opioids are generally the preferred analgesic agents during the early postoperative period.

Objectives: The present study was designed to assess and compare the multimodal analgesic effects of ketamine and tramadol in combination with intravenous acetaminophen after renal surgery.

Patients And Methods: This randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial was conducted on 80 consecutive patients undergoing various types of kidney surgeries in Sina hospital in Tehran in 2014 - 2016. After extubation, the patients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous paracetamol (1 gr) plus tramadol (0.7 mg/kg) (PT group) or paracetamol (1 gr) plus ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) (PK group) within ten minutes. Pain severity was assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS), and the level of agitation was assessed by the Ramsey sedation scale (RSS). Morphine consumption was assessed within the first six hours after drug injection, and hemodynamic parameters were assessed at 5, 10, and 20 minutes after infusion, at the time of transfer from recovery to the ward, and also at one and six hours after transfer to the ward.

Results: Postoperative pain scores were significantly lower in the PK group than in the PT group during all study time points. The mean dose of morphine needed at recovery in the PK group was lower compared with the PT group (0.47 ± 0.94 mg versus 1.50 ± 1.35 mg/P = 0.001). The level of agitation based on the RSS score was significantly lower in the PK group than in the PT group at 10 and 20 minutes after drug administration. The total postoperative complication rate in the PK group was lower than in the PT group (20% versus 53.3%, P = 0.007). In this regard, catheter bladder discomfort was more frequent in the PT group than in the PK group (43.3% versus 3.3%, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The combination of intravenous paracetamol 1 gr and ketamine 0.5 mg/kg resulted in an overall reduction in pain scores, decreased postoperative analgesic requirements, and lower agitation score compared with intravenous paracetamol 1 gr and tramadol 0.7 mg/kg for patients undergoing renal surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/numonthly.36491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5039960PMC
July 2016

Analgesic Efficacy of Nephrostomy Tract inFiltration of Bupivacaine and Ketamine after Tubeless Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

Iran J Pharm Res 2016 ;15(2):619-26

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Recently, the use of ketamine as a systemic and local analgesic drug in reducing post-operative pain is studied more frequently.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the analgesic efficacy of IV ketamine injection inaddition to nephrostomy tract infiltration of ketamine-bupivacaine on postoperative pain relief after tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

Patients And Methods: Patients (n = 100), with renal stone who were candidates for PCNL were randomized to five groups with 20 cases in each: Group C, 10 mL of saline solution was infiltrated into the nephrostomy tract; Group B, 10 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine was infiltrated into the nephrostomy tract; Group BK1, 10 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 0.5 mg/kg ketamine was infiltrated into the nephrostomy tract; Group BK2, 10 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 1.5 mg/kg ketamine was infiltrated into the nephrostomy tract; Group K, 10 mL of saline solution containing 0.5 mg/kg ketamine was intravenously administered. Post-operative pain scores were compared between groups as the primary objective. Comparison of Sedation Scores, rescue analgesic consumption, time to the first rescue analgesics administration, hemodynamic and SpO2 values were regarded as the secondary objective.

Results: Mean VAS scores in the first 30 min and total analgesic consumption in the first 24 h of post-operative period were significantly lower in groups BK1 and BK2 in comparison with the other groups (P < 0.05). Also, time to first rescue analgesics administration was longer in the same groups (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Infiltration of ketamine plus bupivacaine provides superior analgesic effects in PCNL surgery compared with other methods.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5018291PMC
September 2016

Application of Awake Craniotomy and Intraoperative Brain Mapping for Surgical Resection of Insular Gliomas of the Dominant Hemisphere.

World Neurosurg 2016 Aug 2;92:151-158. Epub 2016 May 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Radical resection of dominant insular gliomas is difficult because of their close vicinity with internal capsule, basal ganglia, and speech centers. Brain mapping techniques can be used to maximize the extent of tumor removal and to minimize postoperative morbidities by precise localization of eloquent cortical and subcortical areas.

Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed gliomas of dominant insula were enrolled. The exclusion criteria were severe cognitive disturbances, communication difficulty, age greater than 75 years, severe obesity, difficult airways for intubation and severe cardiopulmonary diseases. All were evaluated preoperatively with contrast-enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional brain MRI, and diffusion tensor tractography of language and motor systems. All underwent awake craniotomy with the same anesthesiology protocol. Intraoperative monitoring included continuous motor-evoked potential, electromyography, electrocorticography, direct electrical stimulation of cortex, and subcortical tracts. The patients were followed with serial neurologic examination and imaging.

Results: Ten patients were enrolled (4 men, 6 women) with a mean age of 43.6 years. Seven patients suffered from low-grade glioma, and 3 patients had high-grade glioma. The most common clinical presentation was seizure followed by speech disturbance, hemiparesis, and memory loss. Extent of tumor resection ranged from 73% to 100%. No mortality or new major postoperative neurologic deficit was encountered. Seizure control improved in three fourths of patients with medical refractory epilepsy. In one patient with speech disorder at presentation, the speech problem became worse after surgery.

Conclusion: Brain mapping during awake craniotomy helps to maximize extent of tumor resection while preserving neurologic function in patients with dominant insular lobe glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2016.04.079DOI Listing
August 2016

Effects of Ropivacaine on Postoperative Pain and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

Nephrourol Mon 2015 Nov 29;7(6):e30973. Epub 2015 Nov 29.

Department of Urology, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Postoperative analgesic effects of ropivacaine have been demonstrated in various surgical procedures; however, its beneficial effect on postoperative pain relief and ability to breathe out air in urological surgeries, particularly in local interventions such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), has remained uncertain.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of ropivacaine on postoperative pain severity and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in patients undergoing PCNL procedure.

Patients And Methods: This randomized double-blinded clinical trial was performed on 55 consecutive adult patients aged 15 to 60 years who underwent Tubeless PCNL surgery. The patients were randomly assigned to instill 30 mL of ropivacaine 0.2% or 30 mL of isotonic saline with the same protocol. The parameters of visual analogue scale (VAS) (for assessment of pain severity) and PEF (for assessment of ability to breathe out air) were measured 4 and 6 hours after completing the procedure. Moreover, the amounts of opioids or analgesics administered within 6 hours after the operation were recorded.

Results: We found no difference in the mean pain severity score between the case and control groups 4 hours (P = 0.332) and 6 hours (P = 0.830) after the operation. The mean PEF at baseline was similar in case and control groups (P = 0.738). Moreover, no difference was revealed in PEF index 4 hours (P = 0.398) and 6 hours (P = 0.335) after PCNL between the groups. The mean VAS scores 4 hours after the operation slightly decreased 2 hours later (P < 0.001) in the both groups. Moreover, in the both groups, a sudden decrease in PEF index was observed within 4 hours after the operation and increased with a mild gradient for the next 2 hours. No difference was found in the amount of postoperative analgesic used in the both groups.

Conclusions: Instillation of ropivacaine 0.2% (30 mL) within tubeless PCNL surgery does not have a significant effect on postoperative pain relief and improvement of PEF within 6 hours after the operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/numonthly.30973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4744633PMC
November 2015

Comparison of aPTT and CT Parameter of the ROTEM Test to Monitor Heparin Anti-Coagulation Effect in ICU Patients: an Observational Study.

Acta Med Iran 2015 Oct;53(10):643-6

Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Heparin is frequently used in different clinical settings to reduce the coagulating ability of the blood. Because of probable adverse effects owing to heparin therapy and regarding variability of patients' responses to heparin, which make it very unreliable, it seems prudent to monitor meticulously its effects on the human body. There are a lot of laboratory tests to watch its effects on the body for example; aPTT and ROTEM are the most widely used tests that are performed today. We aimed to compare the aPTT test results against changes of CT parameter of the ROTEM test due to heparin administration. This study was conducted on 45 critically ill patients who needed to receive heparin according to their clinical status. All patients received 550 to 1500 unit heparin per hour (on average 17.5 unit heparin per kilogram weight). While the patients were under infusion of heparin, two blood samples (5 ml) were taken from a newly established cubital vein, just five hours after commencement of heparin therapy. One sample was used for aPTT and the other one for ROTEM. The correlation between aPTT and the changes of CT parameter of the ROTEM with heparin dosage and infusion was the primary outcome. The correlation between heparin therapy and the changes of other parameters like MCF, CFT, and a number of platelets were the secondary outcome of the study. The only significant correlation was between changes of CT and aPTT (P=0.000). The other variables were not correlated. Changes of CT parameter of ROTEM test can be used for monitoring of reduced coagulability during heparin infusion instead of aPTT test.
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October 2015

The Comparison of Procalcitonin Guidance Administer Antibiotics with Empiric Antibiotic Therapy in Critically Ill Patients Admitted in Intensive Care Unit.

Acta Med Iran 2015 ;53(9):562-7

Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The empiric antibiotic therapy can result in antibiotic overuse, development of bacterial resistance and increasing costs in critically ill patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of procalcitonin (PCT) guide treatment on antibiotic use and clinical outcomes of patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A total of 60 patients were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into two groups, cases that underwent antibiotic treatment based on serum level of PCT as PCT group (n=30) and patients who undergoing antibiotic empiric therapy as control group (n=30). Our primary endpoint was the use of antibiotic treatment. Additional endpoints were changed in clinical status and early mortality. Antibiotics use was lower in PCT group compared to control group (P=0.03). Current data showed that difference in SOFA score from the first day to the second day after admitting patients in ICU did not significantly differ (P=0.88). Patients in PCT group had a significantly shorter median ICU stay, four days versus six days (P=0.01). However, hospital stay was not statistically significant different between two groups, 20 days versus 22 days (P=0.23). Early mortality was similar between two groups. PCT guidance administers antibiotics reduce antibiotics exposure and length of ICU stay, and we found no differences in clinical outcomes and early mortality rates between the two studied groups.
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May 2016

Effects of laparoscopic gastric plication (LGP) in patients with type 2 diabetes, one year follow-up.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2015 17;14:60. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Sina Hospital, Hassan Abad Square, Tehran, Zip code: 1136746911 Iran.

Background: Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Surgery is one of the most effective treatments for morbid obesity. In a prospective cohort study, we examined the effects of Laparoscopic Gastric Plication (LGP) as a new restrictive technique on remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: During six years of study from June 2007 through December 2013, 62 patients who underwent bariatric surgery were recruited for our study to determine the effects of weight loss. Sixty patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 were selected for a one year follow up period. The amount of weight loss, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), changes in the lipid profile, HbA1c and blood pressure were assessed during this period. The primary outcomes were safety and the percentage of patients experiencing diabetes remission.

Results: Sixty patients with the mean age of 39.7 ± 12.8 years, ranging from 18 to 62 years, were enrolled in the study for an average 12 months of follow up. The maximal weight loss of 57 kg was achieved at average after six months. FBS significantly decreased during this period, and after one year, remission of diabetes was achieved in 92 % of patients. In five patients, diabetes was controlled with decrease in taking oral medications.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic Gastric Plication (LGP) resulted in significant and sustained weight loss with minimal physiologic changes in gastrointestinal tract and ameliorated blood glucose control of type 2 diabetes in morbid obese patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40200-015-0188-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4504399PMC
July 2015

Intrarectal Lidocaine-Diltiazem-Meperidine Gel for Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy.

Anesth Pain Med 2015 Jun 22;5(3):e22568. Epub 2015 Jun 22.

Department of Urology, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: TRUS-guided needle biopsy of the prostate gland is the current standard method used for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Pain control during this procedure is through the use of i.v. sedation or local anaesthetic (LA), depending on clinician preference.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intrarectal lidocaine, lidocaine-diltiazem and lidocaine-meperidine-diltiazem gel for anesthetizing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy.

Patients And Methods: In a randomized double-blind clinical trial, 100 consecutive patients were divided into three groups. The patients received one of the gels before transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsy: group A, intrarectal and perianal lidocaine, gel 1 g; group B, intrarectal lidocaine gel, 1 g, + perianal diltiazem, 1 g; group C, intrarectal lidocaine gel, 1 g, + meperidine, 25 mg, and perianal diltiazem, 1 g. Visual analog pain scale was used to estimate pain during probe insertion and biopsy. Heart rate and blood pressure during probe insertion and biopsy were recorded too.

Results: The mean of visual analog pain scale was 4.5 in group A, 3.5 in group B, and 2.0 in group C during probe insertion (P value = 0.01). The mean of visual analog pain scale was 5.1 in group A, 3.5 group B, and 2.5 in group C during biopsy (P value = 0.001). The groups were comparable for patients' age, weight, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostate size (P > 0.05). No side effects of meperidine and lidocaine including drowsiness, dizziness, tinnitus and light-headedness or requiring assistance for activity were noted.

Conclusions: Lidocaine-meperidine-diltiazem gel provides significantly better pain control than lidocaine-diltiazem gel and lidocaine gel alone during transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy and probe insertion. This mixture gel is safe, easy to administer and well accepted by patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.5(3)2015.22568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4493733PMC
June 2015

Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of peri-operative infusion of magnesium sulfate on the microsurgical procedures for intracranial tumors.

Anesth Pain Med 2014 Dec 30;4(5):e22379. Epub 2014 Nov 30.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Teheran, Iran.

Background: The anti-inflammatory properties of magnesium sulfate have never been discussed in brain tumor surgeries.

Objectives: This study is aimed to find anti-inflammatory aspects of high dose magnesium sulfate infusion during perioperative period of neurosurgical patients through checking the serial C-reactive protein (CRP) blood levels as a biomarker of inflammation.

Patients And Methods: Sixty patients who were candidate for elective craniotomy were enrolled randomly into two equal groups to receive either magnesium sulfate or normal saline during their perioperative period. Infusion of magnesium was performed three times during the study and a summation of 15 grams was administered: 1- two days before surgery, 2- one day before surgery, 3- from the beginning of surgery (five grams was infused within six hours in each session). Serum level of CRP was checked just before commencement of magnesium infusion and on the first and second day after surgery as primary outcome. Hemodynamic parameters, total propofol requirement and total blood loss were recorded as well.

Results: No significant difference was found between groups in terms of serum CRP levels. The mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, blood loss and total anesthetic requirement were significantly lower in magnesium group in comparison to the control group.

Conclusions: We did not find conclusive evidence for anti-inflammatory effects of magnesium in craniotomy for microsurgery of intracranial tumors using CRP level changes. However, high dose magnesium might be suggested as a safe anesthetic adjuvant in neurosurgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.22379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4358335PMC
December 2014

Prophylactic administration of fibrinogen concentrate in perioperative period of total hip arthroplasty: a randomized clinical trial study.

Acta Med Iran 2014 ;52(11):804-10

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

According to limitations in blood product resources and to prevent unnecessary transfusions and afterwards complications in perioperative period of total hip arthroplasty, authors administered fibrinogen concentrate in a pilot randomized clinical trial to evaluate bleeding and need to blood transfusion in preoperative period. Thirty patients (3-75 years old) with ASA physical status class I or II and candidate for total hip arthroplasty consequently enrolled in this study and randomly assigned into two groups: taking fibrinogen concentrate and control. Two groups were similar in serum concentration of fibrinogen, hemoglobin, and platelet preoperatively. After induction of general anesthesia 30 mg/kg fibrinogen concentrate was administered in the fibrinogen group. Blood loss, need to blood transfusion and probable complications were compared between two groups. The mean operation time was 3.3 ± 0.8 hours in the fibrinogen group and 2.8 ± 0.6 hours in the placebo group, and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.04). There was a significant correlation between operation time and blood loss during surgery (P=0.002). The mean transfused blood products in the fibrinogen and control group was 0.8 ± 1.01 units and 1.06 ± 1.2 units respectively (P=0.53). The mean of perioperative blood loss was 976 ± 553 ml in the fibrinogen group and 1100 ± 350 ml in the control group, but this difference was not significant between two groups. By adjusting time factor for two groups, we identified that the patients in fibrinogen group had lower perioperative bleeding after adjusting time factor for two groups (P=0.046). None of the patients had complications related to fibrinogen concentrate administration. The prophylactic administration of fibrinogen concentrate was safe and effective in reducing bleeding in the perioperative period of total hip arthroplasty.
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July 2015

Is epidural dexamethasone effective in preventing postdural puncture headache?

Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan 2014 Sep 8;52(3):95-100. Epub 2014 Sep 8.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is one of the common complications of spinal anesthesia; it is observed in 1-40% of cases involving spinal anesthesia. It can cause considerable morbidity and 40% of cases may require invasive treatments such as epidural blood patch. With the exception of invasive treatments such as an epidural blood patch, current standard treatment modalities have not proved efficacious. There had been some research done that indicated successful prophylaxis and/or treatment of PDPH by administration of intravenous steroids. Based on those findings, we hypothesize that a direct injection of corticosteroids to the anesthesia puncture site could increase the amount of corticosteroid that accumulates in the puncture site, and will be more effective in decreasing dural inflammation and incidence of PDPH than that of parenteral steroids. We formulated our study to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone directly injected into spinal anesthesia puncture sites.

Methods: A total of 268 patients undergoing spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups; one group received a prophylactic epidural injection of dexamethasone (2 mL, 8 mg) and the other group received 2 mL of normal saline. The incidence and intensity of PDPH and puncture site backache were each measured at 24 hours, 72 hours, and 7 days after spinal anesthesia. The intensity of the headache was graded according to the meningeal headache index.

Results: The overall incidence of headache during the 7-day period was 5 patients (3.7%) in the control group and 11 patients (8.2%) in the study group, which is not statistically significant (X(2) = 2.393 and p = 0.122. The severity of headache also shows no statistical significance (2.2% in cases versus 6% in controls; z = 1.53, p = 0.126). The intensity of headache reported at the 24 hours (z = 0.698; p = 0.485), 72 hours (z = 0.849; p = 0.396), and 7 days (z = 0.008; p = 0.994) was not different. There also was no difference in the incidence of backache in the two groups.

Conclusion: In contrast to other studies that showed the efficacy of intravenous dexamethasone in the prevention and treatment of PDPH, our study did not show any significant effect of prophylactic epidural injection of dexamethasone in prevention of PDPH. However regarding the low number of PDPH in routine cases, evaluation of this intervention in groups with a high incidence of PDPH by using of particulate steroids is recommended to confirm these preliminary findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aat.2014.07.001DOI Listing
September 2014

Postoperative sore throat after laryngoscopy with macintosh or glide scope video laryngoscope blade in normal airway patients.

Anesth Pain Med 2014 Feb 16;4(1):e15136. Epub 2014 Feb 16.

Department of Anesthesiology, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The Glide Scope videolaryngoscope provides a suitable view for intubation, with less force required.

Objectives: The present study was conducted, to compare postoperative sore throat and hoarseness after laryngoscopy and intubation, by Macintosh blade or Glide Scope video laryngoscope in normal airway patients.

Patients And Methods: Three hundred patients were randomly allocated into two groups of 150: Macintosh blade laryngoscope or Glide Scope video laryngoscope. The patients were evaluated for 48 hours for sore throat and hoarseness by an interview.

Results: The incidence and severity of sore throat in the Glide Scope group, at 6, 24 and 48 hours after the operation, were significantly lower than in the Macintosh laryngoscope group. In addition, the incidence of hoarseness in the Glide Scope group, at 6 and 24 hours after the operation, were significantly lower than in the Macintosh laryngoscope group. The incidence and severity of sore throat in men, at 6 and 24 hours after the operation, were significantly lower than in the women.

Conclusions: The incidence and severity of sore throat and hoarseness after tracheal intubation by Glide Scope were lower than in the Macintosh laryngoscope. The incidence and severity of sore throat were increased by intubation and longer operation times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.15136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3961026PMC
February 2014

Magnesium Can Decrease Postoperative Physiological Ileus and Postoperative Pain in Major non Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgeries: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Anesth Pain Med 2014 Feb 6;4(1):e12750. Epub 2013 Dec 6.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Magnesium is an antagonist of (N-methyl D-Aspartate) NMDA receptor and its related canals, and may affect perceived pain.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intravenous magnesium on the hemodynamic parameters, analgesic consumption and ileus.

Patients And Methods: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study was performed. Thirty two patients of ASA I or II, scheduled for major gastrointestinal (GI) surgery, were divided into magnesium and control groups. Magnesium group received a bolus of 40 mg/kg of magnesium sulphate, followed by a continuous perfusion of 10 mg/kg/h for the intraoperative hours. Postoperative analgesia was ensured by Morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The patients were evaluated by Intraoperative hemodynamic parameters, the postoperative pain by numeral rating scale (NRS), and the total dose of intraoperative and postoperative analgesic consumption. Postoperative hemodynamic, respiratory parameters, physiological gastrointestinal obstruction (ileus), and side effects were also recorded.

Results: The study included 14 males and 18 females. Age range of patients was 17 to 55 years old. The average age in the magnesium group was 41.33 ± 10.06 years and45.13 ± 11.74 years in control group. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) of magnesium group decreased during the operation but increased in control group (P < 0.001), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) of magnesium group decreased during the operation also (P < 0.02) but increased in control group. Postoperative cumulative Morphine consumption in magnesium group, was significantly in lower level (P = 0.026). For NRS, severe pain was significantly lower, in magnesium group, at all intervals of postoperative evaluations, but moderate and mild pain were not lower significantly. Duration of postoperative ileus was 2.3 ± 0.5 days in magnesium group, and 4.2 ± 0.6 days in control group (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: Intravenous magnesium reduces postoperative ileus, postoperative severe pain and intra/post operative analgesic requirements in patients after major GI surgery. No side effects of magnesium in these doses were seen, so it seems to be beneficial along with routine general anesthesia in major GI surgeries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.12750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3961038PMC
February 2014
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