Publications by authors named "Reto J Strasser"

46 Publications

Salt stress effects on the photosynthetic electron transport chain in two chickpea lines differing in their salt stress tolerance.

Photosynth Res 2018 Jun 9;136(3):291-301. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

, Wesemlinstrasse 58, 6006, Lucerne, Switzerland.

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salt stress on the photosynthetic electron transport chain using two chickpea lines (Cicer arietinum L.) differing in their salt stress tolerance at the germination stage (AKN 87 and AKN 290). Two weeks after sowing, seedlings were exposed to salt stress for 2 weeks and irrigated with 200 ml of 200 mM NaCl every 2 days. The polyphasic OJIP fluorescence transient and the 820-nm transmission kinetics (photosystem I) were used to evaluate the effects of salt stress on the functionality of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. It was observed that a signature for salt stress was a combination of a higher J step (V), a smaller IP amplitude, and little or no effect on the primary quantum yield of PSII (φ). We observed for AKN 290 a shorter leaf life cycle, which may represent a mechanism to cope with salt stress. For severely salt-stressed leaves, an inhibition of electron flow between the PQ pool and P700 was found. The data also suggest that the properties of electron flow beyond PSI are affected by salt stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-017-0463-yDOI Listing
June 2018

Tree diversity affects chlorophyll a fluorescence and other leaf traits of tree species in a boreal forest.

Tree Physiol 2017 02;37(2):199-208

Department of Agri-Food Production and Environmental Science, University of Florence, Piazzale delle Cascine 28, 50144 Florence, Italy.

An assemblage of tree species with different crown properties creates heterogeneous environments at the canopy level. Changes of functional leaf traits are expected, especially those related to light interception and photosynthesis. Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) properties in dark-adapted leaves, specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen content (N) and carbon isotope composition (δ13C) were measured on Picea abies (L.) H.Karst., Pinus sylvestris L. and Betula pendula Roth. in monospecific and mixed boreal forests in Europe, in order to test whether they were affected by stand species richness and composition. Photosynthetic efficiency, assessed by induced emission of leaf ChlF, was positively influenced in B. pendula by species richness, whereas P. abies showed higher photosynthetic efficiency in monospecific stands. Pinus sylvestris had different responses when it coexisted with P. abies or B. pendula. The presence of B. pendula, but not of P. abies, in the forest had a positive effect on the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport and N in P. sylvestris needles, and the photosynthetic responses were positively correlated with an increase of leaf δ13C. These effects on P. sylvestris may be related to high light availability at the canopy level due to the less dense canopy of B. pendula. The different light requirements of coexisting species was the most important factor affecting the distribution of foliage in the canopy, driving the physiological responses of the mixed species. Future research directions claim to enhance the informative potential of the methods to analyse the responses of pure and mixed forests to environmental factors, including a broader set of plant species' functional traits and physiological responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpw132DOI Listing
February 2017

Does Parmelina tiliacea lichen photosystem II survive at liquid nitrogen temperatures?

Cryobiology 2017 02 14;74:160-162. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

Bioenergetics and Microbiology Laboratory, University of Geneva, CH-1254 Jussy-Geneva, Switzerland.

Parmelina tiliacea lichens kept in the wet and dry state were stored in liquid nitrogen for 1 week and the subsequent recovery of their photosynthetic apparatus was followed. The chlorophyll a fluorescence rise and the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry φ (F/F) were analysed for this purpose. Storage of wet thalli for 1 week in liquid nitrogen led to an impairment of photosystem II and probably the photosynthetic apparatus as a whole, from which the thalli did not recover over time. Thalli exposed in the dry state thalli were far less affected by the treatment and recovered well. These results indicate that the thalli are extremely tolerant to liquid nitrogen temperatures only in the dry state.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2016.12.005DOI Listing
February 2017

Differential heat sensitivity index in barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) monitored by chlorophyll a fluorescence OKJIP.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2016 Aug 9;105:102-108. Epub 2016 Apr 9.

University of Geneva, Bioenergetics and Microbiology Laboratory, CH-1254, Jussy-Geneva, Switzerland.

The objective of this study was to differentiate the heat tolerance in ten varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) originating from Morocco. Five modern varieties and five landraces (local varieties) collected at five different geographical localities in the south of Morocco were investigated in the present study. After two weeks of growth, detached leaves were short term exposure to various temperatures (25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 °C) for 10 min in the dark. Two chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters derived from chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OKJIP) (performance index (PIABS) and relative variable fluorescence at the K-step (VK)) were analysed. Heat treatment had a significant effect on the PIABS and VK at 45 °C treatment and the analysis of variance for PIABS and VK is highly significant between all varieties. The slope of the relationship between logPIABS and VK named heat sensitivity index (HSI) was used to evaluate the thermotolerance of photosystem II (PSII) between the studied barley varieties. According to this approach, barley varieties were screened and ranked for improving heat tolerance. HSI was found to be a new indicator with regard to distinguishing heat tolerance of different barley cultivars.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.04.015DOI Listing
August 2016

Effects of acute O3 stress on PSII and PSI photochemistry of sensitive and resistant snap bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), probed by prompt chlorophyll "a" fluorescence and 820 nm modulated reflectance.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2015 Dec 27;97:368-77. Epub 2015 Oct 27.

Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome, Italy.

The response of PSII and PSI photochemistry to acute ozone (O3) stress was tested in a "model plant system", namely the O3 sensitive (S156) and O3 resistant (R123) genotype pairs of Phaseolus vulgaris L., during a phenological phase of higher O3 sensitivity (pod formation). The modulation of the photosynthetic activity during O3 stress was analysed by measuring gas exchanges, Prompt Fluorescence (PF, JIP-test) and 820 nm Modulated Reflectance (MR), a novel techniques which specifically detects the changes in the redox state of P700 and plastocyanin. The results showed that, coherently with genotypic-specific O3 sensitivity, the response of the two snap bean genotypes differed for the intensity and time of onset of the considered physiological changes. In fact, despite leaf injury and gas exchanges reduction appeared concurrently in both genotypes, S156 showed a PSII down regulation already after the first day of fumigation (DOF), and an enhancement of Cyclic Electron Flow of PSI after the second DOF, whereas R123 showed only slight adjustments until the third DOF, when the activity of both photosystems was down-regulated. Despite these differences, it is possible to distinguish in both genotypes an early O3 response of the photochemical apparatus, involving PSII only, and a following response, in which PSI activity and content are also modulated. The measurement of the MR signal, performed simultaneously with the PF measurements and the JIP-test analysis, has allowed a better understanding of the role that PSI plays in the O3 stress response of the S156/R123 model plant system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2015.10.027DOI Listing
December 2015

Photochemical properties in flag leaves of a super-high-yielding hybrid rice and a traditional hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) probed by chlorophyll a fluorescence transient.

Photosynth Res 2015 Dec 14;126(2-3):275-84. Epub 2015 May 14.

Key Lab of Biodiversity and Biotechnology of Jiangsu Province, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210097, People's Republic of China.

Chlorophyll a fluorescence of flag leaves in a super-high-yielding hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) LYPJ, and a traditional hybrid rice SY63 cultivar with lower grain yield, which were grown in the field, were investigated from emergence through senescence of flag leaves. As the flag leaf matured, there was an increasing trend in photosynthetic parameters such as quantum efficiency of primary photochemistry ([Formula: see text] Po) and efficiency of electron transport from PS II to PS I (Ψ Eo). The overall photosynthetic performance index (PIABS) was significantly higher in the high-yielding LYPJ compared to SY63 during the entire reproductive stage of the plant, the same to MDA content. However, [Formula: see text] Po(=F V/F M), an indicator of the primary photochemistry of the flag leaf, did not display significant changes with leaf age and was not significantly different between the two cultivars, suggesting that PIABS is a more sensitive parameter than [Formula: see text] Po (=F V/F M) during leaf age for distinguishing between cultivars differing in yield.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-015-0151-8DOI Listing
December 2015

Plant stress analysis: application of prompt, delayed chlorophyll fluorescence and 820 nm modulated reflectance. Insights from independent experiments.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2014 Dec;85:105-13

Nine short-term independent studies were carried out with two M-PEA units on several plant species differing in their functional traits (woody evergreen, woody deciduous, herbaceous) and exposed to different kind of abiotic stress (drought, salt, ozone, UV radiation). Aim of the study is to check the consistency of plant responses, assessed through three sets of simultaneously measured signals: Prompt Fluorescence (PF), Delayed Fluorescence (DF) and Modulated Reflectance of 820 nm light (MR). The decrease of F(V)/F(M) and F0, the increase of V(J) and V(I) were the most common responses related to PF parameters.The decrease of vox and vred as well the increase of MR min were common response of MR. DF showed species-treatment specific behaviours. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) suggests that the combination of PF and MR parameters represents a powerful tool for plant stress phenotyping, whereas MR parameters are linked to physiological strategies, related to different functional groups, to cope with stress factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2014.11.002DOI Listing
December 2014

Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition: comparison with submerged leaves.

Photosynth Res 2015 Aug 1;125(1-2):305-19. Epub 2014 Nov 1.

Department of Environmental Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, India.

Investigations were carried to unravel mechanism(s) for higher tolerance of floating over submerged leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition. Chloroplasts from floating leaves showed ~5- and ~6.4-fold higher Photosystem (PS) I (reduced dichlorophenol-indophenol → methyl viologen → O2) and PS II (H2O → parabenzoquine) activities over those from submerged leaves. The saturating rate (V max) of PS II activity of chloroplasts from floating and submerged leaves reached at ~600 and ~230 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Photosynthetic electron transport rate in floating leaves was over 5-fold higher than in submerged leaves. Further, floating leaves, as compared to submerged leaves, showed higher F v/F m (variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence, a reflection of PS II efficiency), as well as a higher potential to withstand photoinhibitory damage by high light (1,200 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Cells of floating leaves had not only higher mitochondria to chloroplast ratio, but also showed many mitochondria in close vicinity of chloroplasts. Electron transport (NADH → O2; succinate → O2) in isolated mitochondria of floating leaves was sensitive to both cyanide (CN(-)) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), whereas those in submerged leaves were sensitive to CN(-), but virtually insensitive to SHAM, revealing the presence of alternative oxidase in mitochondria of floating, but not of submerged, leaves. Further, the potential of floating leaves to withstand photoinhibitory damage was significantly reduced in the presence of CN(-) and SHAM, individually and in combination. Our experimental results establish that floating leaves possess better photosynthetic efficiency and capacity to withstand photoinhibition compared to submerged leaves; and mitochondria play a pivotal role in protecting photosynthetic machinery of floating leaves against photoinhibition, most likely by oxidation of NAD(P)H and reduction of O2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-014-0051-3DOI Listing
August 2015

The energy flux theory 35 years later: formulations and applications.

Photosynth Res 2013 Nov 17;117(1-3):289-320. Epub 2013 Sep 17.

, Ath. Phylactou str., 3, 1100, Nicosia, Cyprus,

Several models have been proposed for the energetic behavior of the photosynthetic apparatus and a variety of experimental techniques are nowadays available to determine parameters that can quantify this behavior. The Energy Flux Theory (EFT) developed by Strasser 35 years ago provides a straightforward way to formulate any possible energetic communication between any complex arrangement of interconnected pigment systems and any energy transduction by these systems. We here revisit the EFT, starting from the basic general definitions and equations and presenting applications in formulating the energy distribution in photosystem (PS) II units with variable connectivity, as originally derived, where certain simplifications were adopted. We then proceed to the derivation of equations for a PSII model of higher complexity, which corresponds, from the formalistic point of view, to the later formulated and now broadly accepted exciton-radical-pair model. We also compare the formulations derived with the EFT with those obtained, by different approaches, in the classic papers on energetic connectivity. Moreover, we apply the EFT for the evaluation of the excitation energy distribution between PSII and PSI and the distinction between state transitions and PSII to PSI excitation energy migration. Our analysis demonstrates that the EFT is a powerful approach for the formulation of any possible model, at any complexity level, even of models that may be proposed in the future, with the advantage that any possible energetic communication or energy transduction can be easily formulated mathematically by trivial algebraic equations. Moreover, the biophysical parameters introduced by the EFT and applicable for any possible model can be linked with obtainable experimental signals, provided that the theoretical resolution of the model does not go beyond the experimental resolution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-013-9895-1DOI Listing
November 2013

Temperature effects on pea plants probed by simultaneous measurements of the kinetics of prompt fluorescence, delayed fluorescence and modulated 820 nm reflection.

PLoS One 2013 19;8(3):e59433. Epub 2013 Mar 19.

Bioenergetics Laboratory, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Simultaneous in vivo measurements of prompt fluorescence (PF), delayed fluorescence (DF) and 820-nm reflection (MR) were made to probe response of pea leaves to 40 s incubation at high temperatures (25-50°C). We interpret our observation to suggest that heat treatment provokes an inhibition of electron donation by the oxygen evolving complex. DF, in a time range from several microseconds to milliseconds, has been thought to reflect recombination, in the dark, between the reduced primary electron acceptor QA(-) and the oxidized donor (P680(+)) of photosystem II (PSII). The lower electron transport rate through PSII after 45 and 50°C incubation also changed DF induction. We observed a decrease in the amplitude of the DF curve and a change in its shape and in its decay. Acceleration of P700(+) and PC(+) re-reduction was induced by 45°C treatment but after 50°C its reduction was slower, indicating inhibition of photosystem I. We suggest that simultaneous PF, MR and DF might provide useful information on assessing the degree of plant tolerance to different environmental stresses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0059433PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3602342PMC
September 2013

Evaluation of abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic potato plants with reduced expression of PSII manganese stabilizing protein.

Plant Sci 2013 Jan 5;198:7-16. Epub 2012 Oct 5.

Department of Molecular Biotechnology, School of Life & Environmental Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Manganese stabilizing protein (MSP) is an important component of the Photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolving complex. In our previous work, transgenic potato plants with reduced expression of MSP (MSP-As) were developed and their physiological and biochemical responses were studied. In this report, we address the response of MSP-As plants toward salinity, heavy metal and osmotic stresses. MSP-As plants treated with NaCl, ZnCl(2) or mannitol solution showed significant level of tolerance under all the stress conditions. Specific enzyme activities of major ROS-scavenging enzymes were found significantly higher in MSP-As plants than the control plants. MSP-As plants accumulated increased levels of proline and low molecular weight metabolites such as ascorbate and α-tocopherol, which indicated that these plants were much more resistant to stress compared to the corresponding control plants. The primary photochemical efficiencies and the OJIP kinetics analyses further confirmed that MSP-As plants were in better optimal health under stress compared to the control plants. Although the exact reason behind the increased stress tolerance in stressed MSP-As plants is unclear, our results strongly indicate the role of MSP of unknown function in abiotic stress tolerance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2012.09.014DOI Listing
January 2013

Experimental in vivo measurements of light emission in plants: a perspective dedicated to David Walker.

Photosynth Res 2012 Dec 13;114(2):69-96. Epub 2012 Oct 13.

Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.

This review is dedicated to David Walker (1928-2012), a pioneer in the field of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence. We begin this review by presenting the history of light emission studies, from the ancient times. Light emission from plants is of several kinds: prompt fluorescence (PF), delayed fluorescence (DF), thermoluminescence, and phosphorescence. In this article, we focus on PF and DF. Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements have been used for more than 80 years to study photosynthesis, particularly photosystem II (PSII) since 1961. This technique has become a regular trusted probe in agricultural and biological research. Many measured and calculated parameters are good biomarkers or indicators of plant tolerance to different abiotic and biotic stressors. This would never have been possible without the rapid development of new fluorometers. To date, most of these instruments are based mainly on two different operational principles for measuring variable chlorophyll a fluorescence: (1) a PF signal produced following a pulse-amplitude-modulated excitation and (2) a PF signal emitted during a strong continuous actinic excitation. In addition to fluorometers, other instruments have been developed to measure additional signals, such as DF, originating from PSII, and light-induced absorbance changes due to the photooxidation of P700, from PSI, measured as the absorption decrease (photobleaching) at about 705 nm, or increase at 820 nm. In this review, the technical and theoretical basis of newly developed instruments, allowing for simultaneous measurement of the PF and the DF as well as other parameters is discussed. Special emphasis has been given to a description of comparative measurements on PF and DF. However, DF has been discussed in greater details, since it is much less used and less known than PF, but has a great potential to provide useful qualitative new information on the back reactions of PSII electron transfer. A review concerning the history of fluorometers is also presented.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-012-9780-3DOI Listing
December 2012

Physiological and biochemical responses of transgenic potato plants with altered expression of PSII manganese stabilizing protein.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2012 Sep 11;58:182-94. Epub 2012 Jul 11.

Dept. of Molecular Biotechnology, School of Life & Environmental Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Manganese-stabilizing protein (MSP) represents a key component of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). Transgenic potato plants with both enhanced (sense) and reduced (anti-sense) MSP expression levels were generated to investigate the possible physiological role of MSP in overall plant growth, particularly in tuber development. MSP antisense plants exhibited both higher tuberization frequency and higher tuber yield with increased total soluble carbohydrates. The photosynthetic efficiencies of the plants were examined using the OJIP kinetics; MSP-antisense plants were photosynthetically more active than the MSP-sense and UT (untransformed) control plants. The oxygen measurements indicated that the relative oxygen evolution was directly proportional to the MSP expression, as MSP-antisense plants showed much lower oxygen evolution compared to MSP-sense as well as UT plants. MSP-sense plants behaved like the UT plants with respect to morphology, tuber yield, and photosynthetic performance. Chlorophyll a fluorescence analyses indicate a possible lack of intact Oxygen Evolving Complexes (OECs) in MSP antisense plants, which allow access to internal non-water electron donors (e.g., ascorbate and proline) and consequently increase the Photosystem II (PSII) activity of those plants. These findings further indicate that this altered photosynthetic machinery may be associated with early tuberization and increased tuberization frequency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2012.07.003DOI Listing
September 2012

Drought-induced modifications of photosynthetic electron transport in intact leaves: analysis and use of neural networks as a tool for a rapid non-invasive estimation.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2012 Aug 15;1817(8):1490-8. Epub 2012 May 15.

Department of Biophysics and Radiobiology, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Water deficit is one of the most important environmental factors limiting sustainable crop yields and it requires a reliable tool for fast and precise quantification. In this work we use simultaneously recorded signals of photoinduced prompt fluorescence (PF) and delayed fluorescence (DF) as well as modulated reflection (MR) of light at 820nm for analysis of the changes in the photosynthetic activity in detached bean leaves during drying. Depending on the severity of the water deficit we identify different changes in the primary photosynthetic processes. When the relative water content (RWC) is decreased to 60% there is a parallel decrease in the ratio between the rate of excitation trapping in the Photosystem (PS) II reaction center and the rate of reoxidation of reduced PSII acceptors. A further decrease of RWC to 20% suppresses the electron transfer from the reduced plastoquinone pool to the PSI reaction center. At RWC below values 15%, the reoxidation of the photoreduced primary quinone acceptor of PSII, Q(A)(-), is inhibited and at less than 5%, the primary photochemical reactions in PSI and II are inactivated. Using the collected sets of PF, DF and MR signals, we construct and train an artificial neural network, capable of recognizing the RWC in a series of "unknown" samples with a correlation between calculated and gravimetrically determined RWC values of about R(2)≈0.98. Our results demonstrate that this is a reliable method for determination of RWC in detached leaves and after further development it could be used for quantifying of drought stress of crop plants in situ. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.04.018DOI Listing
August 2012

Heat stress and the photosynthetic electron transport chain of the lichen Parmelina tiliacea (Hoffm.) Ach. in the dry and the wet state: differences and similarities with the heat stress response of higher plants.

Photosynth Res 2012 Mar 29;111(3):303-14. Epub 2012 Feb 29.

Laboratories of Bioenergetics and Microbiology, Department of Botany and Plant Biology, University of Geneva, Chemin des Embrouchis 10, 1254 Jussy, Geneva, Switzerland.

Thalli of the foliose lichen species Parmelina tiliacea were studied to determine responses of the photosynthetic apparatus to high temperatures in the dry and wet state. The speed with which dry thalli were activated by water following a 24 h exposure at different temperatures decreased as the temperature was increased. But even following a 24 h exposure to 50 °C the fluorescence induction kinetics OJIP reflecting the reduction kinetics of the photosynthetic electron transport chain had completely recovered within 128 min. Exposure of dry thalli to 50 °C for 24 h did not induce a K-peak in the fluorescence rise suggesting that the oxygen evolving complex had remained intact. This contrasted strongly with wet thalli were submergence for 40 s in water of 45 °C inactivated most of the photosystem II reaction centres. In wet thalli, following the destruction of the Mn-cluster, the donation rate to photosystem II by alternative donors (e.g. ascorbate) was lower than in higher plants. This is associated with the near absence of a secondary rise peak (~1 s) normally observed in higher plants. Analysing the 820 nm and prompt fluorescence transients suggested that the M-peak (occurs around 2-5 s) in heat-treated wet lichen thalli is related to cyclic electron transport around photosystem I. Normally, heat stress in lichen thalli leads to desiccation and as consequence lichens may lack the heat-stress-tolerance-increasing mechanisms observed in higher plants. Wet lichen thalli may, therefore, represent an attractive reference system for the evaluation of processes related with heat stress in higher plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-012-9728-7DOI Listing
March 2012

The IP amplitude of the fluorescence rise OJIP is sensitive to changes in the photosystem I content of leaves: a study on plants exposed to magnesium and sulfate deficiencies, drought stress and salt stress.

Physiol Plant 2012 Mar 3;144(3):277-88. Epub 2012 Jan 3.

Laboratories of Bioenergetics and Microbiology, Department of Botany and Plant Biology, University of Geneva, CH-1254 Jussy, Geneva, Switzerland.

The hypothesis that changes in the IP amplitude of the fluorescence transient OJIP reflect changes in leaf photosystem I (PSI) content was tested using mineral-deficient sugar beet plants. Young sugar beet plants (Beta vulgaris) were grown hydroponically on nutrient solutions containing either 1 mM or no Mg(2+) and 2.1 µM to 1.88 mM SO(4)(2-) for 4 weeks. During this period two leaf pairs were followed: the already developed second leaf pair and the third leaf pair that was budding at the start of the treatment. The IP amplitude [ΔF(IP) (fluorescence amplitude of the I-to-P-rise) and its relative contribution to the fluorescence rise: ΔV(IP) (amplitude of the relative variable fluorescence of the I-to-P-rise = relative contribution of the I-to-P-rise to the OJIP-rise)] and the amplitude of the transmission change at 820 nm (difference between all plastocyanin and the primary electron donor of photosystems I oxidized and reduced, respectively) relative to the total transmission signal (ΔI(max) /I(tot)) were determined as a function of the treatment time. Correlating the transmission and the two fluorescence parameters yielded approximately linear relationships in both cases. For the least severely affected leaves the parameter ΔV(IP) correlated considerably better with ΔI(max) /I(tot) than ΔF(IP) indicating that it is the ratio PSII:PSI that counts. To show that the relationship also holds for other plants and treatments, data from salt- and drought-stressed plants of barley, chickpea and pea are shown. The relationship between ΔV(IP) and PSI content was confirmed by western blot analysis using an antibody against psaD. The good correlations between ΔI(max) /I(tot) and ΔF(IP) and ΔV(IP) , respectively, suggest that changes in the IP amplitude can be used as semi-quantitative indicators for (relative) changes in the PSI content of the leaf.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2011.01549.xDOI Listing
March 2012

Photoprotection of reaction centers: thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy vs charge separation in lichens.

Physiol Plant 2011 May 28;142(1):65-78. Epub 2010 Oct 28.

Julius-von-Sachs-Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Würzburg, Würzburg 97082, Germany.

During desiccation, fluorescence emission and stable light-dependent charge separation in the reaction centers (RCs) of photosystem II (PSII) declined strongly in three different lichens: in Parmelia sulcata with an alga as the photobiont, in Peltigera neckeri with a cyanobacterium and in the tripartite lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. Most of the decline of fluorescence was caused by a decrease in the quantum efficiency of fluorescence emission. It indicated the activation of photoprotective thermal energy dissipation. Photochemical activity of the RCs was retained even after complete desiccation. It led to light-dependent absorption changes and found expression in reversible increases in fluorescence or in fluorescence quenching. Lowering the temperature changed the direction of fluorescence responses in P. sulcata. The observations are interpreted to show that reversible light-induced increases in fluorescence emission in desiccated lichens indicate the functionality of the RCs of PSII. Photoprotection is achieved by the drainage of light energy to dissipating centers outside the RCs before stable charge separation can take place. Reversible quenching of fluorescence by strong illumination is suggested to indicate the conversion of the RCs from energy conserving to energy dissipating units. This permits them to avoid photoinactivation. On hydration, re-conversion occurs to energy-conserving RCs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2010.01417.xDOI Listing
May 2011

Friedelane triterpenes from Celastrus vulcanicola as photosynthetic inhibitors.

J Agric Food Chem 2010 Oct 27;58(20):10847-54. Epub 2010 Sep 27.

Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica "Antonio González", Universidad de La Laguna, Avenida Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.

Five friedelane triterpenoids, epifriedelinol (1), friedelin (2), canophyllol (3), pulpononic acid (4) and 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane (5), were isolated from Celastrus vulcanicola (Celastraceae), and were identified by spectroscopic methods, comparison with authentic samples and reported data. In the search for potential herbicides, compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their photosynthetic inhibitory activity. Compound 1 acts as an energy transfer inhibitor, interacting and enhancing the light-activated Mg(2+)-ATPase, while 3 behaves as a Hill reaction inhibitor. The in vivo assays indicated that 1 and 3 act as selective postemergence herbicides at 100 μM by reducing biomass production in the weed Physalis ixocarpa. Moreover, results from Chl a fluorescence transients in leaves of Lolium perenne and P. ixocarpa suggest that both compounds affect photosynthesis efficiency of the chloroplasts as a response to a process of detoxification and repair. Thus, 1 and 3 reduce biomass by more complex mechanisms than only the damaging of the photosynthetic apparatus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf1022115DOI Listing
October 2010

Simultaneous in vivo recording of prompt and delayed fluorescence and 820-nm reflection changes during drying and after rehydration of the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2010 Jun-Jul;1797(6-7):1313-26. Epub 2010 Mar 11.

Weed Research Laboratory, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

A new instrument (M-PEA), which measures simultaneously kinetics of prompt fluorescence (PF), delayed fluorescence (DF) and modulated light reflection at 820nm (MR), was used to screen dark-adapted leaves of the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis during their progressive drying, down to 1% relative water content (RWC), and after their re-watering. This is the first investigation using M-PEA, which employs alternations of actinic light (627-nm peak, 5000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and dark intervals, where PF-MR and DF kinetics are respectively recorded, with the added advantages: (a) all kinetics are recorded with high time resolution (starting from 0.01 ms), (b) the dark intervals' duration can be as short as 0.1 ms, (c) actinic illumination can be interrupted at different times during the PF transient (recorded up to 300 s), with the earliest interruption at 0.3 ms. Analysis of the simultaneous measurements at different water-content-states of H. rhodopensis leaves allowed the comparison and correlation of complementary information on the structure/function of the photosynthetic machinery, which is not destroyed but only inactivated (reversibly) at different degrees; the comparison and correlation helped also to test current interpretations of each signal and advance their understanding. Our results suggest that the desiccation tolerance of the photosynthetic machinery in H. rhodopensis is mainly based on mechanism(s) that lead to inactivation of photosystem II reaction centres (transformation to heat sinks), triggered already by a small RWC decrease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2010.03.008DOI Listing
January 2011

Changes in chloroplast ultrastructure, fatty acid components of thylakoid membrane and chlorophyll a fluorescence transient in flag leaves of a super-high-yield hybrid rice and its parents during the reproductive stage.

J Plant Physiol 2010 Mar 9;167(4):277-85. Epub 2009 Dec 9.

Key Lab of Biodiversity and Biotechnology of Jiangsu Province, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, PR China.

In plants, it is well established that chloroplast is one of the early targgeted organelles to breakdown during leaves senescing. Here we applied a newly developed super-high-yield hybrid rice (Oryza sativa) LiangYouPeiJiu (LYPJ) and its parents lines to investigate changes in ultrastructure of chloroplasts, fatty acid composition of thylakoid membrane lipids and chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence transient in natural senescing leaves. We found that at full expansion of flag leaves in three lines, chloroplasts often showed oblong shapes with a typical membrane system of stroma and grana thylakoids, whereas their shapes had been changed from oblong to spherical during senescence. Our data showed that the initiation of senescence displayed accumulation of starch and an increase in the number and size of plastoglobuli with the damaged thylakoid membranes; subsequently, swollen thylakoid membranes in stroma and in grana with a significant increase in MDA content, and disorganization of thylakoid membrane system with significant changes in fatty acid composition of thylakoid membrane lipids were developed. Compared with its parents, the newly developed hybrid rice LYPJ had the highest capacity of carbohydrate transport from leaves (sources) to ears (sink), marked with the lowest accumulation of starch grains in the leaf chloroplasts, and the slowest senescing rate of chloroplast in overall leaf senescence process. Chl a fluorescence transients of three kinds of flag leaves were analyzed by so-called JIP-test. The results of analysis suggest that these findings inculding a high inherited activity of antioxidant enzymes and high photosynthetate transport to pretect chloroplast structure in the hybrid rice LYPJ have close relations to its super-high yield.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2009.09.017DOI Listing
March 2010

Mutants of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 lacking alr1690 and alpha-furA antisense RNA show a pleiotropic phenotype and altered photosynthetic machinery.

J Plant Physiol 2010 Apr 24;167(6):430-7. Epub 2009 Nov 24.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cell Biology and Institute for Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BiFi), University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.

Fur proteins are global regulators present in all prokaryotes. In Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 FurA controls iron uptake and modulates an important set of genes related primarily to photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and oxidative stress defense. Expression of furA is tuned by the cis-acting antisense alpha-furA RNA that is co-transcribed with the outer-membrane protein Alr1690. Disruption of the alpha-furA-alr1690 message produces the iron-deficient JAH3 mutant that lacks Alr1690 and shows enhanced expression of FurA. JAH3 cells present severe structural disorders related to the number, organization and density of photosynthetic membranes. Quantitative analysis of the fluorescence induction shows that the mutation affects the J-I and I-P phases and causes important alterations in the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to lower photosynthetic performance indexes. These results reveal that expression of the alpha-furA-alr1690 message is required for maintenance of a proper thylakoid arrangement, efficient regulation of iron uptake and optimal yield of the photosynthetic machinery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2009.10.009DOI Listing
April 2010

Drought stress effects on photosystem I content and photosystem II thermotolerance analyzed using Chl a fluorescence kinetics in barley varieties differing in their drought tolerance.

Physiol Plant 2009 Oct 21;137(2):188-99. Epub 2009 Jul 21.

Bioenergetics and Microbiology laboratory, University of Geneva, Jussy-Geneva, Switzerland.

Drought stress has multiple effects on the photosynthetic system. Here, we show that a decrease of the relative contribution of the I-P phase, DeltaV(IP) = -V(I) = (F(M)-F(I))/(F(M)- F(o)), to the fluorescence transient OJIP is observed in 10 drought-stressed barley and 9 chickpea varieties. The extent of the I-P loss in the barley varieties depended on their drought tolerance. The relative loss of the I-P phase seems to be related to a loss of photosystem (PS) I reaction centers as determined by 820-nm transmission measurements. In the second part of this study, the interaction of drought and heat stress in two barley varieties (the drought tolerant variety Aït Baha and the drought sensitive variety Lannaceur) was studied using a new approach. Heat stress was induced by exposing the plant leaves to temperatures of 25-45 degrees C and the inactivation of the O(2)-evolving complex (OEC) was followed measuring chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence using a protocol consisting of two 5-ms pulses spaced 2.3 ms apart. In active reaction centers, the dark interval is long enough to allow the OEC to recover from the first pulse; whereas in heat-inactivated reaction centers it is not. In the latter category of reaction centers, no further fluorescence rise is induced by the second pulse. Lannaceur, under well-watered conditions, was more heat tolerant than Aït Baha. However, this difference was lost following drought stress. Drought stress considerably increased the thermostability of PS II of both varieties.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2009.01273.xDOI Listing
October 2009

Delayed fluorescence in photosynthesis.

Photosynth Res 2009 Aug-Sep;101(2-3):217-32. Epub 2009 Jun 23.

Department of Biophysics and Radiobiology, Faculty of Biology, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, 8 Dragan Tzankov Boulevard, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Photosynthesis is a very efficient photochemical process. Nevertheless, plants emit some of the absorbed energy as light quanta. This luminescence is emitted, predominantly, by excited chlorophyll a molecules in the light-harvesting antenna, associated with Photosystem II (PS II) reaction centers. The emission that occurs before the utilization of the excitation energy in the primary photochemical reaction is called prompt fluorescence. Light emission can also be observed from repopulated excited chlorophylls as a result of recombination of the charge pairs. In this case, some time-dependent redox reactions occur before the excitation of the chlorophyll. This delays the light emission and provides the name for this phenomenon-delayed fluorescence (DF), or delayed light emission (DLE). The DF intensity is a decreasing polyphasic function of the time after illumination, which reflects the kinetics of electron transport reactions both on the (electron) donor and the (electron) acceptor sides of PS II. Two main experimental approaches are used for DF measurements: (a) recording of the DF decay in the dark after a single turnover flash or after continuous light excitation and (b) recording of the DF intensity during light adaptation of the photosynthesizing samples (induction curves), following a period of darkness. In this paper we review historical data on DF research and recent advances in the understanding of the relation between the delayed fluorescence and specific reactions in PS II. An experimental method for simultaneous recording of the induction transients of prompt and delayed chlorophyll fluorescence and decay curves of DF in the millisecond time domain is discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-009-9451-1DOI Listing
November 2009

Effect of trifluoroacetate, a persistent degradation product of fluorinated hydrocarbons, on Phaseolus vulgaris and Zea mays.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2009 Jul 21;47(7):623-34. Epub 2009 Feb 21.

School of Environmental Sciences and Development, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, North-West Province, South Africa.

The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the pollutant, trifluoroacetate (TFA), on growth and photosynthesis of Phaseolus vulgaris (C(3)) and Zea mays (C(4)) in order to elucidate the physiological and biochemical basis of its inhibitory action. In whole plant studies, photosynthetic gas exchange, fast phase fluorescence kinetics and Rubisco activity were measured in parallel over a 14-day period in plants cultivated in a water culture system with NaTFA added at concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 160mgl(-1). Although initial stimulation of some photosynthetic parameters was observed at low TFA concentrations early on in the experiment, marked inhibition occurred at higher concentrations. In general Z. mays was affected more severely than P. vulgaris showing a large TFA-induced decrease in both apparent carboxylation efficiency (ACE) and in vitro Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; EC 4.1.1.39) activity. Analysis of photosynthetic gas exchange revealed that besides constraints on mesophyll processes such as Rubisco activity, stomatal limitation also increased with increasing TFA concentration, especially in P. vulgaris. In depth analysis of the fast phase fluorescence transients pointed at TFA-induced uncoupling of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) and inhibition of electron transport beyond Q(a) including possible constraints on the reduction of end electron acceptors of photosystem I.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2009.02.003DOI Listing
July 2009

Response of endangered plant species to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria.

Mycorrhiza 2009 Feb 15;19(2):113-123. Epub 2008 Nov 15.

Bioenergetics Laboratory, University of Geneva, 1254 Jussy, Geneva, Switzerland.

Three endangered plant species, Plantago atrata and Pulsatilla slavica, which are on the IUCN red list of plants, and Senecio umbrosus, which is extinct in the wild in Poland, were inoculated with soil microorganisms to evaluate their responsiveness to inoculation and to select the most effective microbial consortium for application in conservation projects. Individuals of these taxa were cultivated with (1) native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) isolated from natural habitats of the investigated species, (2) a mixture of AMF strains available in the laboratory, and (3) a combination of AMF lab strains with rhizobacteria. The plants were found to be dependent on AMF for their growth; the mycorrhizal dependency for P. atrata was 91%, S. umbrosus-95%, and P. slavica-65%. The applied inocula did not significantly differ in the stimulation of the growth of P. atrata and S. umbrosus, while in P. slavica, native AMF proved to be the less efficient. We therefore conclude that AMF application can improve the ex situ propagation of these three threatened taxa and may contribute to the success of S. umbrosus reintroduction. A multilevel analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients by the JIP test permitted an in vivo evaluation of plant vitality in terms of biophysical parameters quantifying photosynthetic energy conservation, which was found to be in good agreement with the results concerning physiological parameters. Therefore, the JIP test can be used to evaluate the influence of AMF on endangered plants, with the additional advantage of being applicable in monitoring in a noninvasive way the acclimatization of reintroduced species in nature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00572-008-0209-yDOI Listing
February 2009

The role of low soil temperature in the inhibition of growth and PSII function during dark chilling in soybean genotypes of contrasting tolerance.

Physiol Plant 2007 Sep;131(1):89-105

Section Botany, School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Potchefstroom 2522, South Africa.

Dark chilling affects growth and yield of warm-climate crops such as soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Several studies have investigated chilling-stress effects on photosynthesis and other aspects of metabolism, but none have compared effects of whole-plant chilling (WPC; shoots and roots) with that of aboveground chilling in legumes. This is important because low root temperatures might induce additional constraints, such as inhibition of N(2) fixation, thereby aggravating chilling-stress symptoms. Effects of dark chilling on PSII, shoot growth, leaf ureide content and photosynthetic capacity were studied in two soybean genotypes, Highveld Top (chilling tolerant) and PAN809 (chilling sensitive), in experiments comparing effects of WPC with that of shoot chilling (SC). Both treatments inhibited shoot growth in PAN809 but not Highveld Top. Also, WPC in PAN809 caused a decrease in leaf ureide content followed by severe chlorosis and alterations in O-J-I-P fluorescence-rise kinetics, distinct from SC. A noteworthy difference was the appearance of a Delta K peak in the O-J-I-P fluorescence rise in response to WPC. These genotypic and treatment differences also reflected in the degree of inhibition of CO(2) assimilation rates. The appearance of a Delta K peak, coupled with growth inhibition, reduced ureide content, chlorosis and lower CO(2) assimilation rates, provides mechanistic information about how WPC might have aggravated chilling-stress symptoms in PAN809. We introduce a model explaining how chilling soil temperatures might trigger N-limitation in sensitive genotypes and how characteristic changes in O-J-I-P fluorescence-rise kinetics are linked to changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2007.00930.xDOI Listing
September 2007

A non-invasive assay of the plastoquinone pool redox state based on the OJIP-transient.

Photosynth Res 2007 Jul-Sep;93(1-3):193-203. Epub 2007 May 9.

Laboratory of Bioenergetics, University of Geneva, Chemin des Embrouchis 10, CH-1254, Jussy, Geneva, Switzerland.

The plastoquinone (PQ) pool of the photosynthetic electron transport chain becomes reduced under anaerobic conditions. Here, anaerobiosis was used as a tool to manipulate the PQ-pool redox state in darkness and to study the effects of the PQ-redox state on the Chl-a fluorescence (OJIP) kinetics in pea leaves (Pisum sativum L.). It is shown that the F(J) (fluorescence intensity at 3 ms) is linearly related to the area above the OJ-phase (first 3 ms) representing the reduction of the acceptor side of photosystem II (PSII) and F(J) is also linearly related to the area above the JI-phase (3-30 ms) that parallels the reduction of the PQ-pool. This means that F(J) depends on the availability of oxidized PQ-molecules bound to the Q(B)-site. The linear relationships between F(J) and the two areas indicate that F(J) is not sensitive to energy transfer between PSII-antennae (connectivity). It is further shown that a approximately 94% reduced PQ-pool is in equilibrium with a approximately 19% reduction of Q(A) (primary quinone acceptor of PSII). The non-linear relationship between the initial fluorescence value (F(20 micros)) and the area above the OJ-phase supports the idea that F(20 mus )is sensitive to connectivity. This is reinforced by the observation that this non-linearity can be overcome by transforming the F(20 micros)-values into [Q(A) (-)]-values. Based on the F(J)-value of the OJIP-transient, a simple method for the quantification of the redox state of the PQ-pool is proposed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-007-9179-8DOI Listing
November 2007

Photosynthetic electron transport activity in heat-treated barley leaves: the role of internal alternative electron donors to photosystem II.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2007 Apr 3;1767(4):295-305. Epub 2007 Mar 3.

Laboratory of Bioenergetics, University of Geneva, Chemin des Embrouchis 10, CH-1254 Jussy, Geneva, Switzerland.

Electron transport processes were investigated in barley leaves in which the oxygen-evolution was fully inhibited by a heat pulse (48 degrees C, 40 s). Under these circumstances, the K peak (approximately F(400 micros)) appears in the chl a fluorescence (OJIP) transient reflecting partial Q(A) reduction, which is due to a stable charge separation resulting from the donation of one electron by tyrozine Z. Following the K peak additional fluorescence increase (indicating Q(A)(-) accumulation) occurs in the 0.2-2 s time range. Using simultaneous chl a fluorescence and 820 nm transmission measurements it is demonstrated that this Q(A)(-) accumulation is due to naturally occurring alternative electron sources that donate electrons to the donor side of photosystem II. Chl a fluorescence data obtained with 5-ms light pulses (double flashes spaced 2.3-500 ms apart, and trains of several hundred flashes spaced by 100 or 200 ms) show that the electron donation occurs from a large pool with t(1/2) approximately 30 ms. This alternative electron donor is most probably ascorbate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2007.02.019DOI Listing
April 2007

Photosynthetic behavior of woody species under high ozone exposure probed with the JIP-test: a review.

Environ Pollut 2007 Jun 10;147(3):430-7. Epub 2006 Oct 10.

Department of Plant Biology, University of Florence, Piazzale delle Cascine 28, Florence, Italy.

Visible ozone symptoms on leaves are expressions of physiological mechanisms to cope with oxidative stresses. Often, the symptoms consist of stippling, which corresponds to localized cell death (hypersensitive response, HR), separated from healthy cells by a layer of callose. The HR strategy tends to protect the healthy cells and in most cases the efficiency of chlorophyll to trap energy is not affected. In other cases, the efficiency of leaves to produce biomass declines and the plant loses its photosynthetic apparatus replacing it with a new, more efficient one. Another strategy consists of the production of pigments (anthocyanins), and leaves become reddish. In these cases, the most significant physiological manifestation consists of the enhanced dissipation of energy. These different behavior patterns are reflected in the initial events of photosynthetic activity, and can be monitored with techniques based on the direct fluorescence of chlorophyll a in photosystem II, applying the JIP-test.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2006.08.036DOI Listing
June 2007

Dark recovery of the Chl a fluorescence transient (OJIP) after light adaptation: the qT-component of non-photochemical quenching is related to an activated photosystem I acceptor side.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2006 Jul 4;1757(7):787-97. Epub 2006 May 4.

Bioenergetics Laboratory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Embrouchis 10, Jussy, Switzerland.

The dark recovery kinetics of the Chl a fluorescence transient (OJIP) after 15 min light adaptation were studied and interpreted with the help of simultaneously measured 820 nm transmission. The kinetics of the changes in the shape of the OJIP transient were related to the kinetics of the qE and qT components of non-photochemical quenching. The dark-relaxation of the qE coincided with a general increase of the fluorescence yield. Light adaptation caused the disappearance of the IP-phase (20-200 ms) of the OJIP-transient. The qT correlated with the recovery of the IP-phase and with a recovery of the re-reduction of P700(+) and oxidized plastocyanin in the 20-200 ms time-range as derived from 820 nm transmission measurements. On the basis of these observations, the qT is interpreted to represent the inactivation kinetics of ferredoxin-NADP(+)-reductase (FNR). The activation state of FNR affects the fluorescence yield via its effect on the electron flow. The qT therefore represents a form of photochemical quenching. Increasing the light intensity of the probe pulse from 1800 to 15000 mumol photons m(-2) s(-1) did not qualitatively change the results. The presented observations imply that in light-adapted leaves, it is not possible to 'close' all reaction centers with a strong light pulse. This supports the hypothesis that in addition to Q(A) a second modulator of the fluorescence yield located on the acceptor side of photosystem II (e.g., the occupancy of the Q(B)-site) is needed to explain these results. Besides, some of our results indicate that in pea leaves state 2 to 1 transitions may contribute to the qI-phase.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2006.04.019DOI Listing
July 2006
-->