Publications by authors named "Reza Fekrazad"

145 Publications

Effectiveness of Photobiomodulation on Orthodontic Mini Screw Stability: A Systematic Review.

Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg 2021 Nov 19. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Radiation Sciences Research Center, Laser Research Center in Medical Sciences, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) enhances bone regeneration and bone healing and has been suggested to improve the stability of orthodontic mini screws. This study aimed to systematically review the clinical influence of PBMT on orthodontic mini screw stability. A comprehensive search was run in the following electronic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane. The clinical trials reporting the effects of PBMT on mini screw stability in human subjects were included. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted data. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool was used to investigate the quality of the included studies. The overall quality of evidence was evaluated through the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. The primary outcome was the stability of mini screws, and the secondary outcomes were pain, inflammation (the interleukin [IL]-1ß, IL6, and IL8), and overall success rate. Quantitative synthesis could not be performed due to heterogeneities among studies. Seven articles were finally included in the present review. Moderate-quality evidence suggests that if the PBMT continues until the third or fourth week, the stability of min screws would be promoted from the third to the eighth week after insertion. Although the evidence for secondary outcomes was limited, PBMT could positively affect the inflammation. PBMT exerted varying effects on the stability of mini screws at different time intervals. However, despite the limitations of studies, it seems to enhance the secondary stability of orthodontic mini screws primarily. The study protocol was registered on PROSPERO (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/) with the ID#CRD42020194058.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/photob.2021.0081DOI Listing
November 2021

Dentinal tubule blockage using nanobioglass in the presence of diode (980 nm) and Nd:YAG lasers: an in vitro study.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Nov 13. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: The main objective of this study was to enhance the blockage of dentinal tubules using nanobioglass in the presence of diode (980 nm) and Nd:YAG lasers in order to reduce permeability and dentin hypersensitivity.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-six dentinal samples were randomly divided into 6 subgroups (n = 6): (A) control, (B) diode laser (980 nm, 3-W), (C) Nd:YAG laser (1064, 1.0-W), (D) nanobioglass, (E) nanobioglass + diode laser (980 nm), (F) nanobioglass + Nd:YAG laser. The average number of open dentinal tubules was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were evaluated by SPSS software version 22, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferoni's correction (α = 0.008).

Results: Based on the results of Mann-Whitney test, there was a significant difference in the mean number of open dentinal tubules between the control group and the other groups (p < 0.008). However, the difference among the other groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.008).

Conclusions: Findings of this study showed that high-power laser radiation, such as Nd:YAG and diode (980 nm) alone or with nanobioglass, has a significant effect on the blockage of dentinal tubules.

Clinical Relevance: Introduction of non-invasive methods with long-term and lasting effect on reducing pain and discomfort caused by dentin hypersensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-021-04279-8DOI Listing
November 2021

Use of Blue and Blue-Violet Lasers in Dentistry: A Narrative Review.

J Lasers Med Sci 2021 4;12:e31. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Laboratoire MICORALIS (MICrobiologie ORALe, Immunothérapie et Santé) EA7354, Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, UFR Odontologie, Avenue des Diables Bleus, 06000 Nice, France.

Blue and blue-violet diode lasers (450 and 405 nm) seem to represent an interesting approach for several clinical treatments today. The aim of this narrative review is to describe and comment on the literature regarding the utilization of blue and blue-violet lasers in dentistry. A search for "blue laser AND dentistry" was conducted using the PubMed database, and all the papers referring to this topic, ranging from 1990 to April 2020, were analyzed in the review. All the original and studies using 450 nm or 405 nm lasers were included in this study. All the articles on the LED light, laser wavelengths other than 405 and 450 nm and using lasers in specialties other than dentistry, as well as case reports, guideline papers and reviews were excluded. From a total of 519 results, 47 articles met the inclusion criteria and were divided into 8 groups based on their fields of application: disinfection (10), photobiomodulation (PBM) (4), bleaching (1), resin curing (20), surgery (7), periodontics (1), endodontics (1) and orthodontics (3). Blue and blue-violet diode lasers may represent new and effective devices to be used in a large number of applications in dentistry, even if further studies will be necessary to fully clarify the potentialities of these laser wavelengths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jlms.2021.31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8558710PMC
July 2021

Comparison of the Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser and Halita Mouthwash on Oral Malodor in Patients With Chronic Periodontitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Lasers Med Sci 2021 20;12:e26. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Periodontal disease and tongue coatings are among the major factors associated with oral malodor. The present study, comparatively evaluated the effects of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser and Halita mouthwash as adjunctive treatments to nonsurgical periodontal debridement on oral malodor reduction in chronic periodontitis patients. Sixty patients with stage II and III chronic periodontitis and bad breath. The patients were randomly divided into two groups (n=30). After conventional scaling and root planing, patients in group 1 underwent Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Waterlase; Biolase, San Clemente, CA, USA) irradiation of the internal surface of the pockets (1.5 W, 30 Hz, 20% A, 40% W) and the dorsum of the tongue (1 W, 30 Hz, 20% A, 40% W) immediately after SRP and on the third and seventh days. Group 2 patients were asked to use Halita mouthwash twice daily for one week. Baseline, 1 and 3-month post-treatment measurements of plaque index (PI), (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP) and organoleptic assessment of Halitosis severity were performed. Significant improvement in all parameters was noted in both groups after 1 and 3 months, compared with baseline ( < 0.05). The two groups had significant reductions which occurred in PPD, CAL and BOP levels and the organoleptic score in 1 and 3 months after the intervention ( < 0.05). Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation and Halita mouthwash as adjuncts to non-surgical periodontal therapy are both effective in the treatment of oral malodor and improvement of periodontal parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jlms.2021.26DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8558721PMC
June 2021

Effect of Er:YAG Laser Irradiation and Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride Therapy on Re-Mineralization of White Spot Lesions.

J Dent (Shiraz) 2021 Sep;22(3):153-161

Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Statement Of The Problem: Studies on the efficacy of erbium laser for enhancement of enamel resistance to acid attacks and its effects on fluoride uptake by the enamel are limited.

Purpose: This study sought to assess and compare the effects of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation and application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel (alone and in combination) on remineralization of artificial white spot lesions (WSLs).

Materials And Method: This , experimental study evaluated 90 buccal and lingual slabs of extracted human premolars. The specimens underwent pH cycling to induce WSLs. They were then randomly divided into 6 groups of caries-free positive control (c+), negative control with WSLs (ws), 1.23% APF gel applied on the enamel (F), Er:YAG laser irradiation (80 mJ, 10 Hz, and 8 J/cm) of enamel (L), APF gel application followed by laser irradiation (FL), and laser irradiation followed by fluoride gel application (LF). The fluoride ion content of specimens was measured before and after the intervention using a potentiometer. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (< 0.05).

Results: APF gel application before/after laser irradiation maximally increased the fluoride uptake by the enamel (= 0.000). Application of APF gel in group F and laser irradiation in group L increased fluoride uptake by the enamel, compared with groups 1 and 2 (= 0.000). Laser- treated (L) and APF-treated (F) groups had no significant difference in this respect (= 0.945). Maximum fluoride concentration was noted in combined laser and fluoride groups (FL=332.07ppm and LF=341.27ppm) with no significant difference between the two (= 1.000).

Conclusion: Er:YAG laser irradiation changes the chemical composition of enamel and probably promote its remineralization, especially when combined with APF gel application, which highlights its cariostatic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30476/DENTJODS.2020.86300.1187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417547PMC
September 2021

Efficacy of Nd:YAG laser-assisted periodontal therapy for the management of periodontitis: A double-blind split-mouth randomized controlled clinical trial.

J Periodontol 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Dental Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: This study aimed to explore the efficacy of Nd:YAG laser-assisted periodontal therapy for management of patients with stage II-IV periodontitis.

Methods: Patients who presented with residual periodontal pockets were enrolled. After non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT), test sites received Nd:YAG laser (first entrance to pocket: 3 W, 100 μs, 20 Hz; second entrance: 4 W, 600 μs, 20 Hz) and control sites received placebo (laser off). Periodontal probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession (GR), bleeding on probing (BOP), and plaque index (PI) were recorded at baseline and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6-month visits.

Results: Twenty patients completed the 6-month period. Significant reductions in PPD, CAL, BOP, and PI values and a significant increase in GR at all follow-up visits compared to the baseline (all P < 0.001) were revealed in both groups. Test sites showed significantly greater improvement in PPD (P = 0.0002) and greater increase in GR (P < 0.0001) compared to the control sites at 6-month visit. There was no difference between two groups regarding CAL gain through the study period (P = 0.23).

Conclusion: NSPT+Nd:YAG laser with the current protocol results in greater PPD reduction compared to NSPT alone. However, this reduction is likely because of greater GR rather than attachment gain. Therefore, the adjunction of Nd:YAG laser (with the current setting) to the NSPT for the treatment of residual periodontal pockets did not ameliorate the clinical outcomes (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03365167).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JPER.21-0242DOI Listing
August 2021

The Effect of Scuba Diving on Microleakage of a Class II Composite Restoration: An In-Vitro Study.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Jun 19;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Radiation Sciences Research Center, Laser Research Center in Medical Sciences, Aja University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 3413941661, Iran.

Persistent pressure change is a common phenomenon within scuba diving with various medical and dental sign side effects. This study evaluates the effect of simulated pressure change due to scuba diving on the microleakage of class II composite restoration. In our methodology, a total number of 150 intact bicuspids are divided into two main groups (A and B), and prepared for a class II composite restoration. The samples of each main group are divided into five subgroups to be prepared with different liners. Then samples are restored with the same resin composite material. The teeth in group A are thermocycled under the normal atmospheric pressure, while group B are thermocycled under simulated scuba diving conditions. The gingival microleakage is assessed based on dye penetration. The group B teeth show a significantly higher microleakage score than their equivalents in group A ( < 0.05). The subgroups without a liner have a higher microleakage score than the other subgroups ( < 0.05). The flowable composite shows the leased leakage scores followed by Nano ionomer, Resin Modified Glass Iononomer, GIOMER, and linerless groups ( < 0.05). Scuba diving could increase the risk of microleakage development beneath class II, a composite restoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235208PMC
June 2021

Transcranial photobiomodulation in the management of brain disorders.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 Aug 5;221:112207. Epub 2021 May 5.

ENT and Head & Neck Research Center, The Five Senses Health eInstitute, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Transcranial photobiomodulation (tPBM) is the process of delivering light photons through the skull to benefit from its modifying effect. Brain disorders are important health problems. The aim of this review was to determine the existing evidence of effectiveness, useful parameters, and safety of tPBM in the management of traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson, and Alzheimer's disease as the common brain disorders. Four online databases, including Cochrane, Pub Med, Embase, and Google scholar were searched according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. 4728 articles were obtained in the initial search. Only those articles that were published until September 2020 and designed as randomized clinical trials (RCTs) or animal-controlled studies were included. 6 RCTs, 2 related supplementary articles, and 38 controlled animal studies met the inclusion criteria of this study. No RCTs were performed in the fields of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The human RCTs and animal studies reported no adverse events resulted from the use of tPBM. Useful parameters of tPBM were identified according to the controlled animal studies. Since the investigated RCTs had no homogenous results, making an evidence-based decision for definite therapeutic application of tPBM is still unattainable. Altogether, these data support the need for large confirmatory well-designed RCTs for using tPBM as a novel, safe, and easy-to-administer treatment of brain disorders.

Evidence Before This Study: High prevalence and complications of brain disorders and also side effects of neuropsychiatric medications have encouraged researchers to find alternative therapeutic techniques which tPBM can be one of them. In present review we tried to determine the existing evidence of effectiveness, useful parameters, and safety of tPBM in the management of traumatic brain injury, stroke, Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease as common brain disorders. Four online databases, including "Cochrane", "Pub Med", "Embase", and "Google scholar" were searched. Only those articles that were published until September 2020 and designed as RCTs or animal-controlled studies were included. Search keywords were the followings: transcranial photobiomodulation" OR "transcranial low-level laser therapy" AND "stroke" OR "traumatic brain injury" OR "Alzheimer" OR "Parkinson". Several studies have confirmed effectiveness of tPBM in treatment of different brain disorders but the level of evidence of its effectiveness remain to be determined.

Added Value Of This Study: In this study we systematically reviewed human RCTs to determine the existing evidence of tPBM effectiveness in management of four mentioned brain disorders. Since the outcomes of the reviewed RCTs were not homogeneous, further well-designed RCTs are required to decide more definitively on the evidence of this noninvasive and probably safe therapeutic intervention. We hypothesized that non-homogeneous outcomes could be due to inefficiency of PBM parameters. Controlled animal studies have the advantage of using objective tests to evaluate the results and compare them with the control group. We determined useful tPBM parameters based on these studies.

Implications Of All The Available Evidence: This research is part of our main project of tinnitus treatment using photobiomodulation (PBM). Evidence of central nervous system involvement in tinnitus led us to believe that treatment protocol of tinnitus should also include transcranial PBM. The determined useful parameters can be helpful in designing more efficient tPBM protocols in the management of brain disorders and tinnitus as a common debilitating symptom that can be associated with these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2021.112207DOI Listing
August 2021

Effect of Photobiomodulation on the Incidence of Alveolar Osteitis and Postoperative Pain following Mandibular Third Molar Surgery: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.

Photochem Photobiol 2021 Sep 17;97(5):1129-1135. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Radiation Sciences Research Center- Laser Research Center in Medical Sciences, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The current study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy for the prevention of incidence of alveolar osteitis (AO) and postoperative pain following third molar surgery. In this double-blind clinical trial, the impacted teeth of patients having bilateral impacted mandibular third molars were surgically extracted; for each participant, one socket was randomly assigned to receive photobiomodulation treatment, the other received sham treatment. 660 nm 200 mW CW was applied at a distance of ~1cm to 4 points on the occlusal area of extraction socket (beam area at the tissue ~0.64 cm , 312.5 mW cm , 1J, 1.6 J cm ). Also, 810 nm 200 mW CW was applied at tissue surface at three points on the buccal and three points on the lingual gingiva, for 15 s (400 mW cm , 3 J, 6 J cm ). There was a statistically meaningful difference in AO frequency between the two groups, and the photobiomodulation group showed lower AO frequency compared with the sham PBM treatment (P-value = 0.035). According to the findings of this study, photobiomodulation therapy reduced the incidence of AO following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars. The incidence of AO typically occurs 3-7 days post-extraction, and our results suggest that PBM treatment within the 7 days could help reduce the risk of AO development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/php.13457DOI Listing
September 2021

Clinical Outcomes of Free Gingival Graft Following Recipient Bed Preparation with Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Versus Scalpel: A Split-Mouth Randomized Clinical Trial.

Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg 2021 Jun 21;39(6):425-433. Epub 2021 May 21.

Radiation Sciences Research Center, Laser Research Center in Medical Sciences, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Free gingival graft (FGG) procedure is accompanied with a considerable rate of graft shrinkage. This study was aimed to assess the dimensional changes of FGG after recipient site preparation with Er,Cr:YSGG laser and surgical scalpel. This split-mouth randomized clinical trial evaluated 11 patients with bilateral lack of keratinized gingiva in mandibular premolars. The test side in each patient was prepared with Er,Cr:YSGG laser (3 W power, 300 mJ energy, 10 Hz frequency, long-pulsed mode), whereas the control side was prepared by surgical scalpel. All FGGs were harvested from the palate with standard dimensions of 14 × 9 mm. The graft width, length, surface area, and shrinkage and color match were measured after 1, 3, and 6 months. Postoperative complications, including pain and bleeding were also evaluated using a questionnaire. In both groups, the surface area and width of graft significantly decreased at all time points compared with baseline but the difference in this respect was not significant between the two groups ( > 0.05). In both groups, maximum shrinkage occurred within the first 3 months. In control group, the surface shrinkage in 3 months was significantly greater than the first month ( = 0.025) without significant difference between groups ( = 0.79). The two groups were not significantly different regarding pain score and bleeding score either. On the day of surgery, the test group had slightly lower pain score and higher bleeding score in comparison to the control group without significant difference. The pain and bleeding scores reduced in both groups with no significant difference ( > 0.05). Er,Cr:YSGG laser has promising results for preparation of FGG recipient site and yields results comparable to those of surgical scalpel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/photob.2020.4962DOI Listing
June 2021

The Effect of Carbon Dioxide Laser on Aphthous stomatitis Treatment: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Lasers Med Sci 2020 30;11(Suppl 1):S67-S72. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This randomized clinical trial was designed to investigate the effect of carbon dioxide laser on the treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis (miRAS) as a painful and common oral ulcer. Fifteen patients with miRAS entered into this study after compliance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The patients were assigned to three groups of pulsed CO laser, continuous CO laser, and control. A pulsed CO laser with power of 261 W and pulse duration of 180 microseconds and continuous CO lasers with the power of 1 W and radiation duration of 5-10 seconds were used. In the control group, topical triamcinolone ointment of 0.1% was used. The degree of pain was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS). The patients were evaluated in terms of pain intensity before and immediately after the treatment and at follow-up hours, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the intervention, and changes in the size of the ulcers were measured before the treatment and on third, fifth, and seventh days. The effect of CO laser with pulsed and continuous radiation on the pain intensity of aphthous lesions, immediately after the treatment and at subsequent follow-up hours were similar and even better than the control group (<0.05). All three treatments had a similar effect on the size of the ulcer, which was not statistically significant (>0.05). The results of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) showed that the carbon dioxide laser, whether with pulsed radiation or continuous radiation compared to the control group, had a better impact on the pain relief of aphthous lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jlms.2020.S11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956027PMC
December 2020

Direct Pulp Capping With ProRoot MTA Alone and in Combination With Er:YAG Laser Irradiation: A Clinical Trial.

J Lasers Med Sci 2020 30;11(Suppl 1):S60-S66. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Faculty Member, Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Due to the complications of root canal treatment, conservative modalities to preserve pulp vitality are favorable. Direct pulp capping (DPC) refers to the coverage of the pulp tissue exposed by a biocompatible agent that can improve the prognosis of the tooth by 44% to 95%. Some recent studies have reported more predictable results (a success rate of about 90%) for DPC with laser and regenerative materials such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). This study aimed to clinically compare DPC with ProRoot MTA alone and in combination with Er:YAG (erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) laser irradiation (2940 nm). This clinical trial was conducted on 26 patients with a mean age of 29 years (in the range of 17 to 46 years) who required DPC following pulp exposure during deep caries removal. The teeth were divided into two groups. In the control group, the teeth underwent DPC with ProRoot MTA while in the test group, the teeth were first irradiated with a 2940 nm Er:YAG laser and then underwent DPC with ProRoot MTA. The patients were recalled at one, 3 and 6 months for the follow-up (clinical and radiographic examinations). The data were analyzed using Fisher exact test. The success rate was 75% in the laser group and 93% in the control group. The groups were not significantly different (>0.05). No significant difference was found in terms of the success rate of DPC with ProRoot MTA alone and in combination with Er:YAG laser irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jlms.2020.S10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956037PMC
December 2020

Effect of photobiomodulation in secondary intention gingival wound healing-a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Oral Health 2021 05 13;21(1):258. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Periodontics, Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Fahmideh Blvd, 654178-38741, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Photobiomodulation is widely being used to improve the wound healing process in dentistry and a vast majority of studies have proven its benefits. But there are plenty of knowledge gaps according to the optimal laser characteristics which should be used to maximize the healing effects of lasers. The goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effect of photobiomodulation (PBM) as an adjunctive treatment to periodontal therapies to evaluate secondary intention gingival wound healing and post-operative pain.

Methods: Five databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, ProQuest, and Web of Sciences) were searched up to November 30, 2020, for clinical trials that reported the result of the application of PBM on secondary gingival healing wounds and post-operative pain and discomfort after periodontal surgeries. Two independent reviewers selected the eligible studies and the outcomes of interest were extracted. The quality of eligible studies was assessed using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.

Results: Ultimately, twelve studies were included in this review. The application of PBM as an adjunct to periodontal surgeries resulted in a significant improvement in wound healing indices. The Landry wound healing index at the 7th post-operative day was significantly improved (SMD = 1.044 [95% CI 0.62-1.46]; p < 0.01) in PBM + surgery groups compared to the control groups. There was also a statistically significant increase in the complete wound epithelialization (RR = 3.23 [95% CI 1.66-6.31]; p < 0.01) at the 14th post-operative day compared to the control groups. The methods used to assess the post-operative pain were heterogeneous, and therefore the results were limited which made the meta-analysis for post-operative pain assessment not possible.

Conclusion: Based on the results of this review, PBM can be effectively used as a method to improve secondary intention wound healing. High-quality randomized clinical trials, however, are needed in the future to identify the optimal PBM irradiation parameters and the effect of PBM on post-operative pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-021-01611-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120828PMC
May 2021

Photobiomodulation and Antiviral Photodynamic Therapy in COVID-19 Management.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:517-547

Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has shocked the world by its spread and contagiousness. There is no approved vaccine and no proven treatment for this infection. Some potential treatments that have already been associated with antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects are under investigation. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) is a photon-based therapy that uses light to mediate a variety of metabolic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. Antiviral photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a branch of photodynamic therapy based on the reaction between a photosensitizing agent and a light source in the presence of oxygen, which can produce oxidative and free radical agents to damage the viral structures such as proteins and nucleic acids. This chapter aims to discuss the potential therapeutic benefit of PBMT and aPDT in the context of the novel coronavirus. Studies indicate that PBMT and aPDT could be useful in many viral and bacterial pulmonary complications like influenza, SARS-CoV, and MERS, but we found no direct study on SARS-CoV-2. With a combination of PBMT and aPDT, we may be able to combat COVID-19 with minimal interference with pharmaceutical agents. It might improve the efficacy of PBMT and aPDT by using monoclonal antibodies and preparing new photosensitizers at the nanoscale that target the lung tissue specifically. More animal and human studies would need to take place to reach an effective protocol. This chapter would encourage other scientists to work on this new platform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-63761-3_30DOI Listing
May 2021

Low-dose photodynamic therapy effect on closure of scratch wounds of normal and diabetic fibroblast cells: An in vitro study.

J Biophotonics 2021 07 13;14(7):e202100005. Epub 2021 May 13.

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Chronic wounds such as diabetic ulcers are a serious public health problem. Extensive research is needed to find new alternatives for wound treatment. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive method, which has been studied for several decades to treat cancer, infections, and other diseases. PDT involves the administration of a photosensitizer compound followed by irradiation with using light at specific wavelength to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) using molecular oxygen. It is possible that low dose photodynamic therapy (LDPDT) could improve wound healing and stimulates the cell repair process. This study we explored the effect of LDPDT on wound healing in vitro using normal and diabetic cellular wound models. The effects of different concentrations of 5-ALA and different energy densities (dark or light) on the cell viability of human fibroblast cells were studied using the MTT assay. After ascertaining the optimum parameters, a scratch wound assay was performed on both normal and diabetic cells and then cells treated with 1 and 5 μg/mL of 5-ALA at 1 J/cm energy density. ROS production and morphological alteration of the cells were studied. The mortality of normal fibroblast cells increased with increasing 5-ALA concentration and also increasing energy density (up to 3 J/cm ). However, in diabetic cells, the mortality rate did not decrease. Diabetic cells showed increased migration and closure of the scratch compared to normal cells under similar conditions. A low concentration of 5-ALA (5 μg/mL) and low energy density of 1 J/cm in both normal and diabetic cells gave a small increase in ROS levels compared to controls. This may explain the positive effects of LDPDT on wound healing. The findings of this study suggest that LDPDT may have a potential effect on the wound healing of diabetic wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.202100005DOI Listing
July 2021

Near-infrared 940-nm diode laser photobiomodulation of inflamed periodontal ligament stem cells.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Radiation Sciences Research Center, Laser Research Center in Medical Sciences, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Photobiomodulation (PBM) is an acceptable method of stimulating stem cells through its non-invasive absorption by the cell photoreceptors and the induction of cellular response. The current research was aimed at evaluating the effect of near-infrared PBM on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in inflamed periodontal ligament stem cells (I-PDLSCs). I-PDLSCs were isolated and characterized. Third passage cells were irradiated with 940-nm laser at an output power of 100 mW in a continuous wave. A fluence of 4 J/cm in three sessions at 48-h intervals was applied and compared with non-irradiated controls. Cell viability and proliferation were evaluated by MTT assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity, quantitative Alizarin red staining test, and q-RT-PCR were used to evaluate the osteogenic properties of the I-PDLSCs in four groups of (a) osteogenic differentiation medium + laser (ODM + L), (b) osteogenic differentiation medium without laser (ODM), (c) non-osteogenic differentiation medium + laser (L), and (d) non-osteogenic differentiation medium (control). There was a non-significant increase in the viability of cells at 48- and 72-h post last laser irradiation. Alizarin red staining revealed no significant stimulatory effect of PBM at 14 and 21 days. However, alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in the L + ODM group. Expression of osteogenic-related genes had a statistically significant increase at 21-day post irradiation. The irradiation used in the present study showed no significant increase in the proliferation of I-PDLSCs by PBM. However, expression levels of osteogenic-related genes and alkaline phosphatase activity were significantly increased in irradiated groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-021-03282-5DOI Listing
March 2021

The effect of delayed photobiomodulation on neurosensory disturbance recovery after zygomatic trauma: A parallel controlled clinical trial.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 Apr 9;217:112153. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Radiation Sciences Research Center, Laser Research Center in Medical Sciences, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; International Network for Photo Medicine and Photo Dynamic Therapy (INPMPDT), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Zygomatic fractures are usually accompanied with neural complications, which are routinely treated by surgery or medication. However, photobiomodulation has been proven as a non-invasive method with better results in nerve's regeneration and repair. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the healing effect of photobiomodulation on neurosensory defect after facial trauma.

Patients And Methods: In this parallel controlled clinical trial, 35 control cases and 36 patients with zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures as well as the sustained infraorbital nerve paresthesia were included. Afterward, Laser irradiation was applied using a GaAlAs diode laser (810 nm, 27 J/cm, 200 mW) on 12 points on malar area of paresthesia during 12 sessions within six weeks. Neurosensory evaluations were performed in four sessions as follows: at baseline, the end of treatment, one month, and three months after the last session of irradiation, which were achieved through three tests including visual analogue scales (VAS) for general sensitivity, two-point discrimination, and pain discrimination. Repeated measure ANOVA, independent t-test, and Chi-square test were used for comparing time trends, each time point, and gender, respectively. P-values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.

Results: The patients and controls were matched in both terms of age and gender. Baseline results showed non-significant differences between the two groups based on the VAS, pain, and two-point discrimination. Moreover, for VAS scale, some significant differences were observed between the groups by passing "one month and three months from therapy". Pain and two-point discriminations showed a significant difference between the intervention and control groups in "one month after therapy" and "at the end of the therapy, one month after therapy, and three months after therapy", respectively.

Conclusion: Photobiomodulation could be considered as an effective treatment option for post-traumatic neurosensory disturbance of facial area in terms of VAS, pain and two-point discrimination, even if not performed early after trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2021.112153DOI Listing
April 2021

The Potential Role of Photobiomodulation in Long COVID-19 Patients Rehabilitation.

Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg 2021 04 27;39(4):229-231. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Surgery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences School of Medicine, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/photob.2020.4984DOI Listing
April 2021

Microshear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Enamel Treated With Titanium Tetrafluoride and the Carbon Dioxide Laser (10.6 µm): An In Vitro Study.

J Lasers Med Sci 2020 3;11(4):486-490. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Professor, Department of Periodontology, Dental Faculty - Laser Research Center in Medical Sciences, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The present study aims to assess the microshear bond strength (µSBS) of composite to enamel treated with titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4 ) and CO laser irradiation. Fifteen human molars were sectioned and their enamel surfaces were abraded. The sections were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=15): (CO); control group, (AP); treated with 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) for 4 minutes, (Ti); 4% TiF for 1 minute, (L+AP); CO laser irradiation (10.6 µm wavelength, 1 W peak power, 10 ms pulse duration, 500 ms repetition time, 0.2 mm beam spot size at the tissue level, 2 cm distance of handpiece tip to tissue surface (DSE, South Cores) followed by 1.23% APF, and (L+ Ti); 10.6μm CO laser irradiation followed by 4% TiF for one minute. Using Tygon tubes, Z250 (3M/ESPE) composite was bonded to the surface of the samples. The µSBS of composite to enamel was measured using a microtensile testing machine after 500 thermal cycles. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test ( <0.05). The mean µSBS was 20.66, 20.21, 13.44, 23.01, and 10.16 MPa in CO, AP, Ti, L+AP, and L+Ti groups respectively. Significant differences were observed between CO and Ti ( =0.026) and also CO and L+ Ti ( <0.0001). The application of TiF per se and after CO laser irradiation on enamel decreased the µSBS of composite to enamel; on the other hand, APF alone and after laser irradiation did not have any adverse effect on the µSBS of composite to enamel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jlms.2020.76DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7736944PMC
October 2020

The Effect of Laser Photobiomodulation on Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells.

Photochem Photobiol 2021 07 21;97(4):851-859. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Periodontology, Dental Faculty - Radiation Sciences Research Center, Laser Research Center in Medical Sciences, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Photobiomodulation (PBM) is considered as a noninvasive procedure with the potential of inducing favorable changes in cellular behavior. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of near-infrared low-intensity laser PBM on proliferation, viability and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells isolated from human periodontal ligament. A 940-nm diode laser with an energy density of 4 J cm in a 100-mW continuous wave was used for irradiation in 3 sessions every 48h. Cell viability was measured 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation. The effects of laser on mineralized tissue deposition were evaluated by using Alizarin red staining after dividing cells into three groups of nonosteogenic medium (C-), an osteogenic medium without laser (C+), and an osteogenic medium with laser irradiation (L+). Gene expression levels were also evaluated by real-time PCR. Our results showed no significant difference between MTT levels of the study and control groups. After 14 and 21 days, both L+ and C+ groups showed an increase in mineralized tissue formation compared to the C- group. There was an increase in VEGF and BMP expressions compared to C-. In conclusion, the irradiation setting used in this study may be able to improve mineralized tissue deposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/php.13367DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of Photobiomodulation on Relapse in an Experimental Rapid Maxillary Expansion Model in Rat.

Photochem Photobiol 2021 05 25;97(3):634-640. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Radiation Sciences Research Center, Laser Research Center in Medical Sciences, Aja University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is performed on transversely deficient maxilla. As all orthodontic treatments, retention is important in maintaining therapeutic outcomes. Fixed /removable retainers are used post-RME causing hygiene and compliance problems. Given photobiomodulation's positive effects on the quantity and quality of bone regeneration, its effect on post-RME relapse was studied. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into group R, non-irradiated RME-treated (n = 12), group P, irradiated RME-treated (n = 12) and group C, non-RME non-irradiated (n = 6). A 1.5 mm metal ring inserted between maxillary incisors at days 0 and 15 was expanded until 1.5 mm space was obtained at day 30. In group P, Ga-Al-As diode laser (810 nm, 100 mW, 4J/cm , 30 secs) was applied on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 as predictor variable. The relapse was measured as the space lost between incisors for 30 days after appliance removal (primary outcome variable) and compared with t-test. In week 2, space loss in group P was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than all other groups. The relapse during weeks 2 and 3 was significantly lower in group P than group R. However, no significant difference in relapse amount was found between groups during first and fourth week. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between groups in relapse rates (secondary outcome variable) but not in total relapse after 4 weeks. Photobiomodulation proved beneficial in resisting relapse in our study, and it is suggested to be continued until the end of expansion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/php.13365DOI Listing
May 2021

Evaluation of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on wounds infected by Staphylococcus aureus in animal models.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Mar 16;33:102092. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Radiation Sciences Research Center, Laser Research Center in Medical Sciences, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; International Network for Photo Medicine and Photo Dynamic Therapy (INPMPDT), Universal Scientific Education and Research(USERN), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are one of the expanding challenges. The purpose of current study is to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy (aPDT) on wounds infected to Staphylococcus aureus.

Methods: In this study, 40 six-month-old rats were divided into 4 groups: control, photosensitizer (PS), laser, and aPDT. A full-thickness wound was created on their skin and it was infected by Staphylococcus aureus. For aPDT, the Indocyanine Green (Germany, Nürnberg, A.R.C. Laser, EmunDo) photosensitive agent and laser diod 810 nm (Germany, Nürnberg, A.R.C. Laser) was utilized. The wound healing procedure was monitored every 24 h until the 12th day with photography. The number of the bacteria was counted on the 12th day also. All results were compared using ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Significance level was considered P-Value < 0.05.

Results: The average area of wound reduced in days 5-11th in photosensitizer, laser, and aPDT, respectively. The absolute colonization rate of bacteria in the wounds showed a significant decrease in two groups laser and aPDT compared to the control group. However, the lowest value was for the aPDT.

Conclusion: In the conditions of this study, it emerged that aPDT and laser have an antimicrobial effect against antibiotic-resistant bacteria (particularly Staphylococcus aureus) and improve wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.102092DOI Listing
March 2021

Probable positive effects of the photobiomodulation as an adjunctive treatment in COVID-19: A systematic review.

Cytokine 2021 01 12;137:155312. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Radiation Sciences Research Center, Laser Research Center in Medical Sciences, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; International Network for Photo Medicine and Photo Dynamic Therapy (INPMPDT), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: COVID-19, as a newly-emerged viral infection has now spread all over the world after originating in Wuhan, China. Pneumonia is the hallmark of the disease, with dyspnea in half of the patients and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in up to one -third of the cases. Pulmonary edema, neutrophilic infiltration, and inflammatory cytokine release are the pathologic signs of this disease. The anti-inflammatory effect of the photobiomodulation (PBM) has been confirmed in many previous studies. Therefore, this review study was conducted to evaluate the direct effect of PBM on the acute lung inflammation or ARDS and also accelerating the regeneration of the damaged tissues. The indirect effects of PBM on modulation of the immune system, increasing the blood flow and oxygenation in other tissues were also considered.

Methodology: The databases of PubMed, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar were searched to find the relevant studies. Keywords included the PBM and related terms, lung inflammation, and COVID-19 -related signs. Studies were categorized with respect to the target tissue, laser parameters, and their results.

Results: Seventeen related papers were included in this review. All of them were in animal models. They showed that the PBM could significantly decrease the pulmonary edema, neutrophil influx, and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), reactive oxygen species (ROS), isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2)).

Conclusion: Our findings revealed that the PBM could be helpful in reducing the lung inflammation and promoting the regeneration of the damaged tissue. PBM can increase the oxygenation indirectly in order to rehabilitate the affected organs. Thus, the infra-red lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are recommended in this regard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2020.155312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7550078PMC
January 2021

Nano Antiviral Photodynamic Therapy: a Probable Biophysicochemical Management Modality in SARS-CoV-2.

Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2021 02 19;18(2):265-272. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Radiation Sciences Research Center, Laser Research Center in Medical Sciences, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: COVID-19 disease has shocked the world by its spread and contagiousness. At this time, there is no valid vaccine and no proven drug treatment for COVID-19 patients. Current treatments are focused on Oxygenation, Cytokine Storm management, anti-inflammatory effects, and antiviral therapy. Antiviral photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is based on the reaction between a photo-sensitive agent and a light source in the presence of oxygen which can produce oxidative and free radical agents to damage the virus' structures. Recent studies show that nanotechnology can improve aPDT's outcome. The aim of this study was to find out the potential therapeutic effects of Nano antiviral photodynamic therapy on COVID-19.

Areas Covered: This review evaluates Nano Antiviral Photodynamic Therapy: A Probable Biophysicochemical Management Modality in SARS-CoV-2. Data were extracted from published different studies published on PUBMED, SCOPUS, and Web of Science.

Expert Opinion: Studies indicating that aPDT and Nano-based aPDT can be useful in viral pulmonary complications like Influenza, SARS-CoV, and MERS, but there was no direct study on SARS-Cov-2. Recent studies showed that Nano-based aPDT could relate to control of the stages of viral infections. Altogether, further investigations for the application of nanomedicine in antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation are needed for COVID-19 Management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17425247.2021.1829591DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparison of different modes of photo-activated disinfection against Porphyromonas gingivalis: An in vitro study.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020 Dec 17;32:101951. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Laser Research Center of Dentistry, Dentistry Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), a Gram-negative periodontal pathogen, is frequently detected in subgingival plaques in patients with chronic periodontitis. Considering the insufficient results achieved by the current antimicrobial approaches, this study aimed to compare the susceptibility of P. gingivalis to the different modes of photo-activated disinfection in planktonic culture.

Methods: Cultures of P. gingivalis were assigned into three main groups of photothermal disinfection with 810 nm laser in continuous mode + EmunDo® (indocyanine green based photosensitizer), 808 nm laser in pulse mode + Perio green® (indocyanine green based photosensitizer); and antibacterial photodynamic therapy with 662 nm laser + Radachlorin® photosensitizer. Then, the bacterial viability was determined by serial dilution method by counting the number of colonies forming units. The results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (p < 0.05).

Results: All three groups showed significant reduction in the viability of P. gingivalis (p < 0.001). However; this reduction was significantly higher in photothermal therapy with EmunDo®.

Conclusions: Both methods of photodynamic and photothermal therapy were successful in Significant eradication of P. gingivalis. Although, photothermal approach was more efficient with EmunDo® in combination with 810 nm laser irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.101951DOI Listing
December 2020

Photo biostimulatory effect of low dose photodynamic therapy on human mesenchymal stem cells.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020 Sep 20;31:101886. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Operative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Tissue engineering is one treatment to regenerate bone . Stem cell proliferation or differentiation can be stimulated by adjunctive approaches like photobiomodulation. Some studies suggested that, photodynamic therapy with low concentration of photosensitizers can stimulate cell differentiation as a photobiomodulation approach.

Methods: Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell was isolated and then cultured in sterile medium. Two photosensitizer drugs as 5- aminolevulenic acid (1 mM) (5-ALA) and Methylene blue (1μM) (MB) were used in incubation culture media. In order to activate the photosensitizers, 630 and 660 nm wavelengths were irradiated with 1 J/cm2 energy density, respectively. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay before and after laser irradiation, and also Alizarin red histologic test was used for calcium nodule formation.

Results: performing the MTT test before irradiation showed that, the optimum concentrations were 1 mM for 5-ALA and 1μM for MB that were optimized. After laser irradiation, ALA group showed no osseous differentiation. In contrast, there was a significant calcium nodule formation in MB group compared with the control one.

Conclusions: Photodynamic therapy with low photosensitizer concentration and low doses of laser energy density may improve osteogenic differentiation. Accordingly, MB had stimulatory effect on bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. However, 5-ALA did not show this effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.101886DOI Listing
September 2020

The Effect of CO2 Laser Irradiation Combined with TiF4 and NaF Varnishes on Enamel Hardness: An In Vitro Study.

Oral Health Prev Dent 2020;18(1):543-548

Purpose: To assess the effects of experimental titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) varnish and commercial sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish with CO2 laser on enamel hardness.

Materials And Methods: Ninety human enamel samples were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1. control (no treatment) (CO); 2. NaF varnish (2.26%) (NF); 3. TiF4 varnish (2.45%) (TF); 4. CO2 laser (La); 5. NaF varnish (2.26%) with CO2 laser (NFL); 6. TiF4 varnish (2.45%) with CO2 laser (TFL). Enamel surface changes were determined by Vickers microhardness (VH) test with a load of 1000 g and a dwell time of 12 s. Each sample was indented three times. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test.

Results: The mean surface microhardness was 245.5 VH in the CO group, 280.3 VH in group NF, 338.7 VH group TF, 277.0 VH in group La, 345.3 VH in group NFL, and 368.0 VH in group TFL. Statistical analysis showed that groups TF, NFL, and TFL had statistically significantly higher surface hardness than the control group (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The microhardness of enamel treated with TiF4 varnish with or without laser irradiation was statistically significantly greater than that of the control group. Thus, using TiF4 to increase enamel surface microhardness can be recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.ohpd.a44690DOI Listing
June 2020

Photobiomodulation and Antiviral Photodynamic Therapy as a Possible Novel Approach in COVID-19 Management.

Authors:
Reza Fekrazad

Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg 2020 05 23;38(5):255-257. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Radiation Sciences Research Center, Laser Research Center in Medical Sciences, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/photob.2020.4868DOI Listing
May 2020

Evaluation and comparison of the effect of honey, milk and combination of honey-milk on experimental induced second-degree burns of Rabit.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Feb 28;9(2):915-920. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Biology and Anatomical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Science, Bushehr, Iran.

Introduction: Burn can happen in any area and causes dominant changes in the quality of normal tissues. The aim of present article is evaluation and comparison the effect of milk, natural honey, and combination of honey-milk on healing of burnt wound.

Method And Material: A 4-week trial study was carried out on 10 Albino New Zealand rabbits. All dry burned wound was created on the back of the scapula by a 1 * 1 cm metal block. First group received honey dressing, second group milk dressing, third group honey-milk dressing, and the fourth group 5% sulfadiazine dressing. Sampling was performed at days 1, 10, and 20. Measurement of wound size was done in days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28. The obtained data and information were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Duncan tests using SPSS.

Results: Result show that combination of milk-honey dressing had most significant effect on the improvement of wound healing in the recipient rabbits after a 4-week study. The size of burn wound in four different group was: Honey milk combination 0.428 cm, honey 0.547 cm, milk 0.579 cm and sulfadiazine 0.873 cm.

Conclusion: All dressing can accelerate wound healing and have promotive effect on wound healing but the combination of honey-milk had the greatest effect. Honey, milk, and sulfadiazine had next grade of effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_801_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113970PMC
February 2020

Combined effects of calcium hydroxide and photobiomodulation therapy on apexogenesis of immature permanent teeth in dogs.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jun 2;207:111867. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Radiation Sciences Research Center, Laser Research Center in Medical Sciences, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; International Network for Photo Medicine and Photo Dynamic Therapy (INPMPDT), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Treatment of high-risk traumatic immature teeth due to incomplete root development is challenging. Apexogenesis is currently the ideal treatment option that allows normal root development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the apexogenesis process of immature permanent teeth of dogs when co-administered with calcium hydroxide and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT). A total of 36 immature permanent anterior and premolar teeth were selected from three 4-6-month-old dogs of Iranian mixed generation. The teeth were categorized into two groups, calcium hydroxide with laser irradiation (CHL) and calcium hydroxide without laser irradiation (CH). All the selected teeth received calcium hydroxide pulpotomy. After restoring teeth with amalgam, the CHL group received gallium‑aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser (810 nm, 4.2 J/cm, 0.3 W, 9 s,CW) on apical one-third of both buccal and lingual roots. The irradiation was repeated every 48 h for fourteen days. Intravenous tetracycline was used to observe newly formed dentin in the first, third, seventh, and fourteenth days. The distance between tetracycline lines (DTL) was examined by Fluorescence microscopy. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used for data analysis. In all assessments, the mean DTL were greater in the CHL group. However, the two groups had no significant differences in the amount of deposited dentin between the first and third, third and seventh, and first and seventh lines. Meanwhile, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of the distances between lines 7 and 14, 1 and 14 and also 3 to 14 (P < .001). In other words, from the 7th day onwards, there was a significant difference between the two groups. Within the limitation of this study, the combination therapy of PBMT and pulpotomy with calcium hydroxide accelerated apexogenesis in immature permanent dogs' teeth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111867DOI Listing
June 2020
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