Publications by authors named "Reza A"

150 Publications

Single variable defined technology control of the optical properties in MoS films with controlled number of 2D-layers.

Nanotechnology 2020 Jan 24;31(2):025602. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Physical Technologies, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Sauletekio av. 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania.

Fabrication of practical devices based on the transient metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) can be successively extended to various areas of the applications if the large area growth technology can be intentionally controlled and the characteristics of the layers can be easily predicted. In present work we presented the principles of the technology control based on the single key variable that can be directly related to the sequence of the technological processes. The atomically thin MoS layers were used as a model material and the layers were obtained by the CVD synthesis of the molybdenum precursor. Our thorough study demonstrated that the method allowed to deliberately choose the number of the MoS two-dimensional (2D)-layers between 1 and 10 by simply choosing the precursor deposition time. The optical properties of the layers were characterised by the optical transitions that corresponded to the known band structure of the MoS layers. Fused calibration diagram was proposed as the practical tool for the technology control and it was proved to be highly successive in relating the 2D-properties of the films with the initial stage of the fabrication technology. The method can be adapted to the wafer size TMDs growth on the diverse substrates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab4753DOI Listing
January 2020

Anti- antibodies attach to mouse cancer cell lines but not normal mouse lymphocytes.

Biomed Rep 2019 Mar 17;10(3):183-188. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8179498861, Iran.

is prevalent intracellular parasite and a cause of worldwide infection in the human population. An inhibitory effect of this parasite on cancer growth has been demonstrated in cell culture and animal models. To determine whether the anticancer activities of are associated with host immune response, in the current study the reactivity of anti- antiserum with the surface of cancer cell lines was investigated. Anti- antibodies were raised in rabbit and the reaction of this antiserum in comparison with other anti-parasite antisera (anti-, anti-hydatid cyst fluid, anti-protoscolices antigens) with mouse melanoma or breast cancer cells lines was investigated using flow cytometry. Anti- antiserum reacted markedly with the surface of mouse melanoma and breast cancer cells, and less so with the normal mouse spleen lymphocytes. Meanwhile, the other anti-parasite antisera did not react strongly with the surface of cancer cells compared with normal mouse spleen lymphocytes. In summary, it has been demonstrated herein that anti- antiserum may selectively react with the surface of mouse cancer cells but not with normal mouse spleen lymphocytes. Therefore, further study on anti- antibodies may be useful for directing the application of selective drug delivery in cancer treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/br.2019.1186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403471PMC
March 2019

Combined effects of climate change and sea-level rise project dramatic habitat loss of the globally endangered Bengal tiger in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

Sci Total Environ 2019 May 30;663:830-840. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science, College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4878, Australia.

The Sundarbans, in southern coastal Bangladesh, is the world's largest surviving mangrove habitat and the last stronghold of tiger adapted to living in a mangrove ecosystem. Using MaxEnt (maximum entropy modeling), current distribution data, land-use/land cover and bioclimatic variables, we modeled the likely future distribution of the globally endangered Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. We used two climatic scenarios (i.e., RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide projections of suitable habitats of Bengal tigers in 2050 and 2070. We also combined projected sea-level rise for the area in our models of future species distributions. Our results suggest that there will be a dramatic decline in suitable Bengal tiger habitats in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. Other than various aspects of local climate, sea-level rise is projected to have a substantial negative impact on Bengal tiger habitats in this low-lying area. Our model predicts that due to the combined effect of climate change and sea-level rise, there will be no suitable Bengal tiger habitat remaining in the Sundarbans by 2070. Enhancing terrestrial protected area coverage, regular monitoring, law enforcement, awareness-building among local residents among the key strategies needed to ensure long-term survival and conservation of the Bengal tiger in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.383DOI Listing
May 2019

Equity and determinants of routine child immunisation programme among tribal and non-tribal populations in rural Tangail subdistrict, Bangladesh: a cohort study.

BMJ Open 2018 10 24;8(10):e022634. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Health System and Population Studies Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objectives: The study estimated valid vaccination coverage of under 5 children in a rural area under Tangail subdistrict and examined their sociodemographic correlates including ethnicity.

Setting: The study sites are three primary areas where tribal and non-tribal population resides together in a rural subdistrict of Bangladesh.

Participants: Routine vaccination information of a cohort of 2802 children, born between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012, were retrieved from the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) registers maintained by the health assistants. Collected data were entered in an Oracle-based computer program. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed in SPSS V.20 to explore coverage and differentials for full valid vaccination coverage in the study area.

Results: Valid vaccination coverage was 90.6% among tribal population and 87.3% among non-tribal population(p=0.25). Compared with females, males had higher valid vaccination coverage (89.2% vs 85.9%) and lower invalid (5.4% vs 6.9%) and no-coverage (5.3% vs 7.3%) (p=0.03). Households with mobile phones had higher valid coverage (90.9% vs 86.5%) and lower invalid (4.5% vs 6.7%) and no coverage (4.5% vs 6.9%) compared with those without mobile phones (p=0.01). Coverage of valid vaccination was higher among children of Oronkhola union than in children of the other two unions.

Conclusion: The study documented that valid vaccination coverage was high in this rural area, and there was no significant ethnic variation which was one of the strengths of the national EPI. However, there is significant variation by gender of the child, household ownership of mobile phones and geographical location of households.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6224713PMC
October 2018

Roles of microRNAs in mammalian reproduction: from the commitment of germ cells to peri-implantation embryos.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2019 04 27;94(2):415-438. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Humanized Pig Research Centre (SRC), Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701, Republic of Korea.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are active regulators of numerous biological and physiological processes including most of the events of mammalian reproduction. Understanding the biological functions of miRNAs in the context of mammalian reproduction will allow a better and comparative understanding of fertility and sterility in male and female mammals. Herein, we summarize recent progress in miRNA-mediated regulation of mammalian reproduction and highlight the significance of miRNAs in different aspects of mammalian reproduction including the biogenesis of germ cells, the functionality of reproductive organs, and the development of early embryos. Furthermore, we focus on the gene expression regulatory feedback loops involving hormones and miRNA expression to increase our understanding of germ cell commitment and the functioning of reproductive organs. Finally, we discuss the influence of miRNAs on male and female reproductive failure, and provide perspectives for future studies on this topic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7379200PMC
April 2019

Development of self-assembled nanocrystalline cellulose as a promising practical adsorbent for methylene blue removal.

Carbohydr Polym 2018 Nov 5;199:92-101. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Chemical Engineering Discipline, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

This study is focused on nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) flakes for methylene blue (MB) removal via adsorption. NCC flakes exhibit a high adsorption capacity (188.7 mg/g fixed at 0.7 g/L adsorbent dosage, 25 °C and pH 6) compared to other nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotube and other cellulosic materials, such as coffee husks. Unlike NCC powder, it was observed that NCC flakes can be easily separated from wastewater containing MB. Further adsorption studies were conducted on NCC flakes, and it was found that 0.7 g/L was the optimum adsorbent dosage, which fitted well with the Langmuir Isotherm. The mean free energy value from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was less than 8 kJ/mol. ΔG values at different temperatures were within the -20 kJ/mol to 0 kJ/mol range. In conclusion, NCC flakes is a promising and practical 'green' nanomaterial that can be further developed for industrial applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.07.006DOI Listing
November 2018

Zadoff-Chu sequence-based upstream ranging in OFDMA-PON mobile radio access networks.

Opt Express 2018 Jun;26(13):17662-17668

Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) uplink in a passive optical network (PON) requires the delay alignment for OFDMA symbols from remotely distributed optical network units (ONUs). In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate and analyze the performance of a Zadoff-Chu (ZC) sequence-based upstream ranging scheme in an intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD)-based OFDMA-PON. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme can achieve upstream synchronization with only marginal inter-carrier interference (ICI) and requires no additional bandwidths in a typical OFDMA transmission with cyclic prefix (CP).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.017662DOI Listing
June 2018

Rare cause for a common presentation: isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis yet another mimicker.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jul 18;2018. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Department of Medicine, The Townsville Hospital, Townsville, Australia.

Isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis (PVE) is a rare condition. Known risk factors in previous case reports were intravenous drug abuse and congenital heart disease. Epidemiology of PVE has been changing. It is now being reported specially following invasive healthcare-related procedures even in patients with structurally normal heart. Vast majority of patients present with respiratory symptoms and diagnosis of endocarditis may be challenging unless there is high index of suspicion. Various microorganisms had been isolated as aetiological agents; however, is being increasingly isolated. PVE mostly managed conservatively with intravenous antibiotics with option for surgical intervention in specific situations. We present a patient with isolated PVE due to following colonoscopy and polypectomy with predisposing risk factor of alcohol excess, mimicking clinically as pneumonia and radiologically as a neoplastic lesion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-224703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6058097PMC
July 2018

MicroRNA and Transcriptomic Profiling Showed miRNA-Dependent Impairment of Systemic Regulation and Synthesis of Biomolecules in Rag2 KO Mice.

Molecules 2018 Feb 27;23(3). Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Humanized Pig Research Centre (SRC), Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea.

The knockout (KO) mouse is a well-established immune-compromised animal model for biomedical research. A comparative study identified the deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in KO mice. However, the interaction between deregulated genes and miRNAs in the alteration of systemic (cardiac, renal, hepatic, nervous, and hematopoietic) regulations and the synthesis of biomolecules (such as l-tryptophan, serotonin, melatonin, dopamine, alcohol, noradrenaline, putrescine, and acetate) are unclear. In this study, we analyzed both miRNA and mRNA expression microarray data from KO and wild type mice to investigate the possible role of miRNAs in systemic regulation and biomolecule synthesis. A notable finding obtained from this analysis is that the upregulation of several genes which are target molecules of the downregulated miRNAs in KO mice, can potentially trigger the degradation of l-tryptophan, thereby leading to the systemic impairment and alteration of biomolecules synthesis as well as changes in behavioral patterns (such as stress and fear responses, and social recognition memory) in gene-depleted mice. These findings were either not observed or not explicitly described in other published KO transcriptome analyses. In conclusion, we have provided an indication of miRNA-dependent regulations of clinical and pathological conditions in cardiac, renal, hepatic, nervous, and hematopoietic systems in KO mice. These results may significantly contribute to the prediction of clinical disease caused by deficiency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6017002PMC
February 2018

The incidence of traumatic brain injury in Tehran, Iran.

Brain Inj 2018 6;32(4):487-492. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

d Anatomy Department, School of Medicine , Iran University of Medical sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Primary Objective: To assess the demographics, causes, treatment and outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Tehran, Iran.

Research Design And Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in a major trauma centre in south of Tehran using clinical data registry of 3818 traumatic patients who admitted to the hospital from 2009 to 2013. The main factors measured were the external cause of trauma, the type of TBI, and treatment outcome.

Main Outcomes And Results: The highest rate of TBIs occurred in age categories 21‒30 (31.5%), 31‒40 (19.2%) and 41‒50 (12.3%) years. Transport accidents were the most common cause of TBIs (2915 cases, 76.4%). The most frequent types of head injuries were subarachnoid (1676, 43.9%) subdural (1140, 29.8%), and epidural haemorrhage (974, 25.5%). A binomial logistic regression showed that mortality (612 patients, 16%) was significantly associated with the external cause of TBI, the type of main and additional head injuries, cervical spine injury, intra-abdominal organ injury, having a brain or abdominal surgery, and length of hospital stay.

Conclusion: The mechanism of TBI, the type of head injuries, and accompanying spine and abdominal injuries were significant prognostic factors in traumatic patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699052.2018.1429658DOI Listing
May 2019

Microarray profiling of miRNA and mRNA expression in Rag2 knockout and wild-type mouse spleens.

Sci Data 2018 01 9;5:170199. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Humanized Pig Research Center (SRC), Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Republic of Korea.

The Rag2 knockout (KO) mouse is one of the most popular immune compromised animal models used in biomedical research. The immune compromised state concurrently alters many signalling pathways and molecules, including miRNAs and mRNA transcripts that are involved in important biological processes. In addition, miRNAs and transcripts are interdependent, often forming a feedback loop; dysregulation in one might alter the expression of the other, and both participate in many physiological processes including immune regulation. Here, we describe a comprehensive dataset containing alterations in the expression of both miRNAs and mRNAs in Rag2 KO mice compared to their wild type counterparts. The miRNA and mRNA expression profiles were generated from total RNA using a miRNA expression microarray or a BeadChip microarray, respectively. Hence, this dataset will provide the groundwork for a comparative study of the miRNAs and mRNAs that are dysregulated in Rag2 KO mice. It is hoped that the data will illuminate how miRNAs mediate immune regulation, as well as the interaction between miRNAs and mRNAs in Rag2 KO mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5759371PMC
January 2018

Evaluation of morning glory (Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb) leaves for antioxidant, antinociceptive, anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2018 Jun;29(3):291-299

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Background: The present study was planned to investigate the phytochemical, antioxidant, antinociceptive, anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities of the Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb leaf methanol extract (MExJT) in the laboratory using both in vitro and in vivo methods.

Methods: Phytochemical values, namely, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and FeCl3 reducing power effects, were studied by established methods. In vivo antinociceptive activity was performed by acidic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced pain test on Swiss albino mice at doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. The clot lysis and brine shrimp lethality bioassay in vitro were used to evaluate the thrombolytic and cytotoxic activities of the plant extract, respectively.

Results: Phytochemical screening illustrates the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, gums and carbohydrates, steroids, alkaloids and reducing sugars in the extract. The results showed the total phenolic content (146.33 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g extract) and total flavonoid content (133.33 g quercetin/100 g). Significant (p<0.05) IC50 values compared to respective standards were recorded in DPPH radical scavenging (289.5 μg/mL) and FeCl3 reduction (245.2 μg/mL). The antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced pain models in Swiss albino mice with doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Significant (p<0.05) inhibition (72.87±2.73%) of writhing response compared to diclofenac sodium was achieved by 500 mg/kg body weight. The extract also significantly inhibited the licking response in both the early phase (51.59±1.57%, p<0.05) and the late phase (64.82±1.87%, p<0.05) in the formalin-induced writhing test. MExJT also showed (38.10±1.79%) clot lytic activity in the thrombolytic test and cytotoxicity with an LC50 value of 31.70 μg/mL in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.

Conclusions: The plant is a potential source of antioxidants and might have one or more secondary metabolite(s) with central and peripheral analgesic activity. The results also demonstrate that MExJT has moderate thrombolytic and lower cytotoxic properties that may warrant further exploration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2017-0042DOI Listing
June 2018

The experience of violence against children in domestic servitude in Haiti: Results from the Violence Against Children Survey, Haiti 2012.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 02 4;76:184-193. Epub 2017 Nov 4.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Global Health Division of Global HIV/AIDS Haiti, U.S. Embassy Tabarre, PO Box 1634, Haiti. Electronic address:

Background: There have been estimates that over 150,000 Haitian children are living in servitude. Child domestic servants who perform unpaid labor are referred to as "restavèks." Restavèks are often stigmatized, prohibited from attending school, and isolated from family placing them at higher risk for experiencing violence. In the absence of national data on the experiences of restavèks in Haiti, the study objective was to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of restavèks in Haiti and to assess their experiences of violence in childhood.

Methods: The Violence Against Children Survey was a nationally representative, cross-sectional household survey of 13-24year olds (n=2916) conducted May-June 2012 in Haiti. A stratified three-stage cluster design was used to sample households and camps containing persons displaced by the 2010 earthquake. Respondents were interviewed to assess lifetime prevalence of physical, emotional, and sexual violence occurring before age 18. Chi-squared tests were used to assess the association between having been a restavèk and experiencing violence in childhood.

Findings: In this study 17.4% of females and 12.2% of males reported having been restavèks before age 18. Restavèks were more likely to have worked in childhood, have never attended school, and to have come from a household that did not have enough money for food in childhood. Females who had been restavèks in childhood had higher odds of reporting childhood physical (OR 2.04 [1.40-2.97]); emotional (OR 2.41 [1.80-3.23]); and sexual violence (OR 1.86 [95% CI 1.34-2.58]) compared to females who had never been restavèks. Similarly, males who had ever been restavèks in childhood had significantly increased odds of emotional violence (OR 3.06 [1.99-4.70]) and sexual violence (OR 1.85 [1.12-3.07]) compared to males who had never been restavèks, but there was no difference in childhood physical violence.

Interpretation: This study demonstrates that child domestic servants in Haiti experience higher rates of childhood violence and have less access to education and financial resources than other Haitian children. These findings highlight the importance of addressing both the lack of human rights law enforcement and the poor economic circumstances that allow the practice of restavèk to continue in Haiti.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.10.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016389PMC
February 2018

Recombination activating gene-2 severe combined immunodeficient pigs and mice engraft human induced pluripotent stem cells differently.

Oncotarget 2017 Sep 2;8(41):69398-69407. Epub 2017 Sep 2.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Humanized Pig Research Center (SRC), Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

This study comparatively investigated the transcriptional, physiological, and phenotypic differences of the immune disorder between severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse and pig models. We discovered that the recombination activating gene-2 () SCID mice, but not SCID pigs, showed intense, infrequent, and mild cluster of CD3-, CD4-, and CD8 signals respectively, suggesting that distinct species-specific effects exist. Furthermore, the expression of six relevant genes (, , , , , and was more downregulated than that in the SCID mice, which provides a partial rationale for the death of T/B cells in the lymphoid organs of SCID pigs but not in SCID mice. Further, NK cell maturation-related gene expression was significantly lower in SCID pigs than in SCID mice. Consistently, the SCID pigs, but not SCID mice, developed human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived teratomas that were the same as those of / SCID mice. Therefore, these unexpected findings indicate the superiority of SCID pigs over SCID mice as a suitable model for investigating human diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.20626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5642487PMC
September 2017

FPGA implementation of real-time SENSE reconstruction using pre-scan and Emaps sensitivities.

Magn Reson Imaging 2017 12 30;44:82-91. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Sensitivity Encoding (SENSE) is a widely used technique in Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to reduce scan time. Reconfigurable hardware based architecture for SENSE can potentially provide image reconstruction with much less computation time. Application specific hardware platform for SENSE may dramatically increase the power efficiency of the system and can decrease the execution time to obtain MR images. A new implementation of SENSE on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is presented in this study, which provides real-time SENSE reconstruction right on the receiver coil data acquisition system with no need to transfer the raw data to the MRI server, thereby minimizing the transmission noise and memory usage. The proposed SENSE architecture can reconstruct MR images using receiver coil sensitivity maps obtained using pre-scan and eigenvector (E-maps) methods. The results show that the proposed system consumes remarkably less computation time for SENSE reconstruction, i.e., 0.164ms @ 200MHz, while maintaining the quality of the reconstructed images with good mean SNR (29+ dB), less RMSE (<5×10) and comparable artefact power (<9×10) to conventional SENSE reconstruction. A comparison of the center line profiles of the reconstructed and reference images also indicates a good quality of the reconstructed images. Furthermore, the results indicate that the proposed architectural design can prove to be a significant tool for SENSE reconstruction in modern MRI scanners and its low power consumption feature can be remarkable for portable MRI scanners.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2017.08.005DOI Listing
December 2017

Nanoceria-mediated delivery of doxorubicin enhances the anti-tumour efficiency in ovarian cancer cells via apoptosis.

Sci Rep 2017 08 25;7(1):9513. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Humanized Pig Research Center (SRC), Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701, South Korea.

Nanocarriers are widely used for effective delivery of anticancer drugs to tumours with potential to improve cancer treatment. Here, we developed a nanoceria (CeO)-based system for delivery of the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) to human ovarian cancer cells. Negatively charged nanoceria could conjugate with the cationic DOX via electrostatic interaction under physiological conditions, forming DOX-loaded nanoceria (CeO/DOX). CeO/DOX particles displayed nearly spherical shapes, along with superior drug-loading content (22.41%), loading efficiency (99.51%), and higher cellular uptake and drug release behaviours compared to free DOX. Moreover, DOX was released faster from CeO/DOX under reductive acidic conditions (pH 5.0, 10 mM glutathione) than under physiological conditions (pH 7.4). The initial intracellular DOX concentration was higher in the free DOX groups than in the CeO/DOX groups, but quickly reduced to 25% of the initial concentration after 24-h culture. By contrast, CeO/DOX showed sustained DOX release over time and maintained a high intracellular DOX concentration for up to 72 h. In vitro assays showed that CeO/DOX exhibited higher cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis compared with free DOX. These results highlight DOX-loaded nanoceria as a promising therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09876-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5572723PMC
August 2017

MicroRNA-7641 is a regulator of ribosomal proteins and a promising targeting factor to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy.

Sci Rep 2017 08 21;7(1):8365. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Humanized Pig Research Centre (SRC), Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701, Republic of Korea.

Many diseases, including myocardial infarction, autoimmune disease, viral diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancers, are frequently diagnosed with aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their allied pathways. This indicates the crucial role of miRNAs in maintaining biological and physiological processes. miR-7641 is a miRNA whose role in disease has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we investigated the expression pattern of miR-7641 and its target genes in different cancer cells, as well as in clinical cancer patients. Our data confirmed RPS16 and TNFSF10 as two direct targets of miR-7641, while gene expression study showed that a group of genes are also deregulated by miR-7641, including many ribosomal proteins that are frequently co-expressed with RPS16 in breast cancer. Direct inhibition of miR-7641 using a locked nucleic acid upregulated the expression of its target genes, sensitized cancer cells, and enhanced the efficiency of therapeutic agents such as doxorubicin. In addition, inhibition of miR-7641 boosted doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells via upregulation of apoptotic molecules Caspase 9 (CAS9) and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and downregulation of anti-apoptotic molecule BCL2. Thus, miR-7641 might be a clinically important cancer biomarker. Inhibition of miR-7641 expression could be an efficient treatment strategy for clinical patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-08737-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5566380PMC
August 2017

An in situ trap capacitance measurement and ion-trapping detection scheme for a Penning ion trap facility.

Rev Sci Instrum 2017 Mar;88(3):034705

Jadavpur University, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098, India.

This paper presents the design and implementation of an in situ measurement setup for the capacitance of a five electrode Penning ion trap (PIT) facility at room temperature. For implementing a high Q resonant circuit for the detection of trapped electrons/ions in a PIT, the value of the capacitance of the trap assembly is of prime importance. A tunable Colpitts oscillator followed by a unity gain buffer and a low pass filter is designed and successfully implemented for a two-fold purpose: in situ measurement of the trap capacitance when the electric and magnetic fields are turned off and also providing RF power at the desired frequency to the PIT for exciting the trapped ions and subsequent detection. The setup is tested for the in situ measurement of trap capacitance at room temperature and the results are found to comply with those obtained from measurements using a high Q parallel resonant circuit setup driven by a standard RF signal generator. The Colpitts oscillator is also tested successfully for supplying RF power to the high Q resonant circuit, which is required for the detection of trapped electrons/ions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4978799DOI Listing
March 2017

Effectiveness of Topical Corticosteroid, Topical Calcineurin Inhibitors and Combination of Them in the Treatment of Vitiligo.

Mymensingh Med J 2016 10;25(4):620-627

Dr Popy Roy, M. Phil (Thesis Part), Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Mymensingh Medical College (MMC), Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder which is disfiguring and difficult to treat. Cure and response rates for vitiligo are significantly lower. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of topical corticosteroid, topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus) and combination of them in the treatment of vitilligo in two tertiary care Hospital, in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology OPD (out patient department) in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital and Jahurul Islam Medical College Hospital, Bajitpur, Kishoregonj from January 2015 to December 2015. Newly diagnosed 112 vitiligo patients, aged more than 1 year to 70 years were assigned for therapy and to observe the response. This study indicates that, in case of vitiligo treatment topical tacrolimus was the most effective drug. Topical tacrolimus, topical corticosteroid and combination of them are to be effective in the treatment of vitiligo with reduction in the number of vitiliginous spots by increased repigmentation. But topical tacrolimus was the most effective drug, as it caused highest percentage of repigmentation of vitiliginous spot.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
October 2016

Human adipose mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomal-miRNAs are critical factors for inducing anti-proliferation signalling to A2780 and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells.

Sci Rep 2016 12 8;6:38498. Epub 2016 Dec 8.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Humanized Pig Research Centre (SRC), Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Republic of Korea.

An enigmatic question exists concerning the pro- or anti-cancer status of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Despite growing interest, this question remains unanswered, and the debate became intensified with new evidences backing each side. Here, we showed that human adipose MSC (hAMSC)-derived conditioned medium (CM) exhibited inhibitory effects on A2780 human ovarian cancer cells by blocking the cell cycle, and activating mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signalling. Explicitly, we demonstrated that exosomes, an important biological component of hAMSC-CM, could restrain proliferation, wound-repair and colony formation ability of A2780 and SKOV-3 cancer cells. Furthermore, hAMSC-CM-derived exosomes induced apoptosis signalling by upregulating different pro-apoptotic signalling molecules, such as BAX, CASP9, and CASP3, as well as downregulating the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2. More specifically, cancer cells exhibited reduced viability following fresh or protease-digested exosome treatment; however, treatment with RNase-digested exosomes could not inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. Additionally, sequencing of exosomal RNAs revealed a rich population of microRNAs (miRNAs), which exhibit anti-cancer activities by targeting different molecules associated with cancer survival. Our findings indicated that exosomal miRNAs are important players involved in the inhibitory influence of hAMSC-CM towards ovarian cancer cells. Therefore, we believe that these comprehensive results will provide advances concerning ovarian cancer research and treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep38498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5143979PMC
December 2016

A highly efficient method for enriching TALEN or CRISPR/Cas9-edited mutant cells.

J Genet Genomics 2016 12 1;43(12):705-708. Epub 2016 Nov 1.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Konkuk University, Neungdong-Ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2016.10.006DOI Listing
December 2016

Export of non-point source suspended sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus from sloping highland agricultural fields in the East Asian monsoon region.

Environ Monit Assess 2016 Dec 25;188(12):692. Epub 2016 Nov 25.

Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 24341, Republic of Korea.

Excess sediment and nutrient export from agricultural fields with steep slopes is a major concern linked to surface water quality in Korea. In this study, the export of suspended sediment (SS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) and their event mean concentrations (EMCs) in surface runoff from a highland mixed land use (61% forested, 30% cropped, 9% other) watershed were quantified. In 2007, the Korean Ministry of Environment (MoE) declared the study area as a priority region for non-point source (NPS) pollution management and initiated various best management practices (BMPs) in the study watershed. SS, TN, and TP concentrations in Mandae Stream were monitored for 5 years (2009-2013) to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs. Average EMCs for SS, TN, and TP were as high as 986, 3.4 and 0.8 mg/L, respectively. The agricultural export coefficients of agricultural land in the study watershed for SS, TN, and TP were 5611, 171, and 6.83 kg/ha/year, respectively. A comparison with results from other studies shows that both EMCs and agricultural export coefficients in the study watershed were much higher than most of the results reported for watersheds in other regions. The results show that sediment and nutrient export from intensive agriculture areas with steep slopes continue to be a major concern for the downstream reservoir, Lake Soyang. Remedial strategies should be directed towards controlling sources of SS, TN, and TP to improve downstream water quality in sloping highland agricultural areas in Korea.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5681-9DOI Listing
December 2016

Evaluation of cytotoxic, analgesic, antidiarrheal and phytochemical properties of Hygrophila spinosa (T. Anders) whole plant.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2017 Mar;28(2):185-190

Background: Synthetic drugs are going to be replaced by plant-derived traditional drugs due to their cost effectiveness, relatively less harmfulness, and efficacy against multidrug resistance organisms. Hygrophila spinosa (Acanthaceae) has been used in a wide range of ailments including flatulence, diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea, and menorrhagia. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxic, antinociceptive, and antidiarrheal effects of H. spinosa ethanol extract (EExHs).

Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was accomplished by established methods modified in experimental protocol. EExHs was undertaken for cytotoxic assay by Brine shrimp lethality bioassay, antinociceptive action by acetic acid induced writhing test, and antidiarrheal activity by castor oil induced antidiarrheal test. Data were analyzed by GraphPad Prism 6.0 software using Dunnett's test for multiple comparisons.

Results: Reducing sugar, steroid, glycoside, tannin, alkaloid, saponins, and flavonoids were found to be present in EExHs. Lethal concentration (LC50) of EExHs for brine shrimps was 50.59 µg/mL which was relatively lower than that of the standard drug vincristine sulfate. In acetic acid induced writhing test, oral administration of EExHs at three different doses (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) decreased writhing in dose-dependent manner while the highest dose (500 mg/kg) achieved the maximum percentages of pain inhibition (58.8%). Diclofenac sodium (25 mg/kg) was used as a reference antinociceptive drug. The antidiarrheal action of EExHs was not found to be very promising for further use; however, the pure compounds from EExHs could be analyzed to justify the effects.

Conclusions: This research demonstrates that the secondary metabolites guided cytotoxic and analgesic effects could be extensively studied in multiple models to confirm the effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2016-0103DOI Listing
March 2017

You know you're a medical student when . . .

Authors:
Aemun Reza

BMJ 2016 Sep 5;354:i3696. Epub 2016 Sep 5.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sbmj.i3696DOI Listing
September 2016

Same-site Trabeculectomy Revision for Failed Trabeculectomy: Outcomes and Risk Factors for Failure.

Am J Ophthalmol 2016 Oct 1;170:110-118. Epub 2016 Aug 1.

Glaucoma Division, Jules Stein Eye Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate long-term tonometric outcomes of same-site trabeculectomy revision with mitomycin C (MMC) after failure of an initial trabeculectomy, and to identify risk factors for failure in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Methods: One-hundred and seventeen patients (130 eyes) with primary open-angle, pseudoexfoliation, or pigmentary glaucoma, who failed a first trabeculectomy and who were ≥40 years of age at the time of same-site trabeculectomy revision, were included. Three levels of success criteria were defined: (A) intraocular pressure (IOP) ≤18 mm Hg and IOP reduction of 20%; (B) IOP ≤15 mm Hg and IOP reduction of 25%; and (C) IOP ≤12 mm Hg and IOP reduction of 30%. The primary outcome was the qualified Kaplan-Meier success rate (with or without medications) for each criterion. Cox multivariate regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for failure.

Results: The success rates (± standard error) at the first, third, and fifth years of follow-up for criterion A were 69.7% (± 4.1%), 58.2% (± 4.6%), and 51.1% (± 5.0%); for criterion B these were 60.9% (± 4.4%), 47.8% (± 4.7%), and 44.0 (± 4.8%); and for criterion C, 44.6% (± 4.5%), 29.7% (± 4.4%), and 25.8% (± 4.3%). Mean follow-up was 5.2 (± 3.6) years. A time interval between the first and the same-site trabeculectomy revision of <3 years, worse baseline visual acuity, and dyslipidemia were significant risk factors for failure.

Conclusions: Given the long-term tonometric success rates along with significant medication reduction, same-site trabeculectomy revision with MMC should be considered as a viable option to achieve reasonable IOP targets after a first failed trabeculectomy in open-angle glaucoma patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2016.07.018DOI Listing
October 2016

Anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, thrombolytic and cytotoxic activities of an ornamental medicinal plant: Persicaria orientalis.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2017 Jan;28(1):51-58

Background: Persicaria orientalis, an ornamental medicinal plant, has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Although the plant is reported to have some important pharmacological effects, many medicinal values remain unidentified. Our objective was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, thrombolytic, and cytotoxic properties of the methanol extract of P. orientalis leaves (Po-MeOH).

Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was measured by the inhibition of hypotonicity-induced human red blood cell hemolysis and albumin denaturation technique in vitro of Po-MeOH. Diarrheal episodes were examined in mice with castor oil-induced diarrhea. The clot lysis and brine shrimp lethality bioassay in vitro were used to evaluate the thrombolytic and cytotoxic activities of the plant extract, respectively.

Results: Using in vitro anti-inflammatory models, the results demonstrated that Po-MeOH at the five different dose ranges from 31.25 to 500 μg/mL significantly (p<0.05) protected (0.98%-50.71%) the erythrocyte membrane against lysis induced by hypotonic medium solution and protein denaturation (38.27%-79.22%) of bovine albumin, respectively. The extract exhibited a significant reduction of severity (75.17%) of castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice at the highest dose of 400 mg/kg compared to loperamide (82.06%) at 5 mg/kg. Po-MeOH also showed 33.14% clot lytic activity in the thrombolytic test and cytotoxicity with LC50 value 58.91 μg/mL in the brine shrimp bioassay.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that Po-MeOH has significant anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrheal effects along with moderate thrombolytic and lower cytotoxic properties that may warrant the further exploration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2016-0023DOI Listing
January 2017

Design of a MEMS-Based Oscillator Using 180nm CMOS Technology.

PLoS One 2016 8;11(7):e0158954. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Silterra Malaysia Sdn. Bhd.(368948-D), 47800 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

Micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS) based oscillators are revolutionizing the timing industry as a cost effective solution, enhanced with more features, superior performance and better reliability. The design of a sustaining amplifier was triggered primarily to replenish MEMS resonator's high motion losses due to the possibility of their 'system-on-chip' integrated circuit solution. The design of a sustaining amplifier observing high gain and adequate phase shift for an electrostatic clamp-clamp (C-C) beam MEMS resonator, involves the use of an 180nm CMOS process with an unloaded Q of 1000 in realizing a fixed frequency oscillator. A net 122dBΩ transimpedance gain with adequate phase shift has ensured 17.22MHz resonant frequency oscillation with a layout area consumption of 0.121 mm2 in the integrated chip solution, the sustaining amplifier draws 6.3mW with a respective phase noise of -84dBc/Hz at 1kHz offset is achieved within a noise floor of -103dBC/Hz. In this work, a comparison is drawn among similar design studies on the basis of a defined figure of merit (FOM). A low phase noise of 1kHz, high figure of merit and the smaller size of the chip has accredited to the design's applicability towards in the implementation of a clock generative integrated circuit. In addition to that, this complete silicon based MEMS oscillator in a monolithic solution has offered a cost effective solution for industrial or biomedical electronic applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0158954PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4938437PMC
July 2017

An improved model to predict bandwidth enhancement in an inductively tuned common source amplifier.

Rev Sci Instrum 2016 05;87(5):054710

Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India.

This paper presents an improved model for the prediction of bandwidth enhancement factor (BWEF) in an inductively tuned common source amplifier. In this model, we have included the effect of drain-source channel resistance of field effect transistor along with load inductance and output capacitance on BWEF of the amplifier. A frequency domain analysis of the model is performed and a closed-form expression is derived for BWEF of the amplifier. A prototype common source amplifier is designed and tested. The BWEF of amplifier is obtained from the measured frequency response as a function of drain current and load inductance. In the present work, we have clearly demonstrated that inclusion of drain-source channel resistance in the proposed model helps to estimate the BWEF, which is accurate to less than 5% as compared to the measured results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4950902DOI Listing
May 2016

Lymph Node Metastasis Status in Breast Carcinoma Can Be Predicted via Image Analysis of Tumor Histology.

Anal Quant Cytopathol Histpathol 2015 Oct;37(5):273-85

Objective: To develop a method whereby axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis can be predicted without ALN dissection, via computational image analysis of routinely acquired tumor histology.

Study Design: We employed digital image processing to stratify patients based on the histological attributes of the primary tumor. We extracted image features that capture the nuclear and architectural properties of the specimen. We then used a novel machine learning algorithm to transform image features into a scalar score that provided not only a metastasis prediction but also the certainty of classification.

Results: We applied this procedure to 101 patients with a ground truth established by histological examination of the lymph nodes and found that 68.3% of the cohort could be classified, exhibiting a correct prediction rate of 88.4%.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate a technique that potentially can be used to supplant existing surgical methods to determine ALN metastasis status, thereby reducing patient morbidity associated with over-treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
October 2015
-->