Publications by authors named "Reza Fouladi-Fard"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Awareness and Performance towards Proper Use of Disinfectants to Prevent COVID-19: The Case of Iran.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 21;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Medical, Surgical and Advanced Technologies "G.F. Ingrassia", University of Catania, 87-95123 Catania, Italy.

This study aimed to assess the awareness and performance of Qom citizens towards using disinfectants and compared its relationship with geographical distribution of COVID-19 outbreak in Qom, Iran. The study was conducted by a researcher-made questionnaire during April and May, 2020. COVID-19 incidence data for each district of city was obtained from health department of Qom province. Data were analyzed using Excel, SPSS and ArcView (GIS) softwares. It was found that the highest level of citizens' awareness (52%) was in the weak range while their performance (56%) was in the good range. According to Spearman's correlation analysis, there was a strong correlation (rho 0.95) between the total mean of awareness and performance ( < 0.01). The highest incidence rate of COVID-19 was in district 7 which had the lowest mean score in both awareness and performance. In addition, the results of ANOVA (LSD-least significant difference) showed that there was a significant difference ( < 0.05) between district 7-with lower mean scores in awareness and performance-and other districts. Overall, it is concluded that citizens' awareness level was lower than that of their performance. This conclusion not only calls for more training programs to be implemented in public places, schools, universities and governmental offices, but it also necessitates maintaining a proper and timely training about using disinfectants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926505PMC
February 2021

Comparison of poly ferric chloride and poly titanium tetrachloride in coagulation and flocculation process for paper and cardboard wastewater treatment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Occupational Health and Safety Research Center, NICICO, World Safety Organization and Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.

The current study investigated the efficiency of poly ferric chloride (PFC) and poly titanium tetrachloride (PTC) in coagulation-flocculation process for treatment of paper and cardboard wastewater. The effect of pH (5-11), coagulant concentrations (100-1000 mg/L), mixing rate (10-60 rpm), mixing time (5-25 min), and settling time (5-30 min) were examined. The results showed that the removal efficiency for turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) by PFC and PTC coagulants increased with pH rising up to 9 for the former and 7 for the latter coagulant. Furthermore, the removal efficiency for the afore-mentioned parameters increased along with a 30 rpm increase in the mixing rate, while the mixing time reached 20 min. It was also found that the best removal efficiencies for turbidity, TSS, and COD by PFC under optimal conditions (pH 9, coagulant dose 800 mg/L, and settling time of 25 min) were 97.11%, 99.1%, and 84.91%, respectively. In addition, the removal efficiencies for PTC (optimal conditions of pH 7, coagulant dose 600 mg/L, and settling time of 15 min) were found to be 98.29%, 99.29%, and 86.42%, respectively. Water recovery and the produced sludge volume by PFC were 80% and 200 cm, respectively, in the settling time of 25 min and for PTC were 81.5% and 185 cm, respectively, in the settling time of 15 min. Costs of the coagulation-flocculation process for treatment 1 m of paper and cardboard wastewater using PTC and PFC were 0.42 $ and 0.32 $, respectively. Finally, it can be concluded that compared to PFC, PTC with higher settling rate has a greater efficiency for treatment of paper and cardboard wastewater.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12675-6DOI Listing
January 2021

Aerosolized SARS-CoV-2 exposure assessment: dispersion modeling with AERMOD.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2021 Jan 12:1-9. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Research Center for Environmental Pollutants, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

COVID-19 is now a pandemic and the knowledge gap on SARS-CoV-2, i.e., the COVID-19 disease agent, dispersion persists. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggests fomites may not be the main route through which the novel coronavirus spreads. Supporting the same view, the latest the World Health Organization report recommends wearing masks for every individual in public, highlighting the transmission through the air. In the current study AERMOD, one of the most validated and tested models suggested by the USEPA, is used to model SARS-CoV-2-laden PM in a hypothetical outdoor environment. Multiple scenarios including particle size, wind speed, source height variations as well as and combined scenarios were modeled to estimated how exposure risk changes with the above-mentioned variables. The results reveal that wind speed majorly narrows infectious plume rather than transferring the peak concentration. The particle size variation indicated that small particles, i.e.,0.01 - 2.5 , could reach more than 9  away from the source in concentration range of 10 - 20 (/). On the other hand, source height contributes to peak plume shift rather than dispersing the infected particles. This idea was further studies by using combined scenarios which indicated height difference can impact peak plume displacement rather than wind speed. In the worst-case scenario, the results indicate that the virus-laden particles can travel outdoors more than 8 m away from an infected source. The video output of the model results clearly shows the dynamic of viral peak shifts in several scenarios. The results also indicate that in specific conditions the airborne SARS-CoV-2 can be transported to 9 m away from the source. These findings can be useful for individuals as well as decision-makers to mitigated exposure risk in real-world conditions.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40201-020-00602-9.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00602-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801778PMC
January 2021

A wavelet-based random forest approach for indoor BTEX spatiotemporal modeling and health risk assessment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 9. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Social Determinants of Health (SDH) Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

This study reports on BTEX concentrations in one of the largest parking garages in Iran with a peak traffic flow reaching up to ~9300 vehicles in the last few days of the Nowruz holidays. Samples were obtained on different days of the week at three main locations in the Zaer Parking Garage. A novel wavelet-based random forest model (WRF) was trained to estimate BTEX concentrations by decomposing temperature, day of the week, sampling location, and relative humidity data with a maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT) function and subsequently inputted into the WRF model. The results suggested that the WRF model can reasonably estimate BTEX trends and variations based on high R values of 0.96, 0.95, and 0.98 for training, validation, and test data subsets, respectively. The carcinogenic (LTCR) and non-carcinogenic health risk (HI) assessment results indicated a definite carcinogenic risk of benzene (LTCR = 2.22 × 10) and high non-carcinogenic risk (HI = 4.51) of BTEX emissions. The results of this study point to the importance of BTEX accumulation in poorly ventilated areas and the utility of machine learning in forecasting air pollution in diverse airsheds such as parking garages.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12298-3DOI Listing
January 2021

Bidirectional association between COVID-19 and the environment: A systematic review.

Environ Res 2021 03 29;194:110692. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Medical, Surgical and Advanced Technologies "G.F. Ingrassia", University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

The global crisis caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) affected economics, social affairs, and the environment, not to mention public health. It is estimated that near 82% of the SARS-CoV-2 genome is similar to the severe acute respiratory syndrome. The purpose of the review is to highlight how the virus is impacted by the environment and how the virus has impacted the environment. This review was based on an electronic search of the literature in the Scopus, Science Direct, and PubMed database published from December 2019 to July 2020 using combinations of the following keywords: SARS-CoV-2 transmission, COVID-19 transmission, coronavirus transmission, waterborne, wastewater, airborne, solid waste, fomites, and fecal-oral transmission. Studies suggest the thermal properties of ambient air, as well as relative humidity, may affect the transmissibility and viability of the virus. Samples taken from the wastewater collection network were detected contaminated with the novel coronavirus; consequently, there is a concern of its transmission via an urban sewer system. There are concerns about the efficacy of the wastewater treatment plant disinfection process as the last chance to inactivate the virus. Handling solid waste also requires an utmost caution as it may contain infectious masks, etc. Following the PRISMA approach, among all reviewed studies, more than 36% of them were directly or indirectly related to the indoor and outdoor environment, 16% to meteorological factors, 11% to wastewater, 14% to fomites, 8% to water, 9% to solid waste, and 6% to the secondary environment. The still growing body of literature on COVID-19 and air, suggests the importance of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via air and indoor air quality, especially during lockdown interventions. Environmental conditions are found to be a factor in transmitting the virus beyond geographical borders. Accordingly, countries need to pay extra attention to sustainable development themes and goals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833965PMC
March 2021

Relationship between Some Environmental and Climatic Factors on Outbreak of Whiteflies, the Human Annoying Insects.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2020 Mar 31;14(1):78-87. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The reports of numerous outbreaks of whiteflies from different parts of the world have increased its medical importance. The aim of this study was to determine relationship between environmental changes and climatic factors with the outbreak of the whitefly population in Tehran, the capital of Iran.

Methods: This study was carried out in urban areas of Tehran, where the increasing population of whiteflies was reported frequently during 2018. In order to entrap the whiteflies, 20 yellow sticky cards smeared with white refined grease were installed on the trunks of the trees at twice per month as trapping time intervals. The captured flies were transferred and conserved in cans containing 70% alcohol and were counted accurately under a stereomicroscope. To determine the relationship between air quality index, precipitation, air temperature and air humidity as environmental and climatic factors with the abundance of whiteflies, change point analysis and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) was used.

Results: The most density of white flies per trap was 256.6 and 155.6 in early October and late September respectively. The number moved closer to zero from November to April. The population of whiteflies was inversely correlated with the level of air quality index (p= 0.99) and precipitation (p= 0.95), and it had a direct correlation with the high temperature. Also, the population of whiteflies had a direct correlation with the level of air humidity in the first half of the year.

Conclusion: According to these findings, during spring and summer from early May to early October.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/jad.v14i1.2714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382691PMC
March 2020

Impact of Environmental and Climate Factors on Spatial Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Iran: Utilizing Remote Sensing.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2020 Mar 31;14(1):56-67. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a dermal and parasitic disease.. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of environmental and climate factors on spatial distribution of CL in northeastern Iran by utilizing remote sensing from 20 March 2016 to 19 March 2017.

Methods: In this ecological study, the data were divided into two parts: The descriptive data on human CL cases were gathered from Communicable Diseases center of Iran. The remote sensing techniques and satellite imagery data (TRMM, MODIS-Aqua, MODIS-Terra and AMSR-2 with spatial resolution 0.25°, 0.05°, 5600m and 10km) of environmental and climate factors were used to determine the spatial pattern changes of cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence.

Results: The incidence of CL in North Khorasan, Razavi Khorasan, and South Khorasan was 35.80 per 100,000 people (309/863092), 34.14 per 100,000 people (2197/6,434,501) and 7.67 per 100,000 people (59/768,898), respectively. The incidence of CL had the highest correlation with soil moisture and evapotranspiration. Moreover, the incidence of disease was significantly correlated with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and air humidity while it had the lowest correlation with rainfall. Furthermore, the CL incidence had an indirect correlation relation with the air temperature meaning that with an increase in the temperature, the incidence of disease decreased.

Conclusion: As such, the incidence of disease was also higher in the northern regions; most areas of North Khorasan and northern regions of Razavi Khorasan; where the rainfall, vegetation, specific humidity, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture was higher than the southern areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/jad.v14i1.2704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382700PMC
March 2020

Data on emerging sulfur dioxide in the emission of natural gas heater in winter.

Data Brief 2018 Oct 15;20:1764-1768. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Research Center for Environmental Pollutants, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

Natural gas is a kind of fuel that is used in various heating systems for combustion processes. Combustion of natural gas produce such air pollutants as CO, NOx, SOx, PM, CO, and HC. During cold days, total gas consumption in Iran goes up. Thus, in these days it is likely to make some changes in gas properties that can affect the emissions from gas heaters. Portable flue gas analyzer (LANCOM III) was used for, SO, NO, and CH measurement from December 2012 to April 2013. Data show that emissions of pollutants from the gas heater were different during the cold seasons. On colder days, total gas consumption in the country increased, SO emerged in heater stack, and the concentration of hydrocarbons (CH) significantly increased as well. This emergence could be attributed to the changes in gas properties in the colder days. In these days, the transient flow and high changes of speed and pressure in the gas pipes could lead to release of some deposited sulfur in gas flow. Therefore, sulfur dioxide will be generated in the combustion process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.09.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6169424PMC
October 2018

Trends of metals enrichment in deposited particulate matter at semi-arid area of Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jul 30;25(19):18737-18751. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Geological Survey of Iran, Medical Geology Department, Tehran, Iran.

The presence and enrichment of heavy metals in dust depositions have been recognized as an emerging environmental health issues in the urban and industrial areas. In this study, the deposition of some metals was found in Qom, a city located in a semi-desert area in Iran that is surrounded by industrial areas. Dust deposition samples were collected using five sampling stations during a year. Dust samples were digested applying acidic condition and then, the metal content was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma technology (ICP-OES). Comparative results showed the following order, from the maximum to the minimum concentration (mg/kg dust) of elements: Ca > Al > Fe > Mg > Ti > Si > K > B > Sr > Mn > P > Ba > Cr > Zn > Ni > Sn > Pb > V > Na > Cu > Co > U > Li > Ce > Ag. The differences among the average concentrations of metals in the five stations were not significant (p value > 0.05). The average concentration of some metals increased significantly during cold seasons. In this study, the cluster analysis (CA) and princicipal component analysis (PCA) were applied, and relationships among some elements in different clusters were found. In addition, the geo-accumulation and enrichment analysis revealed that the following metals had been enriched more than the average values: boron, silver, tin, uranium, lead, zinc, cobalt, chromium, lithium, nickel, strontium, and coper. The presence of thermal power plant, pesticide manufacturing plants, publishing centers, traffic jam, and some industrial areas around the city has resulted in the enrichment of some metals (particularly in cold seasons with atmospheric stable conditions) in dust deposition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2033-zDOI Listing
July 2018

The assessment of health impacts and external costs of natural gas-fired power plant of Qom.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Oct 3;23(20):20922-20936. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The external health damage costs of the combined cycle natural gas-fired power plant of Qom were investigated via the simplified impact pathway approach. Emitted particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants (NO , CO, and SO) from the power plant stack were measured The health effects and related costs were estimated by QUERI model from AirPacts according to the emissions, source and stack parameters, pollutant depletion velocities, exposure-response functions, local and regional population density, and detailed meteorological data. The results showed that the main health effect was assigned to the nitrate as restricted activity days (RAD) with 25,240 days/year. For all pollutants, the maximum health damage costs were related to the long-term mortality (49 %), restricted activity days (27 %), and chronic bronchitis (21 %). The annual health damage costs were approximately 4.76 million US$, with the cost being 0.096 US per kWh of generating electricity. Although the health damage costs of gas-fired power plant were lower than those of other heavy fuels, it seems essential to consider the health and environmental damages and focus on the emission control strategies, particularly in site selection for the new power plants and expanding the current ones.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7258-0DOI Listing
October 2016