Publications by authors named "Reza Karami"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in intestinal non-rotation.

Asian J Endosc Surg 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Division of Minimally Invasive and Bariatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Rasool-e Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

There are some incidental findings during bariatric surgery. Some of these findings may make the operation more challenging than routine surgery. Intestinal malrotation/non-rotation are rare congenital anomalies that may remain asymptomatic until bariatric surgery. Here we report a 30-year-old female patient with unknown intestinal congenital anomaly which was diagnosed during surgery and she underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, which can be a challenging procedure in intestinal malrotation/non-rotation and conversion may be needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ases.12886DOI Listing
November 2020

Colon Cancer After One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass: a Case Report.

Obes Surg 2021 Apr 21;31(4):1836-1838. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Division of Minimally Invasive and Bariatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Rasool-e Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-05063-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Changes in gut microbial flora after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy and their effects on post-operative weight loss.

Updates Surg 2020 Oct 16. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Rasool-E-Akram Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Bariatric surgery affects gut microbial flora due to the anatomical and physiological changes it causes in the gastrointestinal tract. Understanding the interaction between the gut flora, the type of bariatric surgery and weight loss may help improve bariatric surgery outcomes. This study was designed to compare the effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) and Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG) on two main phyla of the gut microbiota in humans and evaluate their potential effect on weight changes. Thirty morbidly obese patients were divided into two groups and underwent laparoscopic SG or laparoscopic RYGB. The patients' weight changes and fecal samples were evaluated at baseline and 6 months after the surgery. A microbial flora count was carried out of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and Bacteroides Fragilis. Changes in the abundance of the flora and their correlation with weight loss were analyzed. After 6 months, the patients with a history of RYGB showed a significant decrease in stool Bacteroidetes while the reduction in the SG group was insignificant. Firmicutes abundance was almost unchanged following SG and RYGB. There was no significant change in Bacteroides Fragilis abundance in either of the two groups, but a positive correlation was observed between Bacteroides Fragilis and weight loss after SG and RYGB. Bariatric surgery can affect gut microbiota. It can be concluded that these changes are dependent on many factors and may play a role in weight loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-020-00900-9DOI Listing
October 2020

Herpes Zoster as a Rare Etiology of Abdominal Pain After Sleeve Gastrectomy: a Case Report.

Obes Surg 2020 Oct;30(10):4124-4126

Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Rasool-e-Akram Hospital, Niyayesh Ave, Sattarkhan St., Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04704-zDOI Listing
October 2020

Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion (RSA) and Maternal KIR Genes: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2020 05 1;24(2):197-213. Epub 2020 May 1.

Student Research Committee, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Natural killer cells (NKs) are the most important cells in the fetomaternal immune tolerance induced through interaction of maternal killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and fetal human leucocyte antigens (HLA). Hence, we intend to perform a meta-analysis on the role of maternal KIR genes diversity in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). The present paper is a meta-analysis of previous genetic association studies and our previous original study. The results showed that KIR3DL1 was a significantly protecting factor for RSA (p=0.044; OR=0.833 [0.698-0.995]; fixed effect model). KIR2DS2 (p=0.034; OR=1.195 [1.013-1.408]; fixed effect model) and KIR2DS3 (p=0.013; OR=1.246 [1.047-1.483]; fixed effect model) were significantly risk factors for RSA. For KIR2DS1 there was a high heterogeneity and publication bias. Briefly, the inhibitory gene KIR3DL1 was a protecting factor, and the activating genes KIR2DS2 and KIR2DS3 were risk factors for RSA. However, the effect sizes were not suitable. We suggest further studies on different causes of pregnancy loss, to find the role of KIR2DS1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1518-0557.20190067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169921PMC
May 2020

The effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage in rats.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2016 Mar-Apr;6(2):223-35

Neurocognitive Research Center & Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: In the present work, the effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum), on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in rats.

Materials And Methods: The rats were divided into the following groups: (1) vehicle, (2) PTZ (90 mg/kg), (3) water fraction (WF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg), (4) n-butanol fraction (NBF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg), and (5) ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg).

Results: The first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) latency in groups treated with 100 mg /kg of WF or EAF was significantly higher than that of PTZ group (p<0.01). In contrast to WF, the EAF and NBF were not effective in increasing the first minimal clonic seizure (MCS) latency. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of control animals (p<0.001). Pretreatment with WF, NBF, or EAF resulted in a significant reduction in the MDA levels of hippocampi (p<0.01 - p<0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in the brain tissues (p<0.05). Pretreatment with WF and NBF significantly elevated thiol concentrations in cortical and hippocampal tissues, respectively (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The present study showed that different fractions of C. sativum possess antioxidant activity in the brain and WF and EAF of this plant have anticonvulsant effects.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4877964PMC
May 2016

Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum on oxidative damage in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats.

Iran J Neurol 2015 Apr;14(2):59-66

Esfarayen Faculty of Medical Sciences, Esfarayen, Iran.

Background: An important role for oxidative stress, as a consequence of epileptic seizures, has been suggested. Coriandrum sativum has been shown that have antioxidant effects. Central nervous system depressant effects of C. sativum have also been reported. In this study, the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of the plants on brain tissues oxidative damages following seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was investigated in rats.

Methods: The rats were divided into five groups and treated: (1) Control (saline), (2) PTZ (90 mg/kg, i.p.), (3-5) three doses (100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum extract (CSE) before PTZ. Latencies to the first minimal clonic seizures (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) were recorded. The cortical and hippocampal tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements.

Results: The extract significantly increased the MCS and GTCS latencies (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) following PTZ-induced seizures. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of the control animals (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with the extract prevented elevation of the MDA levels (P < 0.010-P < 0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in both cortical and hippocampal tissues (P < 0.050). Pre-treatment with the 500 mg/kg of the extract caused a significant prevention of decreased in total thiol concentration in the cortical tissues (P < 0.010).

Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of C. sativum possess significant antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4449395PMC
April 2015

Protection against brain tissues oxidative damage as a possible mechanism for the beneficial effects of Rosa damascena hydroalcoholic extract on scopolamine induced memory impairment in rats.

Nutr Neurosci 2015 Oct 29;18(7):329-36. Epub 2014 Jun 29.

Objectives: Hypnotic, analgesic, anticonvulsant, and antioxidant effects of Rosa damascena have been reported. This study, investigated the effect of R. damascena hydroalcoholic extract on memory performance in a scopolamine-induced memory impairment model.

Methods: The rats were divided into control group received just saline; scopolamine group was treated by saline for 2 weeks, but was injected by scopolamine 30 minutes before each trial in Morris water maze test; treatment groups (scopolamine + extract 50; Sco + Ext 50) and (scopolamine + extract 250; Sco + Ext 250) were daily treated by 50 and 250 mg/kg of R. damascena extract (2 weeks) and were finally injected by scopolamine before each trial in Morris water maze. The brains were removed for biochemical measurements.

Results: Time latency and path length in the scopolamine group were higher than control (P < 0.01 to <0.001). Both treatment groups showed shorter traveled distance and time latency compared with scopolamine group (P < 0.05 to <0.001). Time spent in target quadrant by scopolamine group was lower than control (P < 0.05), while Sco + Ext 250 group spent longer time in target quadrant than scopolamine group (P < 0.05). Malondialdehyde concentrations in hippocampal and cortical tissues of scopolamine group were higher, while thiol concentrations were lower than control ones (P < 0.001). Treatment by both doses of the extract decreased the malondialdehyde concentration, while increased the thiol concentration (P < 0.05 to <0.001).

Discussion: The results of this study showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of R. damascena prevents scopolamine-induced memory deficits. This finding suggests that memory improvement may be in part due to the antioxidant effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1476830514Y.0000000137DOI Listing
October 2015

Effects of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in rats and its possible mechanism.

Chin J Integr Med 2015 Jun 2;21(6):438-44. Epub 2014 Mar 2.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, 9177948564, Iran,

Objective: To evaluate the effect of Nigella sativa (NS) extract on memory performance and its possible mechanisms in scopolamine (Sco)-induced spatial memory impairment model using Morris water maze test.

Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. The control group received saline instead of both NS extract and Sco. The Sco group was treated by saline for two weeks, and was injected by Sco (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 30 min before each trail in Morris water maze test. Sco+NS 200 and Sco+NS 400 groups were daily treated by 200 or 400 mg/kg of NS (intraperitoneally) for two weeks, respectively, and were finally injected by Sco 30 min before Morris water maze test. The brains of animals were removed to determine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress criteria in cortical tissues.

Results: Time latency and path length in the Sco group were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.01), while the Sco+NS 400 group showed a significantly shorter traveled path length and time latency compared with the Sco group (P<0.01). AChE activity in the cortical tissues of the Sco group was significantly higher than the control group (P<0.01), while AChE activity in the Sco+NS 200 and Sco+NS 400 groups was lower than the Sco group (P<0.01). Following Sco administration, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were increased (P<0.01) in comparison with the control group, while cortical total thiol content decreased (P<0.01). Pretreatment with extracts caused a significant elevation in cortical total thiol content (P<0.01) and reduction in cortical MDA concentration (P<0.01) compared with the Sco group.

Conclusions: Hydro-alcoholic extract of NS prevents Sco-induced spatial memory deficits and decreases the AChE activity as well as oxidative stress of brain tissues in rats. Our results support the traditional belief about the beneficial effects of NS in nervous system. Moreover, further investigations are needed for better understanding of this protective effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-014-1742-5DOI Listing
June 2015

Joubert syndrome in three children in a family: a case series.

Iran J Child Neurol 2013 ;7(1):39-42

Student of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Joubert syndrome (JS) is a rare autosomal recessive central nervous system malformation characterized by hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, hypotonia and abnormal psychomotor development, along with altered respiratory pattern and various ophthalmologic features. Here, we describe three children with Joubert syndrome in a family that had almost similar presentations, including ataxia, developmental delay, mental retardation and ocular disorders. Prevalence of Joubert syndrome is about 1 in 100,000 live birth. It may be accompanied by other organs' disorders. The molar tooth sign is pathognomonic for joubert syndrome that is ascertained by brain MRI.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3943079PMC
March 2014

Estrogen-dependent effect of soy extract on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats.

Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 2012 Dec;10(12):1470-6

Neuroscience Research Center and Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: To study the different effects of soy extract on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in the presence and absence of ovarian hormones in rats, and the gender-dependent differences in the effects of phytoestrogens on behavior.

Methods: Male and female Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups with eight in each, namely, male-saline (M-saline), male-low-dose soy (M-LDS), male-high-dose soy (M-HDS), sham-saline (Sh-saline), sham-low-dose soy (Sh-LDS), sham-high-dose soy (Sh-HDS), ovariectomized-saline (OVX-saline), ovariectomized-low-dose soy (OVX-LDS) and ovariectomized-high-dose soy (OVX-HDS). The rats of groups 7 to 9 were ovariectomized under ketamine anesthesia. The rats of groups 2, 5 and 8 were treated by 20 mg/kg of soy extract while the animals of groups 3, 6 and 9 received 60 mg/kg of soy extract for two weeks. In groups 1, 4 and 7, saline was injected instead of soy extract. The animals were then injected by a single dose of PTZ (90 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) and placed in a plexiglas cage and the latency to minimal clonic seizure (MCS) and generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) was recorded.

Results: Both MCS and GTCS latency in M-LDS and M-HDS groups was significantly lower than that in M-saline group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Treatment for female sham rats by soy extract did not affect MCS and GTCS latency. The animals of OVX-LDS and OVX-HDS groups had lower MCS and GTCS latency in comparison with OVX-saline group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).

Conclusion: It is concluded that the phytoestrogens of soy affect seizure severity induced by PTZ, but their effects are different in the presence or absence of ovarian hormones. However, further studies are necessary to be done.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3736/jcim20121221DOI Listing
December 2012

Different effects of L-arginine on morphine tolerance in sham and ovariectomized female mice.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2011 Dec;12(12):1016-23

Neuroscience Research Center and Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Objective: The roles of gonadal hormones and nitric oxide (NO) on the analgesic effects of morphine, tolerance to morphine, and their interactions have been widely investigated. In the present study, the effect of L-arginine (an NO precursor) on morphine tolerance in sham and ovariectomized (OVX) female mice was investigated.

Methods: Forty mice were divided into sham and OVX groups. On the first day, a hot plate test ((55±0.2) °C; cut-off 30 s) was carried out as a base record 15 min before injection of morphine (10 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)) and was repeated every 15 min after injection. The sham group was then divided into two subgroups: sham-tolerance-L-arginine (Sham-Tol-LA) and sham-tolerance-saline (Sham-Tol-Sal) which received either L-arginine 50 mg/kg (intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or saline 10 ml/kg (i.p.), respectively, three times in a day for three consecutive days. Morphine tolerance was induced in animals by injecting 30 mg/kg morphine (s.c.) three times/day for three days. This treatment was also used for OVX subgroups. On the fifth day, the hot plate test was repeated. The analgesic effect of morphine was calculated as the maximal percent effect (MPE). The results were compared using repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results: There was no significant difference in MPE between the OVX and sham groups. The MPEs in both the Sham-Tol-Sal and OVX-Tol-Sal groups were lower than those in both the sham and OVX groups (P<0.01). The MPE in the OVX-Tol-Sal group was greater than that in the Sham-Tol-Sal group (P<0.01). The MPE in the Sham-Tol-LA group was higher than that in the Sham-Tol-Sal group (P<0.01). However, there was no significant difference between the Sham-Tol-LA and sham groups or between the OVX-Tol-LA and OVX-Tol-Sal groups.

Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that repeated administration of morphine causes tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. L-arginine could prevent tolerance to morphine but its effect was different in the presence of ovarian hormones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B1100029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3232435PMC
December 2011

The effect of chronic administration of L-arginine and L-NAME on morphine-induced antinociception in ovariectomized rats.

Indian J Pharmacol 2011 Sep;43(5):541-5

Neuroscience Research Center and Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: The role of ovarian hormones and nitric oxide on morphine-induced antinociception and their interaction have been widely investigated. The results of previous study showed that nitric oxide synthase inhibition differently affects morphine-induced antinociception in male and female rats. The present study was carried out to evaluate the different effects of chronic administration of L-arginine (LA) and L-NAME (LN) on morphine-induced antinociception in ovariectomized (OVX) and naive female rats.

Materials And Methods: Sixty female rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10) as follows: (1) sham, (2) OVX, (3) sham-LA (4) sham-LN (5) OVX-LA, and (6) OVX-LN. The animals of sham-LA and OVX-LA groups received daily injection of 200 mg/kg LA (i.p.) during 6 weeks, while in sham-LN and OVX-LN groups, the animals were treated with 10 mg/kg LN (i.p.). The animals of sham and OVX groups received 2 ml/kg saline (i.p.) instead of LA and LN. Finally, all the animals were tested on the hot plate test (52 ± 0.2°C; cut-off time 80 seconds) for evaluating the antinociceptive effects of morphine. The hot plate test was performed as three base records with a 15-min interval before the injection of morphine (10 mg/kg; s.c.) following which it was repeated every 15 min after injection. Analgesic effect of morphine was quantified as maximal percent effect (MPE). Base reaction latency times (seconds) before the injection of morphine and MPE after the injection of morphine were compared using repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post-hoc Tukey's test. Differences were considered statistically significant when P < 0.05.

Results: Before injection of morphine, there was no significant difference observed between sham and OVX groups in three recorded base reaction latency times. The base reaction latency times in sham-LA group were significantly higher than those of sham group (P < 0.001). In sham-LN group, the base reaction latency times were nonsignificantly lower than those of sham group (P = 0.095). There was no significant difference between OVX-LA group and OVX group. In OVX-LN group, three base reaction latency times were nonsignificantly lower than those of OVX group (P = 0.077). MPE in sham-LN group was higher than that of sham group (P < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference between sham-LA and sham groups.

Conclusion: It is concluded that NO has a role in pain perception and the analgesic effect of morphine. The effect of NO might be differing in the presence or absence of ovarian hormones, but further investigations need to be done.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.84969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3195124PMC
September 2011

Effects of soy extract on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in ovariectomized rats.

Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 2011 Jun;9(6):611-8

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: To investigate the effects of soy extract on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in ovariectomized (OVX) rats.

Methods: Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=15 in each group) as follows: sham-operated, OVX, low-dose soy (LDS) and high-dose soy (HDS). The rats in each group were divided into two subgroups and received daily injection of a low dose of PTZ (40 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally, n=7 in each subgroup) for 14 d or a single injection of a high dose of PTZ (90 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally, n=8 in each subgroup). The rats of LDS and HDS groups were injected with 20 and 60 mg/kg body weight of soy extract intraperitoneally, respectively, just 30 min before each PTZ injection. The rats of the sham-operated and the OVX groups received saline instead of soy extract. After treatment, the rats were placed in a plexiglas cage and their behaviors were observed for 60 min.

Results: The results of repeated injection of low dose of PTZ during 14 d showed that the seizure score of the rats of OVX group on days 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12, and 13 was lower than that of the sham-operated group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, the rats of both LDS and HDS groups had higher score compared with the OVX group on the mentioned days (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The results of a single injection of a high dose of PTZ showed a significant increase (P<0.01) in the generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS), but not the minimal clonic seizure (MCS) in the OVX rats compared with the sham-operated rats. Treatment with both low and high doses of soy extract significantly decreased the GTCS and MCS latencies compared with the OVX group (P<0.01).

Conclusion: Female hormones affect seizure severity induced by PTZ, and phytoestrogens of soy mimic this effects. However, more investigations need to be done in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3736/jcim20110606DOI Listing
June 2011

Chronic treatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, attenuates estradiol-mediated improvement of learning and memory in ovariectomized rats.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2011 ;66(4):673-9

Dept. of Biology, Faculty of Basic Science, Islamic Azad University, Khuraskan Branch, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: The role of ovarian hormones and nitric oxide in learning and memory has been widely investigated.

Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), on the ability of estradiol to improve learning in OVX rats using the Morris water maze.

Methods: Forty rats were divided into five groups: (1) ovariectomized (OVX), (2) ovariectomized-estradiol (OVX-Est), (3) ovariectomized-L-NAME 10 (OVX-LN 10), (4) ovariectomized-L-NAME 50 (OVX-LN 50) and (5) ovariectomized-estradiol-L-NAME 50 (OVX-Est-LN 50). The animals in the OVX-Est group were treated with a weekly injection of estradiol valerate (2 mg/kg; i.m.). The OVX-LN 10 and OVX-LN 50 groups were treated with daily injections of 10 and 50 mg/kg L-NAME (i.p.), respectively. The animals in the OVX-Est-LN 50 group received a weekly injection of estradiol valerate and a daily injection of 50 mg/kg L-NAME. After 8 weeks, all animals were tested in the Morris water maze.

Results: The animals in the OVX-Est group had a significantly lower latency in the maze than the OVX group (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in latency between the OVX-LN 10 and OVX-LN 50 groups in comparison with the OVX group. The latency in the OVX-Est-LN 50 group was significantly higher than that in the OVX-Est group (p<0.001).

Conclusion: These results show that L-NAME treatment attenuated estradiol-mediated enhancement of spatial learning and memory in OVX rats, but it had no significant effect in OVX rats without estrogen, suggesting an interaction of nitric oxide and estradiol in these specific brain functions.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3093799PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1807-59322011000400024DOI Listing
December 2011