Publications by authors named "Reo Maruyama"

88 Publications

A method of sample-wise region-set enrichment analysis for DNA methylomics.

Epigenomics 2021 Jul 9;13(14):1081-1093. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Project for Development of Innovative Research on Cancer Therapeutics, Cancer Precision Medicine Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan.

Gene set analysis has commonly been used to interpret DNA methylome data. However, summarizing the DNA methylation level of a gene is challenging due to variability in the number, density and methylation levels of CpG sites, and the numerous intergenic CpGs. Instead, we propose to use region sets to annotate the DNA methylome. We developed single sample region-set enrichment analysis for DNA methylome (methyl-ssRSEA) to conduct sample-wise, region-set enrichment analysis. Methyl-ssRSEA can handle both microarray- and sequencing-based platforms and reproducibly recover the known biology from the methylation profiles of peripheral blood cells and breast cancers. The performance was superior to existing tools for region-set analysis in discriminating blood cell types. Methyl-ssRSEA offers a novel way to functionally interpret the DNA methylome in the cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/epi-2021-0065DOI Listing
July 2021

An Integrated Epigenome and Transcriptome Analysis to Clarify the Effect of Epigenetic Inhibitors on GIST.

Anticancer Res 2021 Jun;41(6):2817-2828

Department of Molecular Biology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan;

Background/aim: Epigenetic alterations play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). To obtain further insight into the GIST epigenome, we analyzed genome-wide histone modification and DNA methylation in GIST cells.

Materials And Methods: To reverse epigenetic silencing, GIST-T1 cells were treated with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor and a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and subsequently H3K4me3 levels, the DNA methylome, and the transcriptome were analyzed.

Results: Treatment with epigenetic inhibitors not only up-regulated genes with DNA methylation, but also genes related to interferon signaling. ChIP-seq analysis revealed that drug treatment up-regulated H3K4me3 levels in retrotransposons, including endogenous retroviruses (ERV). Finally, utilizing the omics data, we found that hypermethylation of MEG3 is a frequent event and an indicator of poorer prognosis in GIST patients.

Conclusion: Epigenetic inhibitors may activate interferon signaling via viral mimicry in GIST cells. Moreover, epigenome data could be a useful resource to identify novel GIST-related genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.15062DOI Listing
June 2021

Predictive significance of HER2 intratumoral heterogeneity, determined by simultaneous gene and protein analysis, for resistance to trastuzumab-based treatments for HER2-positive breast cancer.

Virchows Arch 2021 Jul 26;479(1):13-21. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Division of Pathology, Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan.

Gene-protein assay (GPA), a combination of immunohistochemistry and dual in situ hybridization, allows simultaneous visualization of HER2 protein and gene on a single slide. We aimed to clarify the clinical significance of HER2 intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) using GPA. We investigated the relationships between various HER2 ITH indicators and clinical course in 102 patients with HER2-positive breast cancer, treated with neoadjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy. Five representative microscopic images were captured from each GPA slide of pre-therapeutic biopsy materials. All evaluable cancer cells in the images were individually assessed for HER2 gene copy number and protein expression. Mean and coefficient of variation (CV) of both gene copy number and protein category were calculated, and each was divided into negative, equivocal, and positive. Based on their combined status, cancer cells were classified into nine types. Pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant treatments showed positive relationships to mean gene copy number (P < 0.001), mean protein category (P < 0.001), and proportion of gene- and protein-positive tumor cells (P < 0.001) and showed negative relationships to the CV of protein category (P < 0.001) and the proportion of gene-amplified but protein-negative tumor cells (P = 0.002). Two diagnostic models, created by combining clinicopathological factors and ITH indicators, showed excellent potential diagnostic ability for pCR (mean gene copy number and protein category CV; AUC = 0.837, proportion of gene- and protein-positive tumor cells; AUC = 0.831). HER2 ITH quantified by GPA is a potential predictive indicator for efficacy of HER2-targeted treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-021-03036-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Dual EZH2 and G9a inhibition suppresses multiple myeloma cell proliferation by regulating the interferon signal and IRF4-MYC axis.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Jan 12;7(1). Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Molecular Biology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modification play key roles in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM). We previously showed that EZH2, a histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) methyltransferase, and G9, a H3K9 methyltransferase, are potential therapeutic targets in MM. Moreover, recent studies suggest EZH2 and G9a cooperate to regulate gene expression. We therefore evaluated the antitumor effect of dual EZH2 and G9a inhibition in MM. A combination of an EZH2 inhibitor and a G9a inhibitor strongly suppressed MM cell proliferation in vitro by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Dual EZH2/G9a inhibition also suppressed xenograft formation by MM cells in vivo. In datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus, higher EZH2 and EHMT2 (encoding G9a) expression was significantly associated with poorer prognoses in MM patients. Microarray analysis revealed that EZH2/G9a inhibition significantly upregulated interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes and suppressed IRF4-MYC axis genes in MM cells. Notably, dual EZH2/G9a inhibition reduced H3K27/H3K9 methylation levels in MM cells and increased expression of endogenous retrovirus (ERV) genes, which suggests that activation of ERV genes may induce the IFN response. These results suggest that dual targeting of EZH2 and G9a may be an effective therapeutic strategy for MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-00400-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803977PMC
January 2021

Aberrant expression of a novel circular RNA in pancreatic cancer.

J Hum Genet 2021 Feb 3;66(2):181-191. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are single-stranded, covalently closed RNA molecules that are produced from pre-mRNAs through a process known as back-splicing. Although circRNAs are expressed under specific conditions, current understanding of their comprehensive expression status is still limited. Here, we performed a large-scale circRNA profiling analysis in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues, using circular RNA-specific RNA sequencing. We identified more than 40,000 previously unknown circRNAs, some of which were upregulated in PDAC tissues, compared with normal pancreatic tissues. We determined the full-length sequence of a circRNA upregulated in PDAC, which was derived from two noncoding RNA loci on chromosome 12. The novel circRNA, named circPDAC RNA, was not expressed in normal human cells, but was expressed in PDAC and other carcinoma cells. While postulated biological functions, such as peptide production from the circPDAC RNA, were not detected, its aberrant expression was confirmed in other PDAC tissues and in serum from a PDAC patient. These results demonstrate that comprehensive studies are necessary to reveal the expression status of circRNAs and that the circPDAC RNA identified here might serve as a novel biomarker for cancers, including PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-020-00826-5DOI Listing
February 2021

HBx increases EGFR expression by inhibiting miR129-5p function.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 08 22;529(2):198-203. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan. Electronic address:

Despite the efficient suppression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication by nucelos(t)ide analogs, HBV RNA expression usually continues even during nucleots(t)ide analog therapy because episomal covalently closed circular DNA (ccDNA), which is the template for HBV RNA transcription, cannot be eliminated. Here, we found that the common sequences of all HBV RNAs and that encoding the X protein (HBx) have similarities with the sequences of a host cellular microRNA (miRNA), miR129-5p. HBx inhibits miR129-5p function, resulting in increased expression of ZBTB20, a target gene of miR129-5p. ZBTB20 activates transcription and increases cell-surface epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) levels, promoting the cell growth rate, and this effect was reversed through ZBTB20 knockdown. mir129-5p levels in Ago2-containing complexes were reduced by expression of HBx, suggesting that the viral RNA sequestered miR129-5p from Ago2-containing complexes. These results indicate the possibility that HBV RNA may maintain pathogenicity even through nucleos(t)ide analog therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.06.018DOI Listing
August 2020

Nuclear microenvironment in cancer: Control through liquid-liquid phase separation.

Cancer Sci 2020 Sep 21;111(9):3155-3163. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Division of Cancer Biology, The Cancer Institute of JFCR, Tokyo, Japan.

The eukaryotic nucleus is not a homogenous single-spaced but a highly compartmentalized organelle, partitioned by various types of membraneless structures, including nucleoli, PML bodies, paraspeckles, DNA damage foci and RNA clouds. Over the past few decades, these nuclear structures have been implicated in biological reactions such as gene regulation and DNA damage response and repair, and are thought to provide "microenvironments," facilitating these reactions in the nucleus. Notably, an altered morphology of these nuclear structures is found in many cancers, which may relate to so-called "nuclear atypia" in histological examinations. While the diagnostic significance of nuclear atypia has been established, its nature has remained largely enigmatic and awaits characterization. Here, we review the emerging biophysical principles that govern biomolecular condensate assembly in the nucleus, namely, liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), to investigate the nature of the nuclear microenvironment. In the nucleus, LLPS is typically driven by multivalent interactions between proteins with intrinsically disordered regions, and is also facilitated by protein interaction with nucleic acids, including nuclear non-coding RNAs. Importantly, an altered LLPS leads to dysregulation of nuclear events and epigenetics, and often to tumorigenesis and tumor progression. We further note the possibility that LLPS could represent a new therapeutic target for cancer intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469853PMC
September 2020

Upregulation of adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1 in endothelial cells promotes tumor angiogenesis in colorectal cancer.

Cancer Sci 2020 May 11;111(5):1631-1644. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Department of Molecular Biology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Tumor angiogenesis is an important therapeutic target in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to identify novel genes associated with angiogenesis in CRC. Using RNA sequencing analysis in normal and tumor endothelial cells (TECs) isolated from primary CRC tissues, we detected frequent upregulation of adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1 (AEBP1) in TECs. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that AEBP1 is upregulated in TECs and stromal cells in CRC tissues. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that there is little or no AEBP1 expression in CRC cell lines, but that AEBP1 is well expressed in vascular endothelial cells. Levels of AEBP1 expression in Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were upregulated by tumor conditioned medium derived from CRC cells or by direct coculture with CRC cells. Knockdown of AEBP1 suppressed proliferation, migration, and in vitro tube formation by HUVECs. In xenograft experiments, AEBP1 knockdown suppressed tumorigenesis and microvessel formation. Depletion of AEBP1 in HUVECs downregulated a series of genes associated with angiogenesis or endothelial function, including aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and periostin (POSTN), suggesting that AEBP1 might promote angiogenesis through regulation of those genes. These results suggest that upregulation of AEBP1 contributes to tumor angiogenesis in CRC, which makes AEBP1 a potentially useful therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226196PMC
May 2020

Nucleosome destabilization by nuclear non-coding RNAs.

Commun Biol 2020 02 11;3(1):60. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Laboratory of Chromatin Structure and Function, Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032, Japan.

In the nucleus, genomic DNA is wrapped around histone octamers to form nucleosomes. In principle, nucleosomes are substantial barriers to transcriptional activities. Nuclear non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are proposed to function in chromatin conformation modulation and transcriptional regulation. However, it remains unclear how ncRNAs affect the nucleosome structure. Eleanors are clusters of ncRNAs that accumulate around the estrogen receptor-α (ESR1) gene locus in long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) breast cancer cells, and markedly enhance the transcription of the ESR1 gene. Here we detected nucleosome depletion around the transcription site of Eleanor2, the most highly expressed Eleanor in the LTED cells. We found that the purified Eleanor2 RNA fragment drastically destabilized the nucleosome in vitro. This activity was also exerted by other ncRNAs, but not by poly(U) RNA or DNA. The RNA-mediated nucleosome destabilization may be a common feature among natural nuclear RNAs, and may function in transcription regulation in chromatin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-0784-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7012929PMC
February 2020

Pathogenic Epigenetic Consequences of Genetic Alterations in IDH-Wild-Type Diffuse Astrocytic Gliomas.

Cancer Res 2019 Oct 20;79(19):4814-4827. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Division of Cancer Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Gliomas are classified by combining histopathologic and molecular features, including isocitrate dehydrogenase () status. Although -wild-type diffuse astrocytic glioma (DAG) shows a more aggressive phenotype than -mutant type, lack of knowledge regarding relevant molecular drivers for this type of tumor has hindered the development of therapeutic agents. Here, we examined human -wild-type DAGs and a glioma mouse model with a mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM) system, which concurrently lacks and and spontaneously develops tumors highly comparable with human -wild-type DAG without characteristic molecular features of glioblastoma (DAG-nonMF). During tumor formation, enhancer of zeste homolog (EZH2) and the other polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) components were upregulated even at an early stage of tumorigenesis, together with an increased number of genes with H3K27me3 or H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 bivalent modifications. Among the epigenetically dysregulated genes, frizzled-8 (), which is known to be a cancer- and stem cell reprogramming-related gene, was gradually silenced during tumorigenesis. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of EZH2 in MADM mice showed reactivation of aberrant H3K27me3 target genes, including , together with significant reduction of tumor size. Our study clarifies a pathogenic molecular pathway of -wild-type DAG-nonMF that depends on EZH2 activity and provides a strong rationale for targeting EZH2 as a promising therapeutic approach for this type of glioma. SIGNIFICANCE: EZH2 is involved in the generation of -wild-type diffuse astrocytic gliomas and is a potential therapeutic target for this type of glioma. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/79/19/4814/F1.large.jpg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-1272DOI Listing
October 2019

UHRF1 depletion and HDAC inhibition reactivate epigenetically silenced genes in colorectal cancer cells.

Clin Epigenetics 2019 05 7;11(1):70. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Molecular Biology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, S1, W17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, 060-8556, Japan.

Background: Ubiquitin-like protein containing PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1) is a major regulator of epigenetic mechanisms and is overexpressed in various human malignancies. In this study, we examined the involvement of UHRF1 in aberrant DNA methylation and gene silencing in colorectal cancer (CRC).

Results: CRC cell lines were transiently transfected with siRNAs targeting UHRF1, after which DNA methylation was analyzed using dot blots, bisulfite pyrosequencing, and Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays. Gene expression was analyzed using RT-PCR and gene expression microarrays. Depletion of UHRF1 rapidly induced genome-wide DNA demethylation in CRC cells. Infinium BeadChip assays and bisulfite pyrosequencing revealed significant demethylation across entire genomic regions, including CpG islands, gene bodies, intergenic regions, and repetitive elements. Despite the substantial demethylation, however, UHRF1 depletion only minimally reversed CpG island hypermethylation-associated gene silencing. By contrast, the combination of UHRF1 depletion and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition reactivated the silenced genes and strongly suppressed CRC cell proliferation. The combination of UHRF1 depletion and HDAC inhibition also induced marked changes in the gene expression profiles such that cell cycle-related genes were strikingly downregulated.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that (i) maintenance of DNA methylation in CRC cells is highly dependent on UHRF1; (ii) UHRF1 depletion rapidly induces DNA demethylation, though it is insufficient to fully reactivate the silenced genes; and (iii) dual targeting of UHRF1 and HDAC may be an effective new therapeutic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-019-0668-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6505222PMC
May 2019

Fbxo22-mediated KDM4B degradation determines selective estrogen receptor modulator activity in breast cancer.

J Clin Invest 2018 12 12;128(12):5603-5619. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Division of Cancer Cell Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

The agonistic/antagonistic biocharacter of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) can have therapeutic advantages, particularly in the case of premenopausal breast cancers. Although the contradictory effects of these modulators have been studied in terms of crosstalk between the estrogen receptor α (ER) and coactivator dynamics and growth factor signaling, the molecular basis of these mechanisms is still obscure. We identify a series of regulatory mechanisms controlling cofactor dynamics on ER and SERM function, whose activities require F-box protein 22 (Fbxo22). Skp1, Cullin1, F-box-containing complex (SCFFbxo22) ubiquitylated lysine demethylase 4B (KDM4B) complexed with tamoxifen-bound (TAM-bound) ER, whose degradation released steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) from ER. Depletion of Fbxo22 resulted in ER-dependent transcriptional activation via transactivation function 1 (AF1) function, even in the presence of SERMs. In living cells, TAM released SRC and KDM4B from ER in a Fbxo22-dependent manner. SRC release by TAM required Fbxo22 on almost all ER-SRC-bound enhancers and promoters. TAM failed to prevent the growth of Fbxo22-depleted, ER-positive breast cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Clinically, a low level of Fbxo22 in tumor tissues predicted a poorer outcome in ER-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative (HER2-negative) breast cancers with high hazard ratios, independently of other markers such as Ki-67 and node status. We propose that the level of Fbxo22 in tumor tissues defines a new subclass of ER-positive breast cancers for which SCFFbxo22-mediated KDM4B degradation in patients can be a therapeutic target for the next generation of SERMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI121679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6264734PMC
December 2018

HERC2 Facilitates BLM and WRN Helicase Complex Interaction with RPA to Suppress G-Quadruplex DNA.

Cancer Res 2018 11 2;78(22):6371-6385. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Department of Translational Oncology, St. Marianna University Graduate School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.

BLM and WRN are RecQ DNA helicasesessential for genomic stability. Here, we demonstrate that HERC2, a HECT E3 ligase, is critical for their functions to suppress G-quadruplex (G4) DNA. HERC2 interacted with BLM, WRN, and replication protein A (RPA) complexes during the S-phase of the cell cycle. Depletion of HERC2 dissociated RPA from BLM and WRN complexes and significantly increased G4 formation. Triple depletion revealed that HERC2 has an epistatic relationship with BLM and WRN in their G4-suppressing function. , HERC2 released RPA onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) rather than anchoring onto RPA-coated ssDNA. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the catalytic ubiquitin-binding site of HERC2 inhibited ubiquitination of RPA2, caused RPA accumulation in the helicase complexes, and increased G4, indicating an essential role for E3 activity in the suppression of G4. Both depletion of HERC2 and inactivation of E3 sensitized cells to the G4-interacting compounds telomestatin and pyridostatin. Overall, these results indicate that HERC2 is a master regulator of G4 suppression that affects the sensitivity of cells to G4 stabilizers. Given that HERC2 expression is frequently reduced in many types of cancers, G4 accumulation as a result of HERC2 deficiency may provide a therapeutic target for G4 stabilizers. HERC2 is revealed as a master regulator of G-quadruplex, a DNA secondary structure that triggers genomic instability and may serve as a potential molecular target in cancer therapy. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/78/22/6371/F1.large.jpg .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-1877DOI Listing
November 2018

DOT1L inhibition blocks multiple myeloma cell proliferation by suppressing IRF4-MYC signaling.

Haematologica 2019 01 31;104(1):155-165. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Molecular Biology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine

Epigenetic alterations play an important role in the pathogenesis in multiple myeloma, but their biological and clinical relevance is not fully understood. Here, we show that DOT1L, which catalyzes methylation of histone H3 lysine 79, is required for myeloma cell survival. expression levels were higher in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma than in normal plasma cells. Treatment with a DOT1L inhibitor induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in myeloma cells, and strongly suppressed cell proliferation The anti-myeloma effect of DOT1L inhibition was confirmed in a mouse xenograft model. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and microarray analysis revealed that DOT1L inhibition downregulated histone H3 lysine 79 dimethylation and expression of IRF4-MYC signaling genes in myeloma cells. In addition, DOT1L inhibition upregulated genes associated with immune responses and interferon signaling. Myeloma cells with histone modifier mutations or lower expression were less sensitive to DOT1L inhibition, but with prolonged treatment, anti-proliferative effects were achieved in these cells. Our data suggest that DOT1L plays an essential role in the development of multiple myeloma and that DOT1L inhibition may provide new therapies for myeloma treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.191262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312027PMC
January 2019

Screening for long noncoding RNAs associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma reveals the potentially oncogenic actions of DLEU1.

Cell Death Dis 2018 08 1;9(8):826. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Molecular Biology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, S1, W17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, 060-8556, Japan.

Recent studies have shown that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have pivotal roles in human malignancies, although their significance in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is not fully understood. In the present study, we identified lncRNAs functionally associated with OSCC. By analyzing RNA-seq datasets obtained from primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), we identified 15 lncRNAs aberrantly expressed in cancer tissues. We then validated their expression in 18 OSCC cell lines using qRT-PCR and identified 6 lncRNAs frequently overexpressed in OSCC. Among those, we found that knocking down DLEU1 (deleted in lymphocytic leukemia 1) strongly suppressed OSCC cell proliferation. DLEU1 knockdown also suppressed migration, invasion, and xenograft formation by OSCC cells, which is suggestive of its oncogenic functionality. Microarray analysis revealed that DLEU1 knockdown significantly affects expression of a number of cancer-related genes in OSCC cells, including HAS3, CD44, and TP63, suggesting that DLEU1 regulates HA-CD44 signaling. Expression of DLEU1 was elevated in 71% of primary OSCC tissues, and high DLEU1 expression was associated with shorter overall survival of HNSCC patients. These data suggest that elevated DLEU1 expression contributes to OSCC development, and that DLEU1 may be a useful therapeutic target in OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-018-0893-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6070574PMC
August 2018

Epigenetic silencing of miR-200b is associated with cisplatin resistance in bladder cancer.

Oncotarget 2018 May 11;9(36):24457-24469. Epub 2018 May 11.

Department of Molecular Biology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8556, Japan.

In this study, we identified microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in cisplatin (CDDP) resistance in bladder cancer (BCa). After establishing CDDP-resistant BCa cell lines (T24RC and EJ138RC), TaqMan arrays revealed that members of the miR-200 family (miR-200b, miR-200a and miR-429) were downregulated in T24RC as compared to parental T24 cells. miR-200b was associated with CDDP sensitivity in BCa cells, and its downregulation was associated with CpG island hypermethylation. Pharmacological demethylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored miR-200b expression, and the combination of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine + CDDP strongly inhibited T24RC cell proliferation. Microarray analysis revealed that miR-200b + CDDP induced genes involved in CDDP sensitivity or cytotoxicity, including IGFBP3, ICAM1 and TNFSF10, in the resistant cells. Expression and DNA methylation of miR-200b were inversely associated in primary BCa, and low expression/high methylation was associated with poor overall survival. These results suggest downregulation of miR-200b is associated with CDDP resistance in BCa. Epigenetic silencing of miR-200b may be a marker of CDDP resistance and a useful therapeutic target for overcoming CDDP resistance in BCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.25326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5966259PMC
May 2018

Evaluation of Urinary DNA Methylation as a Marker for Recurrent Bladder Cancer: A 2-Center Prospective Study.

Urology 2018 Mar 28;113:71-78. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Department of Urology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Objective: To clarify the clinical utility of urinary DNA methylation for detection of intravesical recurrence of non-muscle invasive BCa (NMIBC), we performed a 2-center prospective study.

Patients And Methods: A series of 207 self-voided urine samples were prospectively collected from 132 patients with NMIBC who had undergone transurethral resection of BCa. Methylation of miRNA genes (miR-9-3, miR-124-2, miR-124-3, and miR-137) was analyzed using bisulfite pyrosequencing. The primary end point was detection of intravesical recurrence; the secondary end point was prediction of late recurrence. The number of methylated genes (M-score) or quantitative level of methylation were compared with outcomes.

Results: Twenty-six urine specimens were collected on the same day intravesical recurrence was detected, and 14 were collected from patients whose recurrences were found during the subsequent follow-up period (0-632 days, mean, 342.2 days). For detection of current recurrence, M-scores achieved 61.5% sensitivity and 74.0% specificity, and the area under the ROC curve was 0.71. Regarding prediction of late recurrence, patients with a high M-score (≥3) showed worse recurrence-free survival (P <.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that high M-scores were independently associated with current (P = .028) and late recurrence (P = .026). Elevated levels of urinary DNA methylation were also strongly associated with recurrence and radical cystectomy.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that urinary methylation of miRNA genes may be a useful marker for detecting and predicting BCa recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2017.11.025DOI Listing
March 2018

Downregulation of miR-186 is associated with metastatic recurrence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

Oncol Lett 2017 Nov 8;14(5):5703-5710. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Department of Molecular Biology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8556, Japan.

Although dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) is a common feature of human malignancies, its involvement in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is not fully understood. The present study aimed to identify the miRNAs that perform a role in GIST metastasis. miRNA expression profiles from a series of 32 primary GISTs were analyzed using microarrays, and miR-186 was observed to be downregulated in tumors exhibiting metastatic recurrence. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of an independent cohort of 100 primary GISTs revealed that low miR-186 expression is associated with metastatic recurrence and a poor prognosis. Inhibition of miR-186 in GIST-T1 cells promoted cell migration. Gene expression microarray analysis demonstrated that miR-186 inhibition upregulated a set of genes implicated in cancer metastasis, including insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3, AKT serine/threonine kinase 2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 and epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1. These results suggest that the downregulation of miR-186 is involved in the metastatic recurrence of GISTs, and that miR-186 levels could potentially be a predictive biomarker for clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.6911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5661378PMC
November 2017

Epigenetic silencing of diacylglycerol kinase gamma in colorectal cancer.

Mol Carcinog 2017 07 6;56(7):1743-1752. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Department of Molecular Biology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are important regulators of cell signaling and have been implicated in human malignancies. Whether epigenetic alterations are involved in the dysregulation of DGKs in cancer is unknown, however. We therefore analyzed methylation of the promoter CpG islands of DGK genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. We found that DGKG, which encodes DGKγ, was hypermethylated in all CRC cell lines tested (n = 9), but was not methylated in normal colonic tissue. Correspondingly, DGKG expression was suppressed in CRC cell lines but not in normal colonic tissue, and was restored in CRC cells by treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC). DGKG methylation was frequently observed in primary CRCs (73/141, 51.8%) and was positively associated with KRAS and BRAF mutations and with the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). DGKG methylation was also frequently detected in colorectal adenomas (89 of 177, 50.3%), which suggests it is an early event during colorectal tumorigenesis. Ectopic expression of wild-type DGKγ did not suppress CRC cell proliferation, but did suppress cell migration and invasion. Notably, both constitutively active and kinase-dead DGKγ mutants exerted inhibitory effects on CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and the wild-type and mutant forms of DGKγ all suppressed Rac1 activity in CRC cells. These data suggest DGKG may play a tumor suppressor role in CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.22631DOI Listing
July 2017

EZH2 expression is a prognostic biomarker in patients with colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR therapeutics.

Oncotarget 2017 Mar;8(11):17810-17818

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

The polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a methyltransferase that suppresses microRNA-31 (miR-31) in various human malignancies including colorectal cancer. We recently suggested that miR-31 regulates the signaling pathway downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in colorectal cancer. Therefore, we conducted this study for assessing the relationship between EZH2 expression and clinical outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR therapeutics. We immunohistochemically evaluated EZH2 expression and assessed miR-31 and gene mutations [KRAS (codon 61/146), NRAS (codon 12/13/61), and BRAF (codon 600)] in 109 patients with colorectal cancer harboring KRAS (codon 12/13) wild-type. We also evaluated the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In the result, low EZH2 expression was significantly associated with shorter PFS (log-rank test: P = 0.023) and OS (P = 0.036) in patients with colorectal cancer. In the low-miR-31-expression group and the KRAS (codon 61/146), NRAS, and BRAF wild-type groups, a significantly shorter PFS (P = 0.022, P = 0.039, P = 0.021, and P = 0.036, respectively) was observed in the EZH2 low-expression groups than in the high-expression groups. In the multivariate analysis, low EZH2 expression was associated with a shorter PFS (P = 0.046), independent of the mutational status and miR-31. In conclusion, EZH2 expression was associated with survival in patients with colorectal cancer who were treated with anti-EGFR therapeutics. Moreover, low EZH2 expression was independently associated with shorter PFS in patients with cancer, suggesting that EZH2 expression is a useful additional prognostic biomarker for anti-EGFR therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.14863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5392288PMC
March 2017

TET1 Depletion Induces Aberrant CpG Methylation in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

PLoS One 2016 15;11(12):e0168281. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

Department of Molecular Biology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Aberrant DNA methylation is commonly observed in colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels and TET1 expression are both reduced in CRC, while epigenetic silencing of TET1 is reportedly associated with the CpG island methylator phenotype. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the relationship between loss of TET1 and aberrant DNA methylation in CRC. Stable TET1 knockdown clones were established using Colo320DM cells, which express high levels of TET1, and HCT116 cells, which express TET1 at a level similar to that in normal colonic tissue. Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays revealed increased levels of 5-methylcytosine at more than 10,000 CpG sites in TET1-depleted Colo320DM cells. Changes in DNA methylation were observed at various positions within the genome, including promoters, gene bodies and intergenic regions, and the altered methylation affected expression of a subset of genes. By contrast, TET1 knockdown did not significantly affect DNA methylation in HCT116 cells. However, TET1 depletion was associated with attenuated effects of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine on gene expression profiles in both cell lines. These results suggest that loss of TET1 may induce aberrant DNA methylation and may attenuate the effect of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in CRC cells.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0168281PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5158030PMC
July 2017

Plasticity of lung cancer stem-like cells is regulated by the transcription factor HOXA5 that is induced by oxidative stress.

Oncotarget 2016 Aug;7(31):50043-50056

Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, 060-8556, Japan.

Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are reasonable targets for cancer therapy. However, recent studies have revealed that some non-CSCs/CICs have plastic ability and can dedifferentiate into CSCs/CICs. Therefore, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control the plasticity is essential to achieve CSC/CIC-targeting therapy. In this study, we analyzed the plasticity of lung cancer cells and found that lung non-CSCs/CICs can dedifferentiate into CSCs/CICs in accordance with the expression of stem cell transcription factor SOX2. SOX2 expression was induced by the transcription factor HOXA5. Oxidative stress repressed the expression of HDAC8 and then induced histone 3 acetylation and increased the expression of HOXA5 and SOX2. These findings indicate that lung cancer cells have plasticity under a condition of oxidative stress and that HOAX5 has a critical role in dedifferentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.10571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5226567PMC
August 2016

Relationship Between Noncoding RNA Dysregulation and Epigenetic Mechanisms in Cancer.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2016;927:109-35

Department of Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, S1, S17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, 060-8556, Japan.

Epigenetic alterations, including aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification, play key roles in the dysregulation of tumor-related genes, thereby affecting numerous cellular processes, including cell proliferation, cell adhesion, apoptosis, and metastasis. In recent years, studies have demonstrated that short and long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are key players in the initiation and progression of cancer, and epigenetic mechanisms are deeply involved in their dysregulation. Indeed, the growing list of microRNA (miRNA) genes aberrantly methylated in cancer suggests that a large number of miRNAs act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that dysregulation of long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) plays critical roles in tumorigenesis. And because ncRNAs are involved in regulating gene expression through interaction with epigenetic modifiers, their dysregulation appears causally related to epigenetic alterations in cancer. Dissection of the interrelationships between ncRNAs and epigenetic alterations has the potential to reveal novel approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1498-7_4DOI Listing
June 2017

A genomic screen for long noncoding RNA genes epigenetically silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in colorectal cancer.

Sci Rep 2016 05 24;6:26699. Epub 2016 May 24.

Department of Molecular Biology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key components in multiple cellular processes, although their physiological and pathological functions are not fully understood. To identify cancer-related lncRNAs, we screened for those that are epigenetically silenced in colorectal cancer (CRC). Through a genome-wide analysis of histone modifications in CRC cells, we found that the transcription start sites (TSSs) of 1,027 lncRNA genes acquired trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) after DNA demethylation. Integrative analysis of chromatin signatures and the DNA methylome revealed that the promoter CpG islands (CGIs) of 66 lncRNA genes contained cancer-specific methylation. By validating the expression and methylation of lncRNA genes in CRC cells, we ultimately identified 20 lncRNAs, including ZNF582-AS1, as targets of epigenetic silencing in CRC. ZNF582-AS1 is frequently methylated in CRC cell lines (87.5%), primary CRCs (77.2%), colorectal adenomas (44.7%) and advanced adenomas (87.8%), suggesting that this methylation is an early event during colorectal tumorigenesis. Methylation of ZNF582-AS1 is associated with poor survival of CRC patients, and ectopic expression of ZNF582-AS1 suppressed colony formation by CRC cells. Our findings offer insight into the association between epigenetic alterations and lncRNA dysregulation in cancer and suggest that ZNF582-AS1 may be a novel tumor-suppressive lncRNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep26699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4877637PMC
May 2016

Assessment of epigenetic alterations in early colorectal lesions containing BRAF mutations.

Oncotarget 2016 Jun;7(23):35106-18

Department of Molecular Biology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

To clarify the molecular and clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal serrated lesions, we assessed the DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes in a cohort of BRAF-mutant precancerous lesions from 94 individuals. We then compared those results with the lesions' clinicopathological features, especially colorectal subsites. The lesions included hyperplastic polyps (n = 16), traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) (n = 15), TSAs with sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) (n = 6), SSAs (n = 49) and SSAs with dysplasia (n = 16). The prevalence of lesions exhibiting the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was lower in the sigmoid colon and rectum than in other bowel subsites, including the cecum, ascending, transverse and descending colon. In addition, several cancer-associated genes showed higher methylation levels within lesions in the proximal to sigmoid colon than in the sigmoid colon and rectum. These results indicate that the methylation status of lesions with BRAF mutation is strongly associated with their location, histological findings and neoplastic pathways. By contrast, no difference in aberrant DNA methylation was observed in normal-appearing background colonic mucosa along the bowel subsites, which may indicate the absence of an epigenetic field defect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.9044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5085213PMC
June 2016

The relationship between EZH2 expression and microRNA-31 in colorectal cancer and the role in evolution of the serrated pathway.

Oncotarget 2016 Mar;7(11):12704-17

Department of Gastroenterology, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a methyltransferase that correlates with the regulation of invasion and metastasis and is overexpressed in human cancers such as colorectal cancer. MicroRNA-31 (miR-31) plays an oncogenic role and is associated with BRAF mutation and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. EZH2 is functionally considered to suppress miR-31 expression in human cancers; however, no study has reported its relationship with colon cancer. We therefore evaluated EZH2 expression using immunohistochemistry and assessed miR-31 and epigenetic alterations using 301 colorectal carcinomas and 207 premalignant lesions. Functional analysis was performed to identify the association between EZH2 and miR-31 using cancer cell lines. In the current study, negative, weak, moderate, and strong EZH2 expressions were observed in 15%, 19%, 25%, and 41% of colorectal cancers, respectively. EZH2 was inversely associated with miR-31 (P < 0.0001), independent of clinicopathological and molecular features. In a multivariate stage-stratified analysis, high EZH2 expression was related to favorable prognosis (P = 0.0022). Regarding premalignant lesions, negative EZH2 expression was frequently detected in sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) (76%; P < 0.0001) compared with hyperplastic polyps, traditional serrated adenomas, and non-serrated adenomas (25-36%). Functional analysis demonstrated that the knockdown of EZH2 increased miR-31 expression. In conclusion, an inverse association was identified between EZH2 and miR-31 in colorectal cancers. Our data also showed that upregulation of EZH2 expression may be rare in SSA/Ps. These results suggest that EZH2 suppresses miR-31 in colorectal cancer and may correlate with differentiation and evolution of serrated pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.7260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914316PMC
March 2016

Association of Fusobacterium nucleatum with immunity and molecular alterations in colorectal cancer.

World J Gastroenterol 2016 Jan;22(2):557-66

Katsuhiko Nosho, Yasutaka Sukawa, Yasushi Adachi, Miki Ito, Kei Mitsuhashi, Hiroyoshi Kurihara, Shinichi Kanno, Itaru Yamamoto, Keisuke Ishigami, Hisayoshi Igarashi, Yasuhisa Shinomura, Department of Gastroenterology, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8543, Japan.

The human intestinal microbiome plays a major role in human health and diseases, including colorectal cancer. Colorectal carcinogenesis represents a heterogeneous process with a differing set of somatic molecular alterations, influenced by diet, environmental and microbial exposures, and host immunity. Fusobacterium species are part of the human oral and intestinal microbiota. Metagenomic analyses have shown an enrichment of Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) in colorectal carcinoma tissue. Using 511 colorectal carcinomas from Japanese patients, we assessed the presence of F. nucleatum. Our results showed that the frequency of F. nucleatum positivity in the Japanese colorectal cancer was 8.6% (44/511), which was lower than that in United States cohort studies (13%). Similar to the United States studies, F. nucleatum positivity in Japanese colorectal cancers was significantly associated with microsatellite instability (MSI)-high status. Regarding the immune response in colorectal cancer, high levels of infiltrating T-cell subsets (i.e., CD3+, CD8+, CD45RO+, and FOXP3+ cells) have been associated with better patient prognosis. There is also evidence to indicate that molecular features of colorectal cancer, especially MSI, influence T-cell-mediated adaptive immunity. Concerning the association between the gut microbiome and immunity, F. nucleatum has been shown to expand myeloid-derived immune cells, which inhibit T-cell proliferation and induce T-cell apoptosis in colorectal cancer. This finding indicates that F. nucleatum possesses immunosuppressive activities by inhibiting human T-cell responses. Certain microRNAs are induced during the macrophage inflammatory response and have the ability to regulate host-cell responses to pathogens. MicroRNA-21 increases the levels of IL-10 and prostaglandin E2, which suppress antitumor T-cell-mediated adaptive immunity through the inhibition of the antigen-presenting capacities of dendritic cells and T-cell proliferation in colorectal cancer cells. Thus, emerging evidence may provide insights for strategies to target microbiota, immune cells and tumor molecular alterations for colorectal cancer prevention and treatment. Further investigation is needed to clarify the association of Fusobacterium with T-cells and microRNA expressions in colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v22.i2.557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4716059PMC
January 2016

Epigenetic silencing of NTSR1 is associated with lateral and noninvasive growth of colorectal tumors.

Oncotarget 2015 Oct;6(30):29975-90

Department of Molecular Biology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Our aim was to identify DNA methylation changes associated with the growth pattern and invasiveness of colorectal cancers (CRCs). Comparison of the methylation statuses of large (≥ 20 mm in diameter along the colonic surface) noninvasive tumors (NTs) and small (<20 mm in diameter along the colonic surface) invasive tumors (ITs) using CpG island microarray analysis showed neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) to be hypermethylated in large NTs. Quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing revealed that NTSR1 is frequently methylated in colorectal tumors, with large NTs exhibiting the highest methylation levels. The higher NTSR1 methylation levels were associated with better prognoses. By contrast, NTSR1 copy number gains were most frequent among small ITs. Methylation of NTSR1 was associated with the gene's silencing in CRC cell lines, whereas ectopic expression of NTSR1 promoted proliferation and invasion by CRC cells. Analysis of primary tumors composed of adenomatous and malignant portions revealed that NTSR1 is frequently methylated in the adenomatous portion, while methylation levels are generally lower in the cancerous portions. These results suggest that NTSR1 methylation is associated with lateral and noninvasive growth of colorectal tumors, while low levels of methylation may contribute to the malignant potential through activation of NTSR1. Our data also indicate that NTSR1 methylation may be a prognostic biomarker in CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.5034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4745776PMC
October 2015

A Screen for Epigenetically Silenced microRNA Genes in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.

PLoS One 2015 27;10(7):e0133754. Epub 2015 Jul 27.

Department of Gastroenterology, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Background: Dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) has been implicated in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) but the mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the involvement of epigenetic alteration of miRNA genes in GISTs.

Methods: GIST-T1 cells were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), after which miRNA expression profiles were analyzed using TaqMan miRNA arrays. DNA methylation was then analyzed using bisulfite pyrosequencing. The functions of miRNAs were examined using MTT assays, wound-healing assays, Boyden chamber assays and Matrigel invasion assays. Gene expression microarrays were analyzed to assess effect of ectopic miRNA expression in GIST-T1 cells.

Results: Of the 754 miRNAs analyzed, 61 were significantly upregulated in GIST-T1 cells treated with 5-aza-dC plus PBA. Among those, 21 miRNA genes were associated with an upstream CpG island (CGI), and the CGIs of miR-34a and miR-335 were frequently methylated in GIST-T1 cells and primary GIST specimens. Transfection of miR-34a or miR-335 mimic molecules into GIST-T1 cells suppressed cell proliferation, and miR-34a also inhibited migration and invasion by GIST-T1 cells. Moreover, miR-34a downregulated a number of predicted target genes, including PDGFRA. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PDGFRA in GIST-T1 cells suppressed cell proliferation, suggesting the tumor suppressive effect of miR-34a is mediated, at least in part, through targeting PDGFRA.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that miR-34a and miR-335 are candidate tumor suppressive miRNAs in GISTs, and that they are frequent targets of epigenetic silencing in GISTs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0133754PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4516245PMC
May 2016

Analysis of the molecular features of rectal carcinoid tumors to identify new biomarkers that predict biological malignancy.

Oncotarget 2015 Sep;6(26):22114-25

Department of Gastroenterology, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Although gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors are relatively rare in the digestive tract, a quarter of them are present in the rectum. In the absence of specific tumor biomarkers, lymphatic or vascular invasion is generally used to predict the risk of lymph node metastasis. We, therefore, examined the genetic and epigenetic alterations potentially associated with lymphovascular invasion among 56 patients with rectal carcinoid tumors. We also conducted a microRNA (miRNA) array analysis. Our analysis failed to detect mutations in BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, or PIK3CA or any microsatellite instability (MSI); however, we did observe CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) positivity in 13% (7/56) of the carcinoid tumors. The CIMP-positive status was significantly correlated with lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.036). The array analysis revealed that microRNA-885 (miR-885)-5p was the most up-regulated miRNA in the carcinoid tumors with lymphovascular invasion compared with that in those without invasion. In addition, high miR-885-5p expression was independently associated with lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.0002). In conclusion, our findings suggest that miR-885-5p and CIMP status may be useful biomarkers for predicting biological malignancy in patients with rectal carcinoid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.4294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4673150PMC
September 2015
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