Publications by authors named "Reza Gharebaghi"

49 Publications

Distribution of intraocular pressure in healthy Iranian children: the Shiraz Pediatric Eye Study.

J AAPOS 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

International Virtual Ophthalmic Research Center, Austin, TX.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2020.09.009DOI Listing
March 2021

Sulfur Mustard and Immunology; Trends of 20 Years Research in the Web of Science Core Collection: A Scientometric Review.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Jul;49(7):1202-1210

Ophthalmology Division, Taleghani Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: We aimed to use the scientometric approach to evaluate immunological studies on the subject of sulfur mustard over the past 20 years.

Methods: In this scientometric study, the Web of Science Core Collection was searched on the studies about sulfur mustard. The published papers related to the field of immunology were retrieved from these papers. HistCite software and VOSviewer were the applied software packages for bibliometric analysis, information visualization, and creating bibliometric networks.

Results: Over the past 20 years, 741 researchers from 22 countries have published 201 scientific papers in 95 journals. Iran and the United States with 93 and 68 published articles ranked at the top. The Journal of International Immunopharmacology, with 33 published papers, 439 Total Global Citation Score (TGCS), and 105 Total Local Citation Score (TLCS) was the most productive and most influential in this regard. The paper entitled "Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents: A review" and another paper entitled "Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study of Chemical Warfare Victims: Design and Methods" were the most influential papers in this topic with 200 TGCS and 27 TLCS, respectively. The most productive and the most influential centers were "Immunoregulation Research Center of Shahed University" and "The Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC)," respectively.

Conclusion: The result of our report as the unique scientometric evaluation of the research on sulfur mustard and Immunology can be used as a roadmap for authors, researchers, and policymakers to define the best ways to allocate their financial and executive resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v49i7.3573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548481PMC
July 2020

Systematic review of the antiviral properties of TRIM56: a potential therapeutic intervention for COVID-19.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2020 10 29;16(10):973-984. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Kish International Campus, University of Tehran , Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: The tripartite motif (TRIM) plays various roles in pathological and physiological functions, including neurological diseases, genetic disorders, carcinogenesis, innate immune signaling, and antiviral activity. TRIM56 is a cytoplasmic protein whose expression is stimulated by type I interferon and may function as an antiviral agent. Here, the authors conducted a systematic search on papers that reported antiviral effects of TRIM56.

Areas Covered: The authors conducted a comprehensive search of the PubMed database without time or language limitation, after using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Database terms. Initially, a structured search and full article review yielded 31 papers. Relevant original and review articles on TRIM56 were included. The reference lists were then reviewed, and the cited articles were added. : TRIM56 has been shown to have direct antiviral actions against positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses from the families , and . Moreover, it may be effective against negative-sense single-strand RNA viruses from the families and , as well as a DNA virus, Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). These studies could suggest the potential of a TRIM56-based antiviral against COVID-19 from the family , containing single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome. However, its efficacy and antiviral mechanisms need to be further examined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1744666X.2020.1822168DOI Listing
October 2020

Visual and subjective outcomes following trifocal intraocular lens implantation in Iranian cataractous patients.

Oman J Ophthalmol 2020 May-Aug;13(2):63-69. Epub 2020 May 28.

Chemical Injuries Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate visual and refractive outcomes and quality of vision after implantation of the AT LISA tri 839MP intraocular lens (IOL).

Patients And Methods: This interventional clinical trial comprised 46 cataractous eyes of patients who underwent phacoemulsification with IOL implantation (mean age of 58.08 ± 11.01 years; range: 36-76 years old). Spherical equivalent (SE), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected intermediate visual acuity (UIVA), corrected intermediate visual acuity (CIVA), uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA), and corrected near visual acuity (CNVA) were measured 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Contrast sensitivity (CS) was measured at 6 months. Subjective quality of vision and presence of dysphotopsia by a short questionnaire were evaluated postoperatively.

Results: At 6 months, the mean visual acuity was 0.08 ± 0.11, 0.03 ± 0.08, 0.07 ± 0.09, 0.02 ± 0.08, 0.05 ± 0.09, and 0.02 ± 0.08 LogMAR for UDVA, CDVA, UIVA, CIVA, UNVA, and CNVA, respectively. The mean values of SE were - 0.4728 ± 0.32D. These variables improved over time, yet significant changes were detected in UDVA ( = 0.009) and SE ( = 0.0001). The mean CS value was 1.74 ± 0.08. The mean scores (0% = no symptoms; 100% = strong symptoms/unable to perform activities) for glare and halos were 7.07 ± 0.22% and 8.70 ± 0.23%, respectively. These items were reduced over time. Patients' level of satisfaction mean score for performing activities was 96.66%.

Conclusions: The AT LISA tri 839MP IOL provides excellent uncorrected distance, intermediate and near vision, and CS. This IOL showed a minimal level of photic phenomena and a high level of patient satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ojo.OJO_107_2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7394082PMC
May 2020

Natural course of the vitelliform stage in best vitelliform macular dystrophy: a five-year follow-up study.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 12;259(3):787-788. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-020-04888-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Ivermectin: a systematic review from antiviral effects to COVID-19 complementary regimen.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2020 09 12;73(9):593-602. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Ivermectin proposes many potentials effects to treat a range of diseases, with its antimicrobial, antiviral, and anti-cancer properties as a wonder drug. It is highly effective against many microorganisms including some viruses. In this comprehensive systematic review, antiviral effects of ivermectin are summarized including in vitro and in vivo studies over the past 50 years. Several studies reported antiviral effects of ivermectin on RNA viruses such as Zika, dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, Hendra, Newcastle, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, chikungunya, Semliki Forest, Sindbis, Avian influenza A, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Furthermore, there are some studies showing antiviral effects of ivermectin against DNA viruses such as Equine herpes type 1, BK polyomavirus, pseudorabies, porcine circovirus 2, and bovine herpesvirus 1. Ivermectin plays a role in several biological mechanisms, therefore it could serve as a potential candidate in the treatment of a wide range of viruses including COVID-19 as well as other types of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. In vivo studies of animal models revealed a broad range of antiviral effects of ivermectin, however, clinical trials are necessary to appraise the potential efficacy of ivermectin in clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41429-020-0336-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290143PMC
September 2020

COVID-19: Preliminary Clinical Guidelines for Ophthalmology Practices.

Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol 2020 6;9(2):149-158. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Taleghani Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

The zoonotic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its resultant human coronavirus disease (COVID-19) recently appeared as a global health threat that can cause severe respiratory infection and terminal respiratory distress. By the first week of April, more than 1.3 million people had been globally infected and more than 70,000 had lost their lives to this contagious virus. Clinical manifestations occur shortly after exposure, or a few days later. There is controversy regarding the transmission of the virus through the tear and conjunctiva; however, there are reports that the ocular surface might be a potential target for COVID-19. The ease of transmission of this virus at close proximity presents a risk to eyecare workers. Several recommendations have been issued by local and national organizations to address the issue of safe ophthalmic practice during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. These guidelines have numerous similarities; however, subtle differences exist. The purpose of this paper was to discuss measures, with a specific focus on standard precautions, to prevent further dissemination of COVID-19 at Eye Clinics. We have proposed procedures to triage suspected cases of COVID-19, considering emergency conditions.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7141793PMC
April 2020

Metronidazole; a Potential Novel Addition to the COVID-19 Treatment Regimen.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 30;8(1):e40. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

International Virtual Ophthalmic Research Center (IVORC).

Coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19 has rapidly emerged as a global pandemic. This viral infection involves the upper respiratory tract and could lead to severe pneumonia with respiratory distress or even death. Certain studies have found higher initial plasma levels of most pro-inflammatory cytokines during the course of the infection. In this context, both and studies have revealed that metronidazole could decrease the levels of several cytokines, which are known to increase during the COVID-19 infection, including interleukin (IL)8, IL6, IL1B, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, IL12, IL1α, and interferon (IFN)γ, as well as the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and neutrophil count. Furthermore, the drug could decrease neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen species during inflammation. Metronidazole could counteract majority of the immunopathological manifestations of the COVID-19 infection. Therefore, studies with a large sample size are required to determine the efficacy of metronidazole in the treatment of COVID-19 infection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7114714PMC
March 2020

COVID-19 and Iran: swimming with hands tied!

Swiss Med Wkly 2020 04 7;150:w20242. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Taleghani Hospital, Ahvaz Jondishapour University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20242DOI Listing
April 2020

Prevalence of Visual Impairment in School Children.

J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2020 Jan-Mar;15(1):123-124. Epub 2020 Feb 2.

International Virtual Ophthalmic Research Center (IVORC), Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/jovr.v15i1.5968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001027PMC
February 2020

Effects of as an Add-On Therapy on Insomnia in Patients with Obsession or Depression: A Pilot Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

J Altern Complement Med 2020 May 19;26(5):398-408. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of extracted syrup on the quality and patterns of sleep in patients with depression or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as add-on therapy. A pilot double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Psychiatric Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Participants were 16-15 years of age with mild and moderate depression or OCD having insomnia. This pilot study was conducted on patients with insomnia divided into two groups with depression (40 patients) or OCD (43 patients). Each group randomly assigned into two arms with the same conditions at baseline. The intervention arm daily received 5 mL syrup every 12 h for 4 weeks, and the control arm received 5 mL placebo syrup every 12 h for 4 weeks. None of the participants was deprived of their routine treatment for depression or OCD. The scores of insomnia symptoms were evaluated using total score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the scores of its components, the depression score using the final Beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II) score, and OCD score using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). The total PSQI score was found to be improved significantly in the intervention arms with depression or OCD ( < 0.001) compared with the corresponding control arms. Significant improvements were also observed in the final mean difference of BDI-II ( = 0.009) and YBOCS ( = 0.001) scores in the intervention arms. syrup significantly improved insomnia symptoms and the scores of depression and OCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2019.0254DOI Listing
May 2020

Tear and serum MMP-9 and serum TIMPs levels in the severe sulfur mustard eye injured exposed patients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Dec 31;77:105812. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Immunology, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran; Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Sulfur mustard (SM) intoxication produces local and systemic changes in the human body. In this study, the relationship between tear and serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and serum tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are assessed in serious eye-injured SM-exposed casualties.

Methods: A group of 128 SM-exposed patients with serious ocular injuries in three subgroups (19 mild, 31 moderate, and 78 severe cases) is compared with 31 healthy controls. Tear and ocular status and serum MMPs and MMP-9/TIMPs complex levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: Serum level of MMP-9 was significantly higher in the SM-exposed group compared to the control group (P = 0.009). Mean serum MMP-9 level in the SM-exposed group with ocular abnormalities was significantly higher than that in the SM-exposed group without ocular abnormalities. SM-exposed people with corneal calcification had significantly higher serum MMP-9/TIMP-1 level compared to the SM-exposed ones without this problem (P = 0.045). The SM-exposed group with severe ocular injuries had significantly higher MMP-9/TIMP-1 than the controls (P = 0.046). The SM-exposed group had significantly lower levels of MMP-9/TIMP-4 complex than the controls (P < 0.001). The SM-exposed group with tear meniscus and fundus abnormality had significantly higher MMP-9/TIMP-4 levels than the SM-exposed group without these problems (P = 0.009 and P = 0.020).

Conclusion: Serum MMP-9 level had increased in SM-exposed groups with ocular problems, while TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels had remained unchanged. Serum TIMP-4 drastically decreased in SM-exposed group, which clearly explains the severity of the systemic and ocular damages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105812DOI Listing
December 2019

Angiogenesis modulatory factors in subjects with chronic ocular complications of Sulfur Mustard exposure: A case-control study.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Nov 16;76:105843. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran 3319118651, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Chronic ocular complications of Sulfur Mustard (SM) exposure leads to severe ocular morbidity during time. The aim of this study was to compare serum levels of Interleukin 17 (IL-17), IL-12, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D and nitric oxide (NO) in SM-exposed patients versus the control group and to measure tear concentration of VEGF-C only in the SM-exposed group.

Methods: In this prospective case control, 128 SM-exposed patients and 31 healthy control subjects were included. In the case group ocular manifestations were classified to three subgroups of mild (19 cases), moderate (31 cases) and severe (78 cases) forms of disease. Serum levels of IL-17, IL-12, NO, VEGF-C and VEGF-D, in all subjects and tear concentration of VEGF-C in SM-exposed group was evaluated.

Results: All subjects were male and mean ± standard deviation (SD) of age in the case and control groups were 44.9 ± 8.8 and 40.9 ± 10.1 years, respectively. Except for significantly lower serum level of IL-17 (p < 0.001) and NO (p = 0.003), other values were not significantly different. The tear concentration of VEGF-C and serum level of IL-12 were not different between subgroups in the SM-exposed group, yet were significantly lower among those with abnormally dilated and tortuous conjunctival vessels and corneal pannus, respectively (p = 0.01, p = 0.015).

Conclusions: Exposure to SM significantly reduced serum level of IL-17 and NO in the delayed phase, yet did not influence VEGF-C; VEGF-D or IL-12.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105843DOI Listing
November 2019

Effect of Selenium on Thyroid Disorders: Scientometric Analysis.

Iran J Public Health 2019 Mar;48(3):410-420

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Association of Selenium (Se) deficiency, an essential trace element, has been found with human diseases. Identifying literature trends on the effects of Se on the thyroid may guide in planning future studies.

Methods: A literature search was conducted using the Web of Science database to identify studies on Se and the thyroid published over the 20 years duration (1995-Dec 2014). Scientometric indices were used to draw field maps. The scientific processes, structure, evidence history, and international collaborations were included in the map. The most influential authors, journals, institutions, and countries were also examined.

Results: Our search identified 184 research and review papers. The number of scientific studies on Se and the thyroid has been irregular, but interest in this topic has increased in recent years. The highest number of studies was published in 2014 (16 papers) and overall growth factor of publication was 3.78. Overall, 744 authors from 282 institutions in 43 countries published in this field. The author J. Kohrle (828 citations, 14 publications), and German scientists (1272 citations, 30 publications) were most influential.

Conclusion: This study reveals the interrelationships between different publications on the effects of Se on the thyroid. Leading scientific issues and their extent of impact were successfully determined by examining citations. The results of systematic citations and mapping fields can be used to assist in policy and management contexts.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6570790PMC
March 2019

Microbiological Profile of Corneal Ulcers at a Tertiary Referral Center.

Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol 2019 ;8(1):16-21

Ophthalmic Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Labbafinejad Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of this study was to describe patient demographics, microbiological profile, and antibiotic susceptibility of corneal ulcer at a tertiary referral center to improve and optimize diagnosis and treatment of this potentially blinding entity and to reduce antibiotic misuse. Detailed external and slit-lamp bio-microscopic examination of 123 consecutive patients with suspected corneal ulcer was performed at an ophthalmology clinic. Corneal scraping was carried out under slit-lamp bio-microscopy. The obtained material was inoculated on culture media and smeared on a slide for Gram's staining for morphological identification of bacteria and fungus. For samples that developed colony in culture media, antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed. In a significant percentage of patients (72%) neither bacterial agents nor fungi were the cause of corneal ulcer. Of the 34 culture-proven corneal ulcers, in 79% of the cases, bacteria were detected while in 21% of cases, fungi were found. Of the 27 bacterial corneal ulcers, the majority were (67%) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, of which 50% were , and in the Gram-negative bacterial corneal ulcers, most of the cases (44%) were caused by . In the antibiotic susceptibility report, , and were resistant to Cotrimoxazole (TS), to Erythromycin (E), to Peniciline (PG), to Ceftriaxone (CRO) and Nitrofurantoin (NI), and finally, to Gentamicin (GM). In conclusion, in a significant number of the patients neither bacterial agents nor fungi were offending microorganisms and bacteria were the most common agent of microbiological corneal ulcer, found in 79% of culture-proven corneal ulcers, followed by fungus, found in 21% of culture-proven corneal ulcers.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433196PMC
January 2019

Sulfur Mustard-induced Changes in Blood Urea Nitrogen, Uric Acid and Creatinine Levels of Civilian Victims, and Their Correlation with Spirometric Values.

Iran J Public Health 2018 Nov;47(11):1725-1733

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was assessment of the chronic effects of sulfur mustard (SM) among victims.

Methods: In this cohort study, 355 SM-exposed subjects from Sardasht, and 123 controls from Rabat, both from West Azerbaijan Province, Iran were included. The spirometric evaluation and the global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) classification were applied for all. Serum levels of urea, creatinine (Cr), and uric acid (UA) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were assessed. Data analysis was conducted using IBM SPSS.

Results: All were male, with a mean age of 43.7±10.7 and 41.6±9.9 years in case and control groups, respectively. The case group had significantly higher values of Cr (<0.001) and UA (=0.018) than the control group. This was also the case in the Cr level (<0.001) in subjects without pulmonary dysfunction, between both groups. There was significant difference in the GFR (=0.047) between both groups and between subgroups with pulmonary dysfunction in the case and control groups (=0.045), as well as between SM-exposed subjects with and without pulmonary dysfunction (=0.009). Serum Cr, UA, sUA/Cr ratio, and BUN as well as the GFR did not have any significant correlation with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio.

Conclusion: Despite significantly high levels of Cr and UA in the case group, no significant correlation was found between serum Cr, UA, sUA/Cr ratio, BUN, and GFR with spirometric values. Further studies are required to reveal the underlying molecular and clinical significance of these findings.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6294863PMC
November 2018

Comparison among Ocular Response Analyzer, Corvis ST and Goldmann applanation tonometry in healthy children.

Int J Ophthalmol 2018 18;11(8):1330-1336. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Ophthalmic Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences; Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran 141551856, Iran.

Aim: To explore the relationship between different parameters of Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) and Corvis ST (CST) in a sample of healthy Iranian school-aged children and the relationship between parameters of these 2 instruments against intraocular pressure (IOP), measured by the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT-IOP), age and gender, and find possible correlation between ORA and CST with GAT.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 90 healthy children. A general interview and complete eye examination were performed. Following successful GAT-IOP measurement, ORA and CST were conducted. The CST parameters were A 1/2 length (A1L, A2L), A 1/2 velocity (A1V, A2V), highest concavity deformation amplitude (HCDA), radius of curvature (RoC), peak distance (PD), central corneal thickness (CCT) and IOP. The ORA parameters were corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldmann-correlated IOP (IOP-G) and corneal compensated IOP (IOP-CC). Extracted data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science software.

Results: Totally 39 males with age of 9.08±1.60 (6-12)y and 51 females with age of 8.96±1.55 (6-13)y were included. Many CST parameters were significantly correlated with CH, CRF, IOP-G and IOP-CC. Some CST parameters had a significant correlation with GAT-IOP, including IOP-CST in both eyes and HCDA, A2L, PD, and RoC in the left eye, but none with age, except A2L in the right eye. The CRF measurement showed a significant correlation with GAT-IOP in both eyes and CH in the right eye, yet, none with age. Among all CST and ORA parameters, CCT-CST in both eyes and A1L in right eye had a significant correlation with gender, although this was a negligible negative correlation. Comparison of mean IOP values by different devices showed a significantly highest IOP overestimation by CST and lowest by IOP-CC compared with GAT. Also, IOP-G versus IOP-CST significantly had the lowest IOP overestimation among others. Overall, either low positive correlation or negligible correlation was found between IOP measurements by 3 instruments.

Conclusion: The study finds the highest IOP overestimation by CST and lowest by IOP-CC compared with GAT. Overall, either low positive correlation or negligible correlation is found between IOP measurements by the 3 instruments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2018.08.13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6090110PMC
August 2018

A Comprehensive Meta-analysis on Intra Ocular Pressure and Central Corneal Thickness in Healthy Children.

Iran J Public Health 2017 Jun;46(6):724-732

Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Glaucoma is the major ophthalmic public health issue and a leading basis of blindness. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is still a foremost risk factor in development and progression of glaucoma. Central corneal thickness (CCT) may play as the risk factor for the progression of glaucoma, closely associated with IOP especially in pediatric age group. This study performed a pioneering investigation combining the outcomes of multiple studies using a meta-analytic approach.

Methods: Nineteen published articles between 1980 and 2015 were designated by searching Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar and analyzed with random effects model while I statistics employed to find out heterogeneity. Subsequently, the information statistically analyzed by Stata software ver. 11.20.

Results: The mean IOP has been documented to 16.22 mmHg (95% CI: 15.48-16.97) in all races subgroups. Analyzing the data by race-based subgroups revealed the lowest IOP of 12.02 mmHg (95% CI: 11.40-12.64) in Indian children while IOP of 17.38 mmHg (95% CI: 15.77-18.98) documented in black children as the highest measurement. The mean CCT was 553.69 micrometer (95% CI: 551.60-555.78) among all races. Lowest CCT of 536.60 mm (95% CI: 531.82-541.38) has been documented in mixed Malay-Indian children whereas Chinese children ought to the highest CCT value of 557.68 mm (95% CI: 553.10-562.25).

Conclusion: Findings of published studies were inconsistent when considered independently; however, meta-analysis of these results showed a significant correlation between CCT and IOP. Owing to non-uniform methods used to measure IOP and CCT in studies, data were stratified into various subgroups according to the instruments used to measure IOP and CCT.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558065PMC
June 2017

Author's Reply.

J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2017 Jul-Sep;12(3):356

Department of Ophthalmology, Poostchi Eye Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jovr.jovr_112_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5525512PMC
August 2017

Global Standards for Ophthalmology Examinations and Accreditation of ICO Exams by Society Members.

Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol 2016 ;5(3):71-73

International Virtual Ophthalmic Research Center (IVORC).

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5347210PMC
January 2016

Maintenance of Board Certification in Ophthalmology; Who Cares?

Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol 2016 ;5(2):39-40

International Virtual Ophthalmic Research Center (IVORC).

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5347189PMC
January 2016

Correlation Between Intraocular Pressure and Central Corneal Thickness in Persian Children.

Ophthalmol Ther 2016 Dec 5;5(2):235-243. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, Poostchi Ophthalmology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: This study aimed to determine intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements in healthy Persian children to find clinical reference values in this ethnicity. Additionally, we examined the possible relationship between these measurements.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 262 eyes of 131 Persian primary school children between 6 and 13 years of age. All eyes were healthy and had no anterior or posterior segment abnormalities, corneal disease, or evidence of glaucoma. Specular microscopy was used to measure CCT and both noncontact tonometry (NCT) and Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) were used to measure IOP. Correlations between IOP measurements were also examined.

Results: Mean CCT was 513.47 ± 34.51 μm in the right eye (OD) and 513.93 ± 33.88 μm in the left eye (OS). The CCT was not significantly different between older (10-13 years) and younger (6-9 years) patients. Mean IOP measured with GAT was 13.86 ± 2.13 mmHg OD and 13.72 ± 2.04 mmHg OS and mean IOP measured with NCT was 15.26 ± 2.38 mmHg OD and 15.11 ± 2.18 mmHg OS. The IOP and CCT measured with GAT were weakly correlated (OD: r = 0.141, P = 0.114; OS: r = 0.236, P = 0.007). However, IOP and CCT measured with NCT (OD: r = 0.487, P = 0.000; OS: r = 0.456, P = 0.000) were moderately correlated. Our outcomes demonstrated that for 100 μm increase in CCT, IOP measured with GAT and NCT increased by 0.8 and 3.3 mmHg, respectively, in OD and by 1.4 and 2.9 mmHg in OS. Based on intraclass correlation coefficients, IOP measurements made with GAT and NCT were in fair agreement in OD and in good agreement in OS.

Conclusion: The IOP and CCT in healthy Persian school children (6-13 years old) were positively correlated. Our findings revealed that corneal thickness is thinner in Persian children than in most other racial groups.

Funding: This study has been funded by deputy dean in research of School of Medicine and deputy vice chancellor of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40123-016-0063-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5125124PMC
December 2016

Effects of Laser Peripheral Iridotomy on Corneal Endothelial Cell Density and Cell Morphology in Primary Angle Closure Suspect Subjects.

J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2016 Jul-Sep;11(3):258-62

Department of Ophthalmology, Poostchi Eye Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy on corneal endothelial cell density and cell morphology in subjects with primary angle closure suspect (PACS) within a one-year follow-up period.

Methods: In this quasi-experimental prospective study, from June 2012 to November 2013, thirty-five PACS eyes underwent laser peripheral iridotomy at clinics affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. After obtaining informed consent, specular microscopy was performed at baseline and at 3-month, 6-month and 12-month follow-up visits. Central, nasal and temporal endothelial cell counts and cell morphology were evaluated via non-contact specular microscopy.

Results: The mean subject age was 53.4 ± 7.9 years, and the majority of subjects were women (88.2%). The mean central corneal endothelial cell count prior to laser peripheral iridotomy was 2528 ± 119.2, and this value changed to 2470 ± 175.9, 2425 ± 150.6, and 2407 ± 69.02 at the 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up visits, respectively; these differences did not reach statistical significance. Additionally, the changes in the number of cells, the hexagonality of cells, and the coefficient of variation (CV) in the central, nasal, and temporal areas were not significant.

Conclusion: In PACS eyes, we did not find a decline in corneal endothelial cell density or a change in cell morphological characteristics, including cell hexagonality and CV, in the central, nasal, and temporal regions of the cornea in any of our subjects over a one-year follow-up period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2008-322X.188395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5000526PMC
September 2016

Scientometric Analysis and Mapping of Scientific Articles on Diabetic Retinopathy.

Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol 2015 ;4(3):81-100

Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the major cause of blindness among the working-age population globally. No systematic research has been previously performed to analyze the research published on DR, despite the need for it. This study aimed to analyze the scientific production on DR to draw overall roadmap of future research strategic planning in this field. A bibliometric method was used to obtain a view on the scientific production about DR by the data extracted from the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). Articles about DR published in 1993-2013 were analyzed to obtain a view of the topic's structure, history, and to document relationships. The trends in the most influential publications and authors were analyzed. Most highly cited articles addressed epidemiologic and translational research topics in this field. During the past 3 years, there has been a trend toward biomarker discovery and more molecular translational research. Areas such as gene therapy and micro-RNAs are also among the recent hot topics. Through analyzing the characteristics of papers and the trends in scientific production, we performed the first scientometric report on DR. Most influential articles have addressed epidemiology and translational research subjects in this field, which reflects that globally, the earlier diagnosis and treatment of this devastating disease still has the highest global priority.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4921208PMC
June 2016

Outcomes of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol 2016 ;5(4):112-114

International Virtual Ophthalmic Research Center (IVORC).

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5346299PMC
January 2016

Afraid of the Dark; Raising Awareness of Societies Each Year during World Glaucoma Week.

Iran J Public Health 2015 May;44(5):716-7

Poostchi Eye Research Center, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4537635PMC
May 2015

Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Scientometric Analysis.

Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol 2015 ;4(2):39-49

Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a major cause of central blindness among working aged adults across the world. Systematic research planning on any subject, including ARMD is in need of solid data regarding previous efforts in this field and to identify the gaps in the research. This study aimed to elucidate the most important trends, directions, and gap in this subject. The data extracted from the Institute for Scientific Information were used to perform a bibliometric analysis of the scientific productions (1993-2013) about ARMD. Specific parameters related to ARMD were analyzed to obtain a view of the topic's structure, history, and document relationships. Additionally, the trends and authors in the most influential publications were analyzed. The number of articles in this field was found constantly increasing. Most highly cited articles addressed genetic epidemiology and clinical research topics in this field. During the past 3 years, there has been a trend toward biomarker research. Through performing the first scientometric survey on ARMD research, we analyzed the characteristics of papers and the trends in scientific production. We also identified some of the critical gaps in the current research efforts that would help in large-scale research strategic planning.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4458325PMC
June 2015

A modified Middle Eastern contrast sensitivity chart.

Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol 2014 ;3(1):17-9

Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

The contrast sensitivity test has been used to examine vision in different clinical circumstances. Moreover, as contrast sensitivity is affected by several ocular states, its measurement has been considered practically for monitoring and assessment of a wide range of visual functions, predicting vision related abilities, diagnosing several ophthalmic conditions, and evaluating many ocular disorders including glaucoma, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, optic neuritis and age-related degeneration. The Pelli-Robson standard chart has been translated and modified using Persian-Arabic characters since illiterates and children in the Middle East, Central Asia, and Africa are more likely to distinguish Arabic characters instead of English ones. The translation of these characters is expected to have more precise results, thereby improving the test's validity and provide early diagnoses of ocular problems. This manuscript is focused on conceptions relating to the project. Further studies are required to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and reliability of the revised chart to best compare it to the standard Pelli-Robson one.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4010919PMC
May 2014

A modified pseudoisochromatic ishihara colour vision test based on eastern arabic numerals.

Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol 2013 ;2(3):83-5

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Medical School, Tehran, Iran.

Congenital colour vision defects affect about 8% and 0.5% of the male and female population, respectively. Pseudoisochromatic Ishihara plates have shown to be successful in an early diagnosis of colour vision defects. This commonly used colour vision test was initially intended to identify those who suffered from red-green aspect of congenital colour blindness; however, it may be of use to reveal acquired colour vision defects as well. Despite the Ishihara plates' value, there are a number of shortcomings in their current layout. We proposing a new colour plate modified from original Ishihara test. To best assist illiterates who are not able to read English, standard Ishihara plates have been translated to Eastern Arabic numerals, which are used in most parts of the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa populations. The purpose of the present modification was to present the new plates to these regions, but more research and study is required to work on the validity, reliability, and repeatability of these new plates.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3939756PMC
March 2014

The time has come; one year has passed.

Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol 2013 ;2(1):1-2

Editorial Office, Medical Hypothesis, Discovery & Innovation Ophthalmology Journal.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3939764PMC
March 2014