Publications by authors named "Reza Ahadi"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Roles of Serotonin in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Division of Neuroscience, Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The serotonergic system extends throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the CNS, serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) modulates a broad spectrum of functions, including mood, cognition, anxiety, learning, memory, reward processing, and sleep. These processes are mediated through 5-HT binding to 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs), are classified into seven distinct groups. Deficits in the serotonergic system can result in various pathological conditions, particularly depression, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and autism. In this review, we outlined the complexity of serotonergic modulation of physiologic and pathologic processes. Moreover, we provided experimental and clinical evidence of 5-HT's involvement in neuropsychiatric disorders and discussed the molecular mechanisms that underlie these illnesses and contribute to the new therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-021-01064-9DOI Listing
March 2021

Hippocampal D1-but not D2-like dopamine receptors modulate the phosphorylation of ERK in food deprivation-induced reinstatement of morphine in extinguished rats.

Neuroreport 2021 Mar;32(4):332-338

Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran.

Reinstatement to drug abuse is the most challenging issue in the treatment of addiction. Thus, knowledge of the involved neurobiological mechanisms of reinstatement is a fundamental necessity. There is substantial and crucial evidence that dopamine is implicated in motivational processes such as relapse. Our behavioral results reported that the administration of dopamine receptor antagonists inhibited reinstatement of morphine in food-deprived rats. Previous studies have indicated that the ERK pathway plays a critical role in the cellular responses to stress and reward. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of intra-dentate gyrus administration of dopamine receptor antagonists on the phosphorylation of hippocampal ERK in the reinstatement phase of morphine reward in food-deprived rats. All groups of animals passed conditioned place preference and were bilaterally given different doses of D1- or D2-like dopamine compounds (0.25, 1 and 4 μg/0.5 μl) into the dentate gyrus. Immediately after the reinstatement phase, each animal was euthanized, and the hippocampi were immediately dissected. Then, the p-ERK/ERK ratio was evaluated using Western blot analysis. The principal findings in this study demonstrated that intra-dentate gyrus administration of the highest dose of the D1-like receptor antagonist could enhance the hippocampal p-ERK/ERK ratio in food-deprived rats while the D2-Like receptor antagonist failed to change this ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000001597DOI Listing
March 2021

The epigenetic alterations of human sperm cells caused by heroin use disorder.

Andrologia 2021 Feb 25;53(1):e13799. Epub 2020 Oct 25.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center & Department of Anatomy, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The molecular mechanisms of drug use on sexual health are largely unknown. We investigated, the relationship between heroin use disorder and epigenetic factors influencing histone acetylation in sperm cells. The volunteers included twenty-four 20- to 50-year-old men with a normal spermogram who did not consume any drugs and twenty-four age- to BMI-matched men who consume only the drug heroin for more than last four months. HDAC1 and HDAC11 mRNA expression levels in spermatozoa and miR-34c-5p and miR-125b-5p expression levels in seminal plasma were measured. The heroin-user group showed significantly increased white blood cell counts and decreased sperm motility and survival rates (8.61 ± 1.73, 21.50 ± 3.11, 69.90 ± 4.69 respectively) as compared to the control group (1.49 ± 0.32, 38.82 ± 3.05, 87.50 ± 0.99 respectively) (p ≤ .001). An increase in DNA fragmentation index (DFI) (heroin-user group: 41.93 ± 6.59% and control group: 10.14 ± 1.43%, p = .003), a change in frequency of HDAC1 (heroin-user group: 1.69 ± 0.55 and control group: 0.45 ± 0.14, p = .045) and HDAC11 (heroin-user group: 0.29 ± 0.13 and control group: 2.36 ± 0.76, p = .019) in spermatozoa and a significant decrease in seminal miR-125b-5p abundance (heroin-user group: 0.37 ± 0.11 and control group: 1.59 ± 0.47, p = .028) were reported in heroin consumers. Heroin use can lead to male infertility by causing leukocytospermia, asthenozoospermia, DFI elevation in sperm cells and alterations in seminal RNA profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.13799DOI Listing
February 2021

Time-Dependent Changes in the Serum Levels of Neurobiochemical Factors After Acute Methadone Overdose in Adolescent Male Rat.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2020 Jul 25. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19615-1178, Tehran, Iran.

Acute methadone toxicity is a major public health concern which has adverse effects on brain tissue and results in recurrent or delayed respiratory arrest. Our study aimed to investigate the time-dependent changes in several serum biochemical markers of brain damage, spatial working memory, and the brain tissue following acute methadone overdose. Adolescent male rats underwent an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 15 mg/kg methadone. In case of apnea occurrence, resuscitation was performed by a ventilatory pump and administrating naloxone (2 mg/kg; i.p.). The animals were classified into groups of treated rats; methadone and naloxone-Apnea (M/N-Apnea), M/N-Sedate, Methadone, Naloxone, and control (saline) groups. The serum levels of S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), myelin basic protein factors, and (Lactate/Pyruvate) L/P ratio were evaluated at the time-points of 6, 24, and 48 h (h). We found that the alterations of S100B and L/P ratio were considerable in the M/N-Apnea and Methadone groups from the early hours post-methadone overdose, while NSE serum levels elevation was observed only in M/N-Apnea group with a delay at 48 h. Further, we assessed the spatial working memory (Y-maze test), morphological changes, and neuronal loss. The impaired spontaneous alternation behavior was detected in the M/N-Apnea groups on days 5 and 10 post-methadone overdose. The morphological changes of neurons and the neuronal loss were detectable in the CA1, striatum, and cerebellum regions, which were pronounced in both M/N-Apnea and Methadone groups. Together, our findings suggest that alterations in the serum levels of S100B and NSE factors as well as L/P ratio could be induced by methadone overdose with the presence or absence of apnea before the memory impairment and tissue injury in adolescent male rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-020-00931-1DOI Listing
July 2020

The Interplay of Tau Protein and β-Amyloid: While Tauopathy Spreads More Profoundly Than Amyloidopathy, Both Processes Are Almost Equally Pathogenic.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2020 Jul 22. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, in which amyloid precursor protein (APP) misprocessing and tau protein hyperphosphorylation are well-established pathogenic cascades. Despite extensive considerations, the central mediator of neuronal cell death upon AD remains under debate. Therefore, we examined the direct interplay between tauopathy and amyloidopathy processes. We employed primary culture neurons and examined pathogenic P-tau and Aβ oligomers upon hypoxia treatment by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. We observed both tauopathy and amyloidopathy processes upon the hypoxia condition. We also applied Aβ or P-tau onto primary cultured neurons. We overexpressed P-tau in SH-SY5Y cells and found Aβ accumulation. Furthermore, adult male rats received Aβ or pathogenic P-tau in the dorsal hippocampus and were examined for 8 weeks. Learning and memory performance, as well as anxiety behaviors, were assessed by Morris water maze and elevated plus-maze tests. Both Aβ and pathogenic P-tau significantly induced learning and memory deficits and enhanced anxiety behavior after treatment 2 weeks. Aβ administration induced robust tauopathy distribution in the cortex, striatum, and corpus callosum as well as CA1. On the other hand, P-tau treatment developed Aβ oligomers in the cortex and CA1 only. Our findings indicate that Aβ and pathogenic P-tau may induce each other and cause almost identical neurotoxicity in a time-dependent manner, while tauopathy seems to be more distributable than amyloidopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-020-00906-2DOI Listing
July 2020

The blockade of D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors within the dentate gyrus attenuates food deprivation stress-induced reinstatement of morphine-extinguished conditioned place preference in rats.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2020 09 15;196:172967. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The high rate of relapse to drug abuse is one of the main problems in the treatment of addiction. Stress plays an essential role in relapsing to drug abuse. The present study investigates the role of D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus on the reinstatement of morphine (5 mg/kg)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) both by food deprivation stress (FDS) and a sub-threshold dose of morphine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). All the animals in this study experienced pre-test, conditioning, post-test (expression), extinction, and reinstatement phases. The CPP scores of the pre-test and post-test were compared between the groups, and a significant difference between the CPP scores of the pre- and post-test was the criterion for the induction of CPP. Extinction continued for each animal until the calculated score for two consecutive days became the same as the pre-test score. The animals received different doses of SCH-23390 or Sulpiride (0.25, 1 and 4 μg/0.5 μl vehicle), as D1- and D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists, into the DG. After the administration of the antagonists, the animals were deprived of food for 24 h. Then, on the reinstatement day, they received a sub-threshold dose of morphine and afterwards, the conditioning scores were measured. The results demonstrated that the effective doses 50% of SCH-23390 and Sulpiride on the reinstatement induced by FDS and morphine was 1.37 and 2.28 (μg/0.5 μl vehicle per side), respectively. The results also showed that both antagonists can lead to a decrease in morphine reinstatement, and this effect was in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, these results indicate that D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors in the DG may be a potential target for preventing relapse to drugs in stressful life conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2020.172967DOI Listing
September 2020

Investigation of the Relationship Between Mandibular Morphology and Upper Airway Dimensions.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Jul-Aug;31(5):1353-1361

School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: In this study, the authors aimed to perform a novel and extensive analysis, based on the most applicable correlations between the mandibular and upper airway parameters, using cone beam computed tomography across all malocclusion classes. The authors also focused on gender-dependent differences in an Iranian population.

Materials And Methods: Images were acquired from adult patients using cone beam computed tomography. The patients were classified into three groups of malocclusion classes (class I: 13 males and 27 females, class II: 13 males and 27 females, and class III: 25 males and 15 females). For each patient, 10 parameters for the mandible and 23 parameters for the pharynx, pyriform aperture, and nasal cavity were evaluated in the images.

Results: Pearson's correlation coefficient showed significant correlations between the mandibular morphology and upper airway dimensions in each malocclusion class. In females, the menton angle had a significant correlation with pharyngeal dimensions in all malocclusion classes. In males, the bigonial width, bicondylar width, and symphyseal height of the mandible were correlated with pharyngeal dimensions in all classes. The greatest correlation between the mandible and upper airways was observed in class III malocclusions, and the lowest correlation was observed in class I malocclusions. In addition, the mandibular parameters had relationships with the nasal cavity and pyriform aperture.

Conclusion: It is important to consider the knowledge of the relationship between some characteristics of the mandible and airways in various clinical approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006341DOI Listing
October 2020

Hypoxia in solid tumors: a key promoter of cancer stem cell (CSC) resistance.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2020 Jan 16;146(1):19-31. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are highly tumorigenic cell types that reside within specific areas of tumor microenvironment (TME), and are endowed with self-renewal and resistance properties. Here, we aimed to discuss mechanisms involved in hypoxia-derived CSC resistance and targeting for effective cancer therapy.

Results: Preferential localization within hypoxic niches would help CSCs develop adaptive mechanisms, mediated through the modification of responses to various stressors and, as a result, show a more aggressive behavior.

Conclusion: Hypoxia, in fact, serves as a multi-tasking strategy to nurture CSCs with this adaptive capacity, complexing targeted therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-019-03080-1DOI Listing
January 2020

Involvement of orexin receptors within the hippocampal dentate gyrus in morphine-induced reinstatement in food-deprived rats.

Behav Brain Res 2019 12 15;375:112155. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The orexinergic system is found to cooperate in mediating stress-induced drug relapse. The orexinergic terminals innervate neurons of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) which is a key structure in the maintenance and reinstatement of drug addiction. However, the specific contribution of intra-DG orexin receptors to stress-induced reinstatement has not been completely known. In the current study, the effects of intra-DG administration of SB334867, an orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) antagonist, and TCS OX2 29, an orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) antagonist, were investigated on the reinstatement induced by a sub-threshold dose of morphine and food deprivation (FD) stress. Adult male rats received different doses of SB334867 or TCS OX2 29 (3, 10, and 30 nM/0.5 μl DMSO 12%) bilaterally into the DG in separate groups, following the acquisition and extinction of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Then, the reinstatement was evaluated by the 24 h FD stress and/or a sub-threshold dose of morphine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). CPP scores and locomotor activities were recorded during the test. The findings indicated that pre-treatment with the highest dose of SB334867 (30 nM) and two higher doses of TCS OX2 29 (10 and 30 nM) blocked the sub-threshold dose and FD stress-induced reinstatement of morphine. The effect of TCS OX2 29 on reduction of reinstatement was more pronounced than that of SB334867. It suggests a role for the orexin receptors, especially OX2R within the DG region in the stress-induced reinstatement of morphine-seeking behaviours in extinguished rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2019.112155DOI Listing
December 2019

Cancer stem cell (a)symmetry & plasticity: Tumorigenesis and therapy relevance.

Life Sci 2019 Aug 31;231:116520. Epub 2019 May 31.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are self-renewal population localized within cancer niches and play critical roles in tumor initiation, recurrence and metastasis. Despite extensive research, challenges about identity of CSCs and combating them in cancer therapy still remain steady. Cellular plasticity is a cardinal feature of tumor microenvironment (TME) tremendously influencing tumor aggressive behavior. Plasticity and CSC a (symmetry) are interconnecting processes essential for shaping a cancer through nurturing a wide number of cells with tumor promoting capacities. The plastic nature of TME cellularity infers that destemming just CSCs is not sufficient in respect with therapy, especially for high-grade cancers-instead, deploying mechanisms to retard tumor type-dependent TME-CSC interplay is a suggested strategy for making a durable remission of cancer. This requires extending our understanding about CSC divisional profiling and plasticity in order to find critical drivers in cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.05.076DOI Listing
August 2019

The incidence of traumatic brain injury in Tehran, Iran.

Brain Inj 2018 6;32(4):487-492. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

d Anatomy Department, School of Medicine , Iran University of Medical sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Primary Objective: To assess the demographics, causes, treatment and outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Tehran, Iran.

Research Design And Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in a major trauma centre in south of Tehran using clinical data registry of 3818 traumatic patients who admitted to the hospital from 2009 to 2013. The main factors measured were the external cause of trauma, the type of TBI, and treatment outcome.

Main Outcomes And Results: The highest rate of TBIs occurred in age categories 21‒30 (31.5%), 31‒40 (19.2%) and 41‒50 (12.3%) years. Transport accidents were the most common cause of TBIs (2915 cases, 76.4%). The most frequent types of head injuries were subarachnoid (1676, 43.9%) subdural (1140, 29.8%), and epidural haemorrhage (974, 25.5%). A binomial logistic regression showed that mortality (612 patients, 16%) was significantly associated with the external cause of TBI, the type of main and additional head injuries, cervical spine injury, intra-abdominal organ injury, having a brain or abdominal surgery, and length of hospital stay.

Conclusion: The mechanism of TBI, the type of head injuries, and accompanying spine and abdominal injuries were significant prognostic factors in traumatic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699052.2018.1429658DOI Listing
May 2019

Effects of gamma rays on rat testis tissue according to the morphological parameters and immunohistochemistry: radioprotective role of silymarin.

Electron Physician 2017 Jun 25;9(6):4524-4532. Epub 2017 Jun 25.

Ph.D., Associate Professor of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

Objective: To determine the radioprotective effects of Silymarin in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats irradiated with γ-rays.

Methods: The present experimental study was performed in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran from December 2009 to March 2010. The study was performed on 40 rats, which were randomly and equally divided into four groups: 1) control group: neither received Silymarin nor irradiated with γ-rays; 2) γ-irradiation group: testis region exposed to 2Gy of γ-rays; 3) Silymarin & γ-irradiation: rats received 100 mg/kg of Silymarin 24hrs before exposure to 2Gy of γ-rays; 4) Silymarin & γ-irradiation: rats received 200 mg/kg of Silymarin 24hrs before exposure to 2Gy of γ-rays. After animal experiments and preparing the tissue sections, different histological and histomorphological parameters of seminiferous tubules and the biological characteristics of Leydig cells were evaluated applying quantitative assessment, Johnson scoring, and Leydig cell apoptosis assay by TUNEL method. The data were analyzed applying ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test, using SPSS software (V.19).

Results: Irradiation of 2 Gy γ-rays to the testis of the rats significantly affected the frequency of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, round spermatid, spermatozoa, seminiferous tube and lumen diameters, thickness of the epithelium, Leydig cell nuclear diameter and volume, epithelium height, and apoptotic cells (p<0.05). However, administration of Silymarin improved the mentioned parameters specifically in 200 mg/kg of dosage.

Conclusion: Silymarin could act as a potent radioprotector and it can be used in modulation as well as improvement to radiation therapy to prevent male reproductive function, specifically seminiferous tubules in an animal model; however, its molecular mechanism is still not clear and needs more molecular researches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/4524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5557131PMC
June 2017

Evaluation of the Effects of Photobiomodulation on Biomechanical Properties and Hounsfield Unit of Partial Osteotomy Healing in an Experimental Rat Model of Type I Diabetes and Osteoporosis.

Photomed Laser Surg 2017 Oct 22;35(10):520-529. Epub 2017 Feb 22.

5 Celluar and Molecular Biology Research Centre, and Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran .

Background: Pulsed wave (PW) lasers exhibit biostimulatory effects on fractures in healthy and diabetic animals.

Objective: This study aims to assess the effects of photobiomodulation on bone strength and Hounsfield unit (HU) for repair of a bone defect in an experimental rat model of type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) and osteoporosis (OP).

Methods: We divided 30 female rats into six groups of n = 5 per group: (1) ovariectomy (OVX) control, (2) OVX + PW laser and no TIDM, (3) OVX control + TIDM, (4) OVX + TIDM + PW laser, (5) OVX + TIDM + alendronate, and (6) OVX + TIDM + PW laser + alendronate. TIDM was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ). A partial osteotomy was made in the right tibia of each rat. We used an infrared laser (890 nm, 80 Hz, 1.5 J/cm) 3 times per week. At 30 days after surgery, the callus areas within the rats' tibias were submitted to computed tomography scanning followed by the three-point bending test.

Results: The PW laser + alendronate group had significantly increased HU and biomechanical properties of repairing bone defect in STZ + OVX rats compared with the control groups.

Conclusions: Combined treatment of PW laser and alendronate significantly enhanced bone repair in an experimental model rat of TIDM and OP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/pho.2016.4191DOI Listing
October 2017

The effects of pentoxifylline adminstration on fracture healing in a postmenopausal osteoporotic rat model.

Lab Anim Res 2017 Mar 27;33(1):15-23. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Centre, Department of Anatomical Sciences and Biology, Medical School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Previous studies report positive effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) alone or in combination with other drugs on some pathologic bone diseases as well as an ability to accelerate osteogensis and fracture healing in both animal models and human patients. The aim of this present study was to evaluate the effects of PTX administration on Hounsfield unit and bone strength at catabolic response (bone resorbing) of a fracture in an experimental rat model of ovariectomy induced osteoporosis (OVX-D). Thirty adult female rats were divided into groups as follows: 1 (OVX, control, no treatment); 2 (OVX, sham: daily distilled water); 3 (OVX, daily alendronate: 3 mg/kg); 4 (OVX, twice daily 100 mg/kg PTX) and 5 (OVX, PTX+alenderonate). OVX was induced by bilateral ovariectomy in all rats. A complete standardized osteotomy of the right femur was made after 3.5 months. PTX and alendronate treatments were performed for eight weeks. Then, rats were euthanized and had its right femur subjected to computerized tomography scanning for measuring Hounsfield unit; eventually, the samples were sent for a three point bending test for evaluation of the bone strength. Administration of PTX with 200 mg/kg and alendronate alone and in combination showed no significant alteration in Hounsfield unit and biomechanical properties of repairing callus of the complete osteotomy compared with the control group. Results showed increased bending stiffness and stress high load mean values of repairing complete osteotomy in PTX-treated rats compared to the control OVX-D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5625/lar.2017.33.1.15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5385278PMC
March 2017

Diagnostic Value of Serum Levels of GFAP, pNF-H, and NSE Compared With Clinical Findings in Severity Assessment of Human Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2015 Jul;40(14):E823-30

*Neuroscience Research Center and †Neurobiology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ‡Department of Emergency Medicine, Shohadye Haftom Tir Hospital, Tehran, Iran; and §Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; and ¶Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Study Design: An analytical cohort study.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate severity of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) based on the serum levels of phosphorylated form of heavy subunit of neurofilament (pNF-H), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which are axonal, neural cell body, and glial cell injury markers, respectively.

Summary Of Background Data: Prior studies have reported elevated serum levels of pNF-H, NSE, and GFAP as biomarkers for the detection of traumatic SCI in animals. However, in this study, these biomarkers were studied in humans and with an extended level of timing.

Methods: The study included 35 patients with SCI with a mean age of 36.5 years. All patients were evaluated using the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale, followed by examinations including radiography and spinal computed tomography for determining the injury level. Serum levels of NSE, pNF-H, and GFAP were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: The mean serum level of GFAP was significantly higher in patients with SCI than in the control group. Mean serum levels of pNF-H and NSE were significantly higher during 24 and 48 hours after injury in patients with SCI than in the control group. The serum level of GFAP was appropriate for estimating the severity of SCI in the first 24 hours after injury.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that increased serum levels of GFAP, NSE, and pNF-H can be used for the diagnosis and degree of SCI severity in trauma patients. During 48 hours after injury, estimation of serum levels of pNF-H, NSE, and GFAP, combined with neurological testing, could predict the presence of SCI and severity prior to spinal computed tomography and surgical or conservative interventions.

Level Of Evidence: 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000000654DOI Listing
July 2015

Platform presentations.

Authors:
Jaime Pereda Gen Niimi Jagat Mohini Kaul Sabita Mishra Babita Pangtey Daniele Peri Vincenza Cannella Giovanni Peri A Valentino Francesco Li Volsi Rosaria Lo Verde E Russo A Sciuto Annalisa Sunseri Giuseppe Modica Gianpiero Gravante Seok Ling Ong Matthew Metcalfe David Lloyd Ashley Dennison Veronica Macchi Andrea Porzionato Anna Parenti Raffaele De Caro Kawthar I F Al-Harmni Zohair I F Rahemo Hussain I A Al-Khan Vedat Bakan Gulen Demirpolat Mahmut Bozkurt Yakup Gumusalan Niyazi Acer Mehmet Demir Hulusi Taskoparan Akcan Akkaya Birdal Yildirim Mehmet Camurdanoglu Gul Guven Hilmi Ozden Sahin Kabay Cengiz Ustuner Dilek Burukoglu Derya Ustuner Irfan Degirmenci Fahrettin Akyuz Neslihan Tekin Fulya Kucuk Firdevs Gurer M Cengiz Ustuner Davut Ozbag Mesut Ozkaya Harun Ciralik Fatma Inanc Tolun Fatih Yuzbasioglu Seda Arslan Ghazaleh Moshkdanian Fatemeh Pouya Amirmahdi Nematollahi-Mahani Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani Ralph Ger Jeremy Nikfarjam Kathy Dooley Shuwei Liu Zhenping Li Xiangtao Lin Haiwei Meng Cheng Liu Lei Feng Min Suk Chung Dong Sun Shin Eric Havet Anne-Claire Dujardin Fabrice Duparc Pierre Freger Anitha Oommen Christoph Stosch Jürgen Koebke Stefan Herzig Adam Jqbal Paul Gazzani Tim Rattay Birgit Fruhstorfer Anil Vohrah Richard M Wellings Stephen Brydges Gregory R Smith Jamie Roebuck Peter H Abrahams Vaclav Baca Michal Otcenasek Filip Svatos Tereza Smrzova Robert Grill David Kachlik Jan Skubal Valer Dzupa Alena Doubkova Ivo Klepacek Josef Stingl Muddathir Ali Yahya Bedir Günther Weber Karim Malek Amos Patrick Brent Rochambeau Phil Knickelbein Da-Yae Choi Mi-Sun Hur Kwan-Hyun Youn Kyung-Seok Hu Hee-Jin Kim Fadullah Aksoy Yavuz Selim Yildirim Orhan Ozturan Hurtan Acar Hasan Demirhan Bayram Veyseller Jean Michel Prades Andrei Timoshenko Alexander Asanau Marie Gavid Christian Martin Benoit Ayestaray Isabelle Auquit-Auckbur Pierre-Yves Millez Burcu Ercakmak Alp Bayramoglu Hakan Ozsoy Deniz Demiryurek Eray Tuccar Keiichi Akita Kumiko Yamaguchi Atsuo Kato Tomoyuki 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Celik Ruhgun Basar Serpil Cilingiroglu Cemal Ozbakir Kenan Kose Suleyman Tuna Karahan Gulnur Ozguner Osman Sulak Irwin Best Radovan Turyna Ismail Malkoc Huseyin Karagoz Bilal Firat Alp Cemal Gundogdu Samih Diyarbakir Firas Ghazi Panagiotis Karanis Sayee Rajangam Preetha Tilak Rema Devi Bita Seifi Naeem Earfani Majd Mehran Dorstghol Negar Niakan Behpour Yousefi Nooshin Bromand Saeed Haghighi Majid Malekzadeh Shafaroudi Craig Daly John Chris McGrath Reza Ahadi Mehrdad Bakhtiary Mohammad Taghi Joghataei Mehdi Mehdizadeh Samideh Khoei Mohsen Marzban Parvin Salehinejad Zahra Torshizi Maryam Mohit Nourjahan Banou Alithan Ali Adulmanaf Omar Abdulrahman Seyed Adel Moallem Bibi Ezzat Hosseini Mohammad Afshar Mohammad Mehdi Hasanzadeh Taheri Javad Hami Mohammad Hossein Davari Saeid Kalbasi Noroz Najafzade Malihe Nobakht Manoochehr Safari Sara Asalgoo Nahid Rahbar Roshandel Mohamad Taghi Joghataeei Mehrdad Bakhtiari Farid Safar Negin Salamat Naeem Alboghobeish Mahmood Hashemitabar Mehrzad Mesbah Ewa Biegaj Tymon Skadorwa Robert Kapolka Bogdan Ciszek Maria Piagkou Giannoulis Piagkos Vassiliki Kouki Aikaterini Stergios Douvetzemis Panagiotis Skandalakis Sophia Anagnostopoulou Mohamed Rashid Haffajee Mohamed Adoobaker Ebrahim J W Smith Peter Osmotherly Darren Rivett Susan Mercer Bin Yue Dai-Soon Kwak Yong-Seok Nam Je-Hun Lee U-Young Lee Xiaochun An Mi-Sun Lee Seung-Ho Han Ahmet Songur Olcay Eser Ozan Alkoc Muhsin Toktas Veli Caglar Tuncay Kaner Mehmet Tugrul Yilmaz Serter Gumus Isinman Ilknur Uysal Yahya Paksoy Mahinur Ulusoy Mehmet Bulent Balioglu Koray Savran Gazi Zorer Hitomi Fujishiro Takeshi Muneta Kenji Sato Joël Vernois Patrice Mertl Bo Sun Ge Haitao Tang Yuchun Zhonghe Zhang Gaojun Teng Hequn Geng Taifei Yu Umit S Sehirli Ural Verimli Emel Ulupinar Ferruh Yucel Lia Neto Edson Oliveira Daniel Neto Hugo Martins Inácio Reis Francisco Correia António Goncalves Ferreira Joana Regala Paula Fernandes Joana Teixeira G Nilufer Yonguc M Bulent Ozdemir Vural Kucukatay Melike Sahiner Raziye Kursunluoglu Esat Adiguzel Ilgaz Akdogan Yusuf Yilmaz Melek Bor Kucukatay Gulten Erken M Ayberk Kurt Ilker M Kafa Murat Uysal Sinan Bakirci Suraj Prakash Mahindra Kumar Anand Meena Verma Mohsen Basiri Ronald Doucette Yuchun Tang Lingzhong Fan Mehmet Dumlu Aydin Canan Atalay Sare Altas Ednan Bayram Bunyami Unal Sahin Asian Georg Feigl Friedrich Anderhuber Rainer Rienmuller Jean Phillippe Guyot Jean H D Fasel Izabel Kos Oguz Aslan Ozen Mustafa Sarsilmaz Gunnar Grant Mohammad Reza Nourani Zahra Jamali Hamid Reza Taghipour Yuji Owada Mohammad Ali Khalili Ben R Clower Morteza Anvari Fatemeh Sadeghian Farzaneh Fesahat Seyd Mohsen Miresmaili Bagher Pourheydar Mohammad Taghi Joghataeei Vahid Pirhajati Abolfazl Faghihi Fereshteh Mehraeen S Saeed Seyed Jafari Abbas Aliaghaei S Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani Vahid Sheibani Majid Asadi Gholam Reza Kaka Taki Tiraihi Karol Budohoski Jacek Kunicki Ulrike Pilsl Can Pelin Baris Ozener Ayla Kurkcuoglu Ragiba Zagyapan Anna Zurada Jerzy Gielecki Hakan Ay Bruno Grignon Frederic Walter Toufik Batch Horatiu Varlam Iulian Iopincariu Mehdi Benkhadra Francois Lenfant Pierre Trouilloud Manuel Kastner Likar Rudolf

Surg Radiol Anat 2009 Sep;31 Suppl 1:49-93

Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt, Austria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03371485DOI Listing
September 2009