Publications by authors named "Renicus S Hermanides"

38 Publications

Sex Differences in Platelet Reactivity in Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Sub-Analysis of the ON-TIME 3 Trial.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 4;8:707814. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Cardiology, Isala, Zwolle, Netherlands.

Fast and adequate platelet inhibition is one of the cornerstones in the treatment of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this analysis is to examine sex differences in platelet inhibition in the acute treatment of STEMI patients. Platelet reactivity units (PRU) and ticagrelor plasma concentrations of all patients in the ON-TIME 3 were compared according to sex. All patients were pre-treated with crushed ticagrelor, aspirin and heparin. Both univariable and multivariable analyses were performed. In this sub-analysis of the ON-TIME 3 trial, 195 STEMI patients, of which 58 female patients (29.7%) and 137 male patients (70.3%), were analyzed. PRU-values immediately post-PCI were not different in females [median 135 (IQR 47-228)] compared to males [160 (IQR 40-219), = 0.92]. Ticagrelor plasma concentrations were higher in the females at the start of primary PCI [141 ng/mL (IQR 25-491) vs. 76 ng/mL (IQR 15-245), = 0.049] and at 6 hours post-primary PCI [495 ng/mL (IQR 283-661) vs. 321 ng/mL (IQR 196-537), = 0.001] compared to males. However, immediately post-primary PCI and at 1-hour post-primary PCI no significant differences in ticagrelor concentrations were seen between sexes. In multivariable analysis, sex was significantly associated with ticagrelor concentration ( = 0.04), but not with PRU ( = 0.93). Effective platelet inhibition reached by crushed ticagrelor in STEMI patients was similar in both sexes. Females had similar or even higher ticagrelor plasma concentrations up to 6 hours post-primary PCI compared with males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.707814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8520931PMC
October 2021

Impact of vomiting on P2Y12 platelet inhibition in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: A prespecified subanalysis of the ON-TIME 3 trial.

Am Heart J 2021 Sep 20;243:39-42. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Cardiology, Isala, Zwolle, The Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, Zuyderland Medical Centre, Heerlen, The Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Vomiting is associated with lower levels of ticagrelor concentration and higher platelet reactivity in the early hours of ST-elevation myocardial infarction. These results support reloading with a ticagrelor loading dose and/or treatment with intravenous platelet inhibitors when patients vomit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.08.011DOI Listing
September 2021

Cost Effectiveness of a CYP2C19 Genotype-Guided Strategy in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results from the POPular Genetics Trial.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Unit of Global Health, Department of Health Sciences, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Introduction: The POPular Genetics trial demonstrated that a CYP2C19 genotype-guided P2Y inhibitor strategy reduced bleeding rates compared with standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel without increasing thrombotic event rates after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Objective: In this analysis, we aimed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of a genotype-guided strategy compared with standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel.

Methods: A 1-year decision tree based on the POPular Genetics trial in combination with a lifelong Markov model was developed to compare costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) between a genotype-guided and a standard P2Y inhibitor strategy in patients with myocardial infarction undergoing primary PCI. The cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from a Dutch healthcare system perspective. Within-trial survival and utility data were combined with lifetime projections to evaluate lifetime cost effectiveness for a cohort of 1000 patients. Costs and utilities were discounted at 4 and 1.5%, respectively, according to Dutch guidelines for health economic studies. Besides deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, several scenario analyses were also conducted (different time horizons, different discount rates, equal prices for P2Y inhibitors, and equal distribution of thrombotic events between the two strategies).

Results: Base-case analysis with a hypothetical cohort of 1000 subjects demonstrated 8.98 QALYs gained and €725,550.69 in cost savings for the genotype-guided strategy (dominant). The deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the model and the cost-effectiveness results. In scenario analyses, the genotype-guided strategy remained dominant.

Conclusion: In patients undergoing primary PCI, a CYP2C19 genotype-guided strategy compared with standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel resulted in QALYs gained and cost savings.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01761786, Netherlands trial register number: NL2872.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-021-00496-4DOI Listing
September 2021

Guided and unguided de-escalation from potent P2Y12 inhibitors among patients with ACS: a meta-analysis.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

The Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Aim: Optimal dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) intends to balance ischemic and bleeding risks. Various DAPT de-escalation strategies, defined as switching from a full-dose potent to a reduced dose or less potent P2Y12 inhibitor, have been evaluated in several ACS-PCI trials. We aimed to compare DAPT de-escalation to standard DAPT with full dose potent P2Y12 inhibitors in ACS patients who underwent PCI.

Methods & Results: PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for eligible randomised controlled trials. Aspirin monotherapy trials were excluded. Five randomised trials (n = 10,779 patients) that assigned DAPT de-escalation (genetically guided to clopidogrel n = 1,242; platelet function guided to clopidogrel n = 1,304; unguided to clopidogrel n = 1,672; unguided to lower dose n = 1,170) versus standard DAPT (control group n = 5,391) were included in this analysis. DAPT de-escalation was associated with a significant reduction in Bleeding Academic Research Consortium ≥ 2 bleeding (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.42-0.78; I2 = 77%) as well as major adverse cardiac events, represented in most trials by the composite of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis and stroke (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.96; I2 = 0%). Notwithstanding the limited power, consistency was noted across various de-escalation strategies.

Conclusion: De-escalation of DAPT after PCI for ACS, both unguided and guided by genetic or platelet function testing, was associated with lower rates of clinically relevant bleeding and ischemic events as compared to standard DAPT with potent P2Y12 inhibitors based on five open-label RCTs reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcvp/pvab068DOI Listing
August 2021

Thin-cap fibroatheroma predicts clinical events in diabetic patients with normal fractional flow reserve: the COMBINE OCT-FFR trial.

Eur Heart J 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Division of Cardiology and Structural Heart Diseases, Medical University of Silesia, Ziolowa 45, 40-635, Katowice, Poland.

Aims: The aim of this study was to understand the impact of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-detected thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) on clinical outcomes of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with fractional flow reserve (FFR)-negative lesions.

Methods And Results: COMBINE OCT-FFR study was a prospective, double-blind, international, natural history study. After FFR assessment, and revascularization of FFR-positive lesions, patients with ≥1 FFR-negative lesions (target lesions) were classified in two groups based on the presence or absence of ≥1 TCFA lesion. The primary endpoint compared FFR-negative TCFA-positive patients with FFR-negative TCFA-negative patients for a composite of cardiac mortality, target vessel myocardial infarction, clinically driven target lesion revascularization or unstable angina requiring hospitalization at 18 months. Among 550 patients enrolled, 390 (81%) patients had ≥1 FFR-negative lesions. Among FFR-negative patients, 98 (25%) were TCFA positive and 292 (75%) were TCFA negative. The incidence of the primary endpoint was 13.3% and 3.1% in TCFA-positive vs. TCFA-negative groups, respectively (hazard ratio 4.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.99-10.89; P < 0.001). The Cox regression multivariable analysis identified TCFA as the strongest predictor of major adverse clinical events (MACE) (hazard ratio 5.12; 95% confidence interval 2.12-12.34; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Among DM patients with ≥1 FFR-negative lesions, TCFA-positive patients represented 25% of this population and were associated with a five-fold higher rate of MACE despite the absence of ischaemia. This discrepancy between the impact of vulnerable plaque and ischaemia on future adverse events may represent a paradigm shift for coronary artery disease risk stratification in DM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab433DOI Listing
July 2021

Large anterolateral ST-elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with an isolated type R-I single coronary artery: a case report.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2021 Jun 22;5(6):ytab215. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Dokter van Heesweg 2, 8025 AB Zwolle, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytab215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274642PMC
June 2021

Efficacy and safety of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in addition to P2Y inhibitors in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A subanalysis of the POPular Genetics trial.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

Background: Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) are still used in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), although discussion about its clinical benefit is ongoing.

Methods: GPI use was analyzed in this subanalysis of the POPular Genetics trial, which randomized STEMI patients to CYP2C19 genotype-guided treatment (clopidogrel or ticagrelor) or standard treatment with ticagrelor/prasugrel. The composite thrombotic endpoint consisted of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), definite stent thrombosis, and stroke at 30 days. The combined bleeding endpoint consisted of Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) major and minor bleeding at 30 days. Univariable and multivariable analyses in addition to a propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis were conducted.

Results: In total, 2378 patients, of whom 1033 received GPI and 1345 did not, were included. In multivariable analysis, GPI administration was associated with fewer thrombotic events (hazard ratio [HR] 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.55) and MIs (HR 0.24, 95% CI 0.08-0.73). Furthermore, GPI administration was associated with an increase in bleedings (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.27-3.19), driven by minor bleedings (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.43-3.76), without a significant difference in major bleedings (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.19-2.57). In the PSM analysis, no significant association was found.

Conclusion: In STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI, GPI administration was associated with a reduction in thrombotic events at a cost of an increase in (mostly minor) bleedings in multivariable analysis, while propensity score analysis did not show significant associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29861DOI Listing
July 2021

Randomized Comparison Between Radial and Femoral Large-Bore Access for Complex Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 06 18;14(12):1293-1303. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Cardiology, Isala Heart Center, Zwolle, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether transradial (TR) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is superior to transfemoral (TF) PCI in complex coronary lesions with large-bore guiding catheters with respect to clinically relevant access site-related bleeding or vascular complications.

Background: The femoral artery is currently the most applied access site for PCI of complex coronary lesions, especially when large-bore guiding catheters are required. With downsizing of TR equipment, TR PCI may be increasingly applied in these patients and might be a safer alternative compared with the TF approach.

Methods: An international prospective multicenter trial was conducted, randomizing 388 patients with planned PCI for complex coronary lesions, including chronic total occlusion, left main, heavy calcification, or complex bifurcation, to either 7-F TR access (TRA) or 7-F TF access (TFA). The primary endpoint was defined as access site-related clinically significant bleeding or vascular complications requiring intervention at discharge. The secondary endpoint was procedural success.

Results: The primary endpoint event rate was 3.6% for TRA and 19.1% for TFA (p < 0.001). The crossover rate from radial to femoral access was 3.6% and from femoral to radial access was 2.6% (p = 0.558). The procedural success rate was 89.2% for TFA and 86.0% for TRA (p = 0.285). There was no difference between TFA and TRA with regard to procedural duration, contrast volume, or radiation dose.

Conclusions: In patients undergoing PCI of complex coronary lesions with large-bore access, radial compared with femoral access is associated with a significant reduction in clinically relevant access-site bleeding or vascular complications, without affecting procedural success. (Complex Large-Bore Radial Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [PCI] Trial [Color]; NCT03846752).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.03.041DOI Listing
June 2021

Clopidogrel in noncarriers of CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles versus ticagrelor in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome: A pre-specified sub analysis from the POPular Genetics and POPular Age trials CYP2C19 alleles in elderly patients.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Jul 20;334:10-17. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands; Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are carrying CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles derive less benefit from clopidogrel treatment. Despite this, in elderly patients, clopidogrel might be preferred over more potent P2Y inhibitors due to a lower bleeding risk. Whether CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet treatment in the elderly could be of benefit has not been studied specifically.

Methods: Patients aged 70 years and older with known CYP2C19*2 and *3 genotype were identified from the POPular Genetics and POPular Age trials. Noncarriers of loss-of-function alleles treated with clopidogrel were compared to patients, irrespective of CYP2C19 genotype, treated with ticagrelor and to clopidogrel treated carriers of loss-of-function alleles. We assessed net clinical benefit (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke and Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) major bleeding), atherothrombotic outcomes (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke) and bleeding outcomes (PLATO major and minor bleeding).

Results: A total of 991 patients were assessed. There was no significant difference in net clinical benefit (17.2% vs. 15.1%, adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-1.44), atherothrombotic outcomes (9.7% vs. 9.2%, adjHR 1.00, 95%CI 0.66-1.50), and bleeding outcomes (17.7% vs. 19.8%, adjHR 0.80, 95%CI 0.62-1.12) between clopidogrel in noncarriers of loss-of-function alleles and ticagrelor respectively.

Conclusion: In ACS patients aged 70 years and older, there was no significant difference in net clinical benefit and atherothrombotic outcomes between noncarriers of a loss-of-function allele treated with clopidogrel and patients treated with ticagrelor. The bleeding rate was numerically; though not statistically significant, lower in patients using clopidogrel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.04.029DOI Listing
July 2021

NT-proBNP level before primary PCI and risk of poor myocardial reperfusion: Insight from the On-TIME II trial.

Am Heart J 2021 03 31;233:78-85. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Cardiology, Isala Heart Center, Zwolle, The Netherlands; Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Zuyderland Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Heerlen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: N-terminal fragment of the brain natriuretic peptide prohormone (NT-proBNP), a marker for neurohumoral activation, has been associated with adverse outcome in patients with myocardial infarction. NT-proBNP levels may reflect extensive ischemia and microvascular damage, therefore we investigated the potential association between baseline NT-proBNP level and ST-resolution (STR), a marker of myocardial reperfusion, after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI).

Methods: we performed a post-hoc analysis of the On-TIME II trial (which randomized ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients to pre-hospital tirofiban administration vs placebo). Patients with measured NT-proBNP before angiography were included. Multivariate logistic-regression analyses was performed to investigate the association between baseline NTproBNP level and STR one hour after pPCI.

Results: Out of 984 STEMI patients, 918 (93.3%) had NT-proBNP values at baseline. Patients with STR <70% had higher NT-proBNP values compared to patients with complete STR (>70%) [Mean ±SD 375.2 ±1021.7 vs 1007.4 ±2842.3, Median (IQR) 111.7 (58.4-280.0) vs 168.0 (62.3-601.3), P <.001]. At multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors associated with higher risk of poor myocardial reperfusion (STR <70%) were: NT-proBNP (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.04-1.31, P = .009), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.14-3.07, P = .013), anterior infarct location (OR 2.74, 95% CI 2.00-3.77, P <.001), time to intervention (OR 1.06, 95%CI 1.01-1.11, P = .021), randomisation to placebo (OR 1.45, 95%CI 1.05-1.99, P = .022).

Conclusions: In STEMI patients, higher baseline NT-proBNP level was independently associate with higher risk of poor myocardial reperfusion, supporting the potential use of NT-proBNP as an early marker for risk stratification of myocardial reperfusion after pPCI in STEMI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.12.017DOI Listing
March 2021

Bridging the gap: Current and future insights for improving suboptimal platelet inhibition in STEMI.

Int J Cardiol 2021 04 23;328:40-45. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Cardiology, Isala, Zwolle, the Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Centre and Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht, the Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, Zuyderland Medical Centre, Heerlen, the Netherlands.

Antiplatelet therapy is one of the cornerstones in the acute treatment of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, hemodynamic changes and delayed intestinal absorption of P2Y inhibitors leads to a delay in the onset of antiplatelet effects resulting in a gap of platelet inhibition. Several strategies have been proposed to bridge this gap, such as pre-hospital administration of antiplatelet therapy, higher loading doses of P2Y inhibitors, crushing or chewing tablets, subcutaneous or intravenous administration of platelet inhibitors, or use of pain relievers alternative to opioids that do not delay intestinal absorption of oral platelet inhibitors. These strategies may improve platelet inhibition with the goal of optimizing clinical outcomes in the acute phase of STEMI. In this review we present current and future insights for bridging the gap in platelet inhibition in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.11.042DOI Listing
April 2021

Duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after myocardial infarction: Insights from a pooled database of the SMART-DATE and DAPT-STEMI trials.

Atherosclerosis 2020 12 9;315:55-61. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background And Aims: The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after myocardial infarction (MI) in patients treated with second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) is unclear, therefore, we aim to evaluate the ischemic and bleeding risk according to DAPT duration using a pooled-analysis of two randomized trials.

Methods: MI patients treated with durable-polymer second-generation DES from two randomized trials, SMART-DATE and DAPT-STEMI, were pooled. The primary endpoint was a composite of net adverse clinical events (NACEs) defined by all-cause mortality, any MI, stroke and BARC 3-5 bleeding, between 6 and 18 months after index percutaneous coronary intervention.

Results: A total of 2016 patients were analyzed, 1014 were treated with 6-month DAPT versus 1002 patients with ≥12-month DAPT duration. The primary endpoint occurred in 2.7% vs 2.5% (HR 1.07; 95%CI 0.62-1.85, p = 0.80) of cases, in 6 vs ≥ 12-month DAPT, respectively. The composite of cardiac death, MI and stroke was similar (2% vs 1.6%, HR 1.24, 95%CI 0.65-2.4, p = 0.52). BARC 3-5 bleeding occurred more frequently in the ≥12-month DAPT (0.2% vs 0.9%, HR 0.22, 95%CI 0.05-1.02 p = 0.05, log rank p = 0.03). MI occurred more frequently in the 6-month DAPT (1.6% vs 0.6%, HR 2.66, 95%CI 1.04-6.79, p = 0.04). Stent thrombosis was similar in both arms (0.7% vs 0.5%, p = 0.26).

Conclusions: Six vs ≥ 12-month DAPT, followed by aspirin alone, resulted in comparable NACEs in patients with event-free MI at six months after durable-polymer DES implantation. However, single therapy with aspirin beyond the 6 months reduced bleeding rates but was associated with a higher rate of MI compared to ≥12-month DAPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2020.11.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Older Patients with NSTE-ACS Using Oral Anticoagulation: A Sub-Analysis of the POPular Age Trial.

J Clin Med 2020 Oct 12;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, 3435CM Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

There are no randomised data on which antiplatelet agent to use in elderly patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and an indication for oral anticoagulation (OAC). The randomised POPular Age trial, in patients of 70 years or older with NSTE-ACS, showed a reduction in bleeding without increasing thrombotic events in patients using clopidogrel as compared to ticagrelor. In this sub-analysis of the POPular AGE trial, we compare clopidogrel with ticagrelor in patients with a need for oral anticoagulation. The follow-up duration was one year. The primary bleeding outcome was Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) major and minor bleeding. The primary thrombotic outcome consisted of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. The primary net clinical benefit outcome was a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and PLATO major and minor bleeding. A total of 184/1011 (18.2%) patients on OAC were included in this subanalysis; 83 were randomized to clopidogrel and 101 to ticagrelor. The primary bleeding outcome was lower in the clopidogrel group (17/83, 20.9%) compared to the ticagrelor group (33/101, 33.5%; = 0.051), as was the thrombotic outcome (7/83, 8.4% vs. 19/101, 19.2%; = 0.035) and the primary net clinical benefit outcome (23/83, 27.7% vs. 49/101, 48.5%; = 0.003). In this subgroup of patients using OAC, clopidogrel reduced PLATO major and minor bleeding compared to ticagrelor without increasing thrombotic risk. This analysis therefore suggests that, in line with the POPular Age trial, clopidogrel is a better option than ticagrelor in NSTE-ACS patients ≥70 years using OAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601891PMC
October 2020

Aspirin with or without Clopidogrel after Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Implantation.

N Engl J Med 2020 10 30;383(15):1447-1457. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

From the Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (J. Brouwer, V.J.N., J.P., D.R.P.P.C.P.Y., M.J.S., B.J.W.M.R., L.T., J.C.K., J.M.B.), the Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam (R.D., J. Baan), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (R.S.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center (W.H., L.V., A.W.J.H.) and the Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (A.W.J.H., J.M.B.), Maastricht, the Department of Cardiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede (G.K.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (F.K.), the Department of Cardiology, Haga Hospital, The Hague (C.E.S.), the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (P.H.), Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (F.W.F.T.), the Department of Cardiology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Heerlen (A.W.J.H.), and the Department of Cardiology, Division of Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht (P.R.S.) - all in the Netherlands; the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven (C.L.F.D.), Cardiovascular Center Aalst, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Clinic (B.D.B.), and the Department of Cardiology, Algemeen Stedelijk Hospital Aalst (I.B.), Aalst, the Department of Cardiology, Sint-Jan Hospital, Brugge (J.A.S.V.D.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Hospital Oost-Limburg, Genk (B.F.), and the Department of Cardiology, Imelda Hospital, Bonheiden (J.R.) - all in Belgium; the Department of Cardiology, Institut National de Chirurgie Cardiaque et de Cardiologie Interventionnelle, Luxembourg, Luxembourg (P.F.); and the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Královské Vinohrady and Third Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic (P.T.).

Background: The effect of single as compared with dual antiplatelet treatment on bleeding and thromboembolic events after transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) in patients who do not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation has not been well studied.

Methods: In a randomized, controlled trial, we assigned a subgroup of patients who were undergoing TAVI and did not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive aspirin alone or aspirin plus clopidogrel for 3 months. The two primary outcomes were all bleeding (including minor, major, and life-threatening or disabling bleeding) and non-procedure-related bleeding over a period of 12 months. Most bleeding at the TAVI puncture site was counted as non-procedure-related. The two secondary outcomes were a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, non-procedure-related bleeding, stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 1) and a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, ischemic stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 2) at 1 year, with both outcomes tested sequentially for noninferiority (noninferiority margin, 7.5 percentage points) and superiority.

Results: A total of 331 patients were assigned to receive aspirin alone and 334 were assigned to receive aspirin plus clopidogrel. A bleeding event occurred in 50 patients (15.1%) receiving aspirin alone and in 89 (26.6%) receiving aspirin plus clopidogrel (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.77; P = 0.001). Non-procedure-related bleeding occurred in 50 patients (15.1%) and 83 patients (24.9%), respectively (risk ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.83; P = 0.005). A secondary composite 1 event occurred in 76 patients (23.0%) receiving aspirin alone and in 104 (31.1%) receiving aspirin plus clopidogrel (difference, -8.2 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -14.9 to -1.5; P<0.001; risk ratio, 0.74; 95% CI for superiority, 0.57 to 0.95; P = 0.04). A secondary composite 2 event occurred in 32 patients (9.7%) and 33 patients (9.9%), respectively (difference, -0.2 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -4.7 to 4.3; P = 0.004; risk ratio, 0.98; 95% CI for superiority, 0.62 to 1.55; P = 0.93). A total of 44 patients (13.3%) and 32 (9.6%), respectively, received oral anticoagulation during the trial.

Conclusions: Among patients undergoing TAVI who did not have an indication for oral anticoagulation, the incidence of bleeding and the composite of bleeding or thromboembolic events at 1 year were significantly less frequent with aspirin than with aspirin plus clopidogrel administered for 3 months. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; POPular TAVI EU Clinical Trials Register number, 2013-003125-28; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02247128.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2017815DOI Listing
October 2020

Complex Large-Bore Radial percutaneous coronary intervention: rationale of the COLOR trial study protocol.

BMJ Open 2020 07 20;10(7):e038042. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Cardiology, Isala Hospitals, Zwolle, The Netherlands

Introduction: The radial artery has become the standard access site for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in stable coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome, because of less access site related bleeding complications. Patients with complex coronary lesions are under-represented in randomised trials comparing radial with femoral access with regard to safety and efficacy. The femoral artery is currently the most applied access site in patients with complex coronary lesions, especially when large bore guiding catheters are required. With slender technology, transradial PCI may be increasingly applied in patients with complex coronary lesions when large bore guiding catheters are mandatory and might be a safer alternative as compared with the transfemoral approach.

Methods And Analysis: A total of 388 patients undergoing complex PCI will be randomised to radial 7 French access with Terumo Glidesheath Slender (Terumo, Japan) or femoral 7 French access as comparator. The primary outcome is the incidence of the composite end point of clinically relevant access site related bleeding and/or vascular complications requiring intervention. Procedural success and major adverse cardiovascular events up to 1 month will also be compared between both groups.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethical approval for the study was granted by the local Ethics Committee at each recruiting center ('Medisch Ethische Toetsing Commissie Isala Zwolle', 'Commissie voor medische ethiek ZNA', 'Comité Medische Ethiek Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg', 'Comité d'éthique CHU-Charleroi-ISPPC', 'Commission cantonale d'éthique de la recherche CCER-Republique et Canton de Geneve', 'Ethik Kommission de Ärztekammer Nordrhein' and 'Riverside Research Ethics Committee'). The trial outcomes will be published in peer-reviewed journals of the concerned literature.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03846752.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7375502PMC
July 2020

MINOCA: The caveat of absence of coronary obstruction in myocardial infarction.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2020 Aug 1;29:100572. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Aims: Whether patients with MINOCA (myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries) have better outcomes than patients with obstructive coronary artery disease remains contradictory. The current study focussed on the clinical profile and prognosis of MINOCA patients.

Methods And Results: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) admitted to the Isala hospital in Zwolle, the Netherlands, between 2006 and 2014. A total of 7693 patients were categorized into three groups: MINOCA, single-vessel obstructive ACS (SV-ACS), and multi-vessel obstructive ACS (MV-ACS). MINOCA patients (5.2% of the total population) were more likely to be female (51.5% vs. 30.3% and 26.0% in SV-ACS and MV-ACS, respectively, p < 0.001 for both). The prevalence of risk factors in the MINOCA group was in between the SV-ACS and MV-ACS groups. Logistic regression revealed a lower odds of dying in SV-ACS (odds ratio (OR) = 0.70 (p = 0.04)) and a similar odds in MV-ACS (OR = 0.88, p = 0.45) compared to MINOCA.

Conclusions: Patients with MINOCA show an 'intermediate' risk profile with mortality rates in between those of both ACS groups. Hence, MINOCA should be recognised as a potential risk factor for mortality, requiring adequate treatment and follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2020.100572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334364PMC
August 2020

Anticoagulation with or without Clopidogrel after Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Implantation.

N Engl J Med 2020 04 29;382(18):1696-1707. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

From the Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (V.J.N., J. Brouwer, J.P., D.R.P.P.C.P.Y., M.J.S., B.J.W.M.R., L.T., J.C.K., J.M.B.), the Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Location AMC, Amsterdam (R.D., J. Baan), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (R.S.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center and Cardiovascular Research Institute, Maastricht (W.H., L.V., A.W.J.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede (G.K.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (F.K.), the Department of Cardiology, Haga Hospital, The Hague (C.E.S.), the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (P.H.), Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (F.W.F.T.), the Department of Cardiology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Heerlen (A.W.J.H.), and the Department of Cardiology, Division of Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht (P.R.S.) - all in the Netherlands; the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven (C.L.F.D.), the Department of Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Hospital (B.D.B.), and the Department of Cardiology, Algemeen Stedelijk Hospital Aalst (I.B.), Aalst, the Department of Cardiology, Sint-Jan Hospital, Brugge (J.A.S.V.D.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Hospital Oost-Limburg, Genk (B.F.), and the Department of Cardiology, Imelda Hospital, Bonheiden (J.R.) - all in Belgium; the Department of Cardiology, Institut National de Chirurgie Cardiaque et de Cardiologie Interventionnelle, Luxembourg, Luxembourg (P.F.); and the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Královské Vinohrady and Third Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic (P.T.).

Background: The roles of anticoagulation alone or with an antiplatelet agent after transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) have not been well studied.

Methods: We performed a randomized trial of clopidogrel in patients undergoing TAVI who were receiving oral anticoagulation for appropriate indications. Patients were assigned before TAVI in a 1:1 ratio not to receive clopidogrel or to receive clopidogrel for 3 months. The two primary outcomes were all bleeding and non-procedure-related bleeding over a period of 12 months. Procedure-related bleeding was defined as Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 4 severe bleeding, and therefore most bleeding at the puncture site was counted as non-procedure-related. The two secondary outcomes were a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, non-procedure-related bleeding, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 12 months (secondary composite 1) and a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, ischemic stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 2), both tested for noninferiority (noninferiority margin, 7.5 percentage points) and superiority.

Results: Bleeding occurred in 34 of the 157 patients (21.7%) receiving oral anticoagulation alone and in 54 of the 156 (34.6%) receiving oral anticoagulation plus clopidogrel (risk ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.90; P = 0.01); most bleeding events were at the TAVI access site. Non-procedure-related bleeding occurred in 34 patients (21.7%) and in 53 (34.0%), respectively (risk ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.92; P = 0.02). Most bleeding occurred in the first month and was minor. A secondary composite 1 event occurred in 49 patients (31.2%) receiving oral anticoagulation alone and in 71 (45.5%) receiving oral anticoagulation plus clopidogrel (difference, -14.3 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -25.0 to -3.6; risk ratio, 0.69; 95% CI for superiority, 0.51 to 0.92). A secondary composite 2 event occurred in 21 patients (13.4%) and in 27 (17.3%), respectively (difference, -3.9 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -11.9 to 4.0; risk ratio, 0.77; 95% CI for superiority, 0.46 to 1.31).

Conclusions: In patients undergoing TAVI who were receiving oral anticoagulation, the incidence of serious bleeding over a period of 1 month or 1 year was lower with oral anticoagulation alone than with oral anticoagulation plus clopidogrel. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; POPular TAVI EU Clinical Trials Register number, 2013-003125-28; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02247128.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1915152DOI Listing
April 2020

Natural history of spontaneous coronary dissections.

Coron Artery Dis 2020 09;31(6):569-570

Cardiovascular Department, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000833DOI Listing
September 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors on Top of Ticagrelor in STEMI: A Subanalysis of the ATLANTIC Trial.

Thromb Haemost 2020 Jan 21;120(1):65-74. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Cardiology, Isala, Zwolle, The Netherlands.

Background:  Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPIs) in combination with clopidogrel improve clinical outcome in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI); however, finding a balance that minimizes both thrombotic and bleeding risk remains fundamental. The efficacy and safety of GPI in addition to ticagrelor, a more potent P2Y12-inhibitor, have not been fully investigated.

Methods:  1,630 STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were analyzed in this subanalysis of the ATLANTIC trial. Patients were divided in three groups: no GPI, GPI administration routinely before primary PCI, and GPI administration in bailout situations. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, urgent target revascularization, and definite stent thrombosis at 30 days. The safety outcome was non-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)-related PLATO major bleeding at 30 days.

Results:  Compared with no GPI ( = 930), routine GPI ( = 525) or bailout GPI ( = 175) was not associated with an improved primary efficacy outcome (4.2% no GPI vs. 4.0% routine GPI vs. 6.9% bailout GPI;  = 0.58). After multivariate analysis, the use of GPI in bailout situations was associated with a higher incidence of non-CABG-related bleeding compared with no GPI (odds ratio [OR] 2.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-6.64;  = 0.03). However, routine GPI use compared with no GPI was not associated with a significant increase in bleeding (OR 1.78, 95% CI 0.88-3.61;  = 0.92).

Conclusion:  Use of GPIs in addition to ticagrelor in STEMI patients was not associated with an improvement in 30-day ischemic outcome. A significant increase in 30-day non-CABG-related PLATO major bleeding was seen in patients who received GPIs in a bailout situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1700546DOI Listing
January 2020

1-Year Outcomes of Delayed Versus Immediate Intervention in Patients With Transient ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2019 11 2;12(22):2272-2282. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a delayed versus an immediate invasive approach on final infarct size and clinical outcome up to 1 year.

Background: Up to 24% of patients with acute coronary syndromes present with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) but show complete resolution of ST-segment elevation and symptoms before revascularization. Current guidelines do not clearly state whether these patients with transient STEMI should be treated with a STEMI-like or non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome-like intervention strategy.

Methods: In this multicenter trial, 142 patients with transient STEMI were randomized 1:1 to either delayed or immediate coronary intervention. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 4 days and at 4-month follow-up to assess infarct size and myocardial function. Clinical follow-up was performed at 4 and 12 months.

Results: In the delayed (22.7 h) and the immediate (0.4 h) invasive groups, final infarct size as a percentage of the left ventricle was very small (0.4% [interquartile range: 0.0% to 2.5%] vs. 0.4% [interquartile range: 0.0% to 3.5%]; p = 0.79), and left ventricular function was good (mean ejection fraction 59.3 ± 6.5% vs. 59.9 ± 5.4%; p = 0.63). In addition, the overall occurrence of major adverse cardiac events, consisting of death, recurrent infarction, and target lesion revascularization, up to 1 year was low and not different between both groups (5.7% vs. 4.4%, respectively; p = 1.00).

Conclusions: At follow-up, patients with transient STEMI have limited infarction and well-preserved myocardial function in general, and delayed or immediate revascularization has no effect on functional outcome and clinical events up to 1 year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2019.07.018DOI Listing
November 2019

A Genotype-Guided Strategy for Oral P2Y Inhibitors in Primary PCI.

N Engl J Med 2019 10 3;381(17):1621-1631. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

From the Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (D.M.F.C., G.J.A.V., T.O.B., P.W.A.J., J.C.K., J.M.B.), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (R.S.H., A.W.J.H.), the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Maastricht, Maastricht (A.W.J.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Heerlen (A.W.J.H.), the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen (P.H., J.M.B.), the Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen (M.J.P.), and the Unit of Global Health, Department of Health Sciences, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (M.J.P., C.B.), Groningen, the Department of Cardiology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem (R.M.T.J.G.), the Department of Cardiology, Division of Heart and Lungs (F.W.A.), and the Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Division of Laboratories, Pharmacy, and Biomedical Genetics (V.H.M.D.), University Medical Center Utrecht, and the Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (A.B.), Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Department of Cardiology, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort (A.M.), the Department of Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam (J.-P.R.H.), and the Department of Cardiology, Amphia Hospital, Breda (W.J.M.D.) - all in the Netherlands; the Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy (E.B., C.M.); the Cardiovascular Research Center, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Hospital, Aalst (E.B.), and the Department of Cardiology, Imelda Hospital, Bonheiden (W.J.M.D.) - both in Belgium; and the Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Faculty of Population Health Sciences, and Health Data Research UK and Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London (F.W.A.).

Background: It is unknown whether patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) benefit from genotype-guided selection of oral P2Y inhibitors.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, open-label, assessor-blinded trial in which patients undergoing primary PCI with stent implantation were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either a P2Y inhibitor on the basis of early genetic testing (genotype-guided group) or standard treatment with either ticagrelor or prasugrel (standard-treatment group) for 12 months. In the genotype-guided group, carriers of *2 or *3 loss-of-function alleles received ticagrelor or prasugrel, and noncarriers received clopidogrel. The two primary outcomes were net adverse clinical events - defined as death from any cause, myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis, stroke, or major bleeding defined according to Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) criteria - at 12 months (primary combined outcome; tested for noninferiority, with a noninferiority margin of 2 percentage points for the absolute difference) and PLATO major or minor bleeding at 12 months (primary bleeding outcome).

Results: For the primary analysis, 2488 patients were included: 1242 in the genotype-guided group and 1246 in the standard-treatment group. The primary combined outcome occurred in 63 patients (5.1%) in the genotype-guided group and in 73 patients (5.9%) in the standard-treatment group (absolute difference, -0.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.0 to 0.7; P<0.001 for noninferiority). The primary bleeding outcome occurred in 122 patients (9.8%) in the genotype-guided group and in 156 patients (12.5%) in the standard-treatment group (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.98; P = 0.04).

Conclusions: In patients undergoing primary PCI, a genotype-guided strategy for selection of oral P2Y inhibitor therapy was noninferior to standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel at 12 months with respect to thrombotic events and resulted in a lower incidence of bleeding. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; POPular Genetics ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01761786; Netherlands Trial Register number, NL2872.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1907096DOI Listing
October 2019

Impact of elevated HbA1c on long-term mortality in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction in daily clinical practice: insights from a 'real world' prospective registry of the Zwolle Myocardial Infarction Study Group.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2020 Sep 24;9(6):616-625. Epub 2019 May 24.

Department of Cardiology, Isala, The Netherlands.

Background: Long-term clinical outcome is less well known in up to presentation persons unknown with diabetes mellitus who present with acute myocardial infarction and elevated glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels on admission. We aimed to study the prognostic impact of deranged HbA1c at presentation on long-term mortality in patients not known with diabetes, presenting with acute myocardial infarction.

Methods: A single-centre, large, prospective observational study in patients with and without known diabetes admitted to our hospital for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI. Newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus was defined as HbA1c of 48 mmol/l or greater and pre-diabetes mellitus was defined as HbA1c between 39 and 47 mmol/l. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at short (30 days) and long-term (median 52 months) follow-up.

Results: Out of 7900 acute myocardial infarction patients studied, 1314 patients (17%) were known diabetes patients. Of the 6586 patients without known diabetes, 3977 (60%) had no diabetes, 2259 (34%) had pre-diabetes and 350 (5%) had newly diagnosed diabetes based on HbA1c on admission. Both short-term (3.9% vs. 7.4% vs. 6.0%, p0.001) and long-term mortality (19% vs. 26% vs. 35%, p0.001) for both pre-diabetes patients as well as newly diagnosed diabetes patients was poor and comparable to known diabetes patients. After multivariate analysis, newly diagnosed diabetes was independently associated with long-term mortality (hazard ratio 1.72, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.34, =0.001).

Conclusions: In the largest study to date, newly diagnosed or pre-diabetes was present in 33% of acute myocardial infarction patients and was associated with poor long-term clinical outcome. Newly diagnosed diabetes (HbA1c ⩾48 mmol/mol) is an independent predictor of long-term mortality. More attention to early detection of diabetic status and initiation of blood glucose-lowering treatment is necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2048872619849921DOI Listing
September 2020

Effect of early tirofiban administration on N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2019 04 26;93(5):E293-E297. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To investigate the potential association between early tirofiban treatment and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: Whether the use of adjunctive early glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPIs) therapy, may affect the level of NT-proBNP after primary PCI is poorly studied.

Methods: Nine hundred and eighty four ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary PCI were randomized to either pre-hospital tirofiban administration or placebo. NT-proBNP levels were evaluated on admission before angiography (baseline) and 18-96 hr after PCI.

Results: There were 918 (93.3%) patients with NT-proBNP values available at baseline and 865 (87.9%) post-PCI. Post-PCI NT-proBNP level dichotomized with median value as cut-off (968.8 pg/mL, IQR 430.9-1970.0) was significantly lower in patients treated with early tirofiban as compared to placebo (45.5% vs. 54.2% P = 0.011). At multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of post-PCI NT-proBNP level above the median were: NT-proBNP baseline level (OR 5.19; 95% CI, 2.92-9.25, P < 0.001), Killip class>I (OR 4.07; 95% CI 1.24-13.36, P = 0.021), anterior infarct location (OR 2.61; 95% CI 1.84-3.70, P < 0.001), age (years) (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.03-1.06, P < 0.001), male gender (OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.26-0.57, P < 0.001), prior PCI (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.27-0.90, P = 0.021) and tirofiban administration (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.51-0.99; P = 0.045).

Conclusions: In a large cohort of STEMI patients, pre-hospital tirofiban administration was independently associate with a lower risk of high NT-proBNP level after primary PCI, supporting the potential benefit of early antithrombotic treatment administration in STEMI patients. The trial is registered under No. ISRCTN06195297.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.28043DOI Listing
April 2019

Timing of revascularization in patients with transient ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a randomized clinical trial.

Eur Heart J 2019 01;40(3):283-291

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Aims: Patients with acute coronary syndrome who present initially with ST-elevation on the electrocardiogram but, subsequently, show complete normalization of the ST-segment and relief of symptoms before reperfusion therapy are referred to as transient ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and pose a therapeutic challenge. It is unclear what the optimal timing of revascularization is for these patients and whether they should be treated with a STEMI-like or a non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)-like invasive approach. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of an immediate vs. a delayed invasive strategy on infarct size measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR).

Methods And Results: In a randomized clinical trial, 142 patients with transient STEMI with symptoms of any duration were randomized to an immediate (STEMI-like) [0.3 h; interquartile range (IQR) 0.2-0.7 h] or a delayed (NSTEMI-like) invasive strategy (22.7 h; IQR 18.2-27.3 h). Infarct size as percentage of the left ventricular myocardial mass measured by CMR at day four was generally small and not different between the immediate and the delayed invasive group (1.3%; IQR 0.0-3.5% vs. 1.5% IQR 0.0-4.1%, P = 0.48). By intention to treat, there was no difference in major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as death, reinfarction, or target vessel revascularization at 30 days (2.9% vs. 2.8%, P = 1.00). However, four additional patients (5.6%) in the delayed invasive strategy required urgent intervention due to signs and symptoms of reinfarction while awaiting angiography.

Conclusion: Overall, infarct size in transient STEMI is small and is not influenced by an immediate or delayed invasive strategy. In addition, short-term MACE was low and not different between the treatment groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy651DOI Listing
January 2019

Comparison of Outcomes and Intervention Among Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction of Those With a Left Circumflex Versus Those With a Non-Left Circumflex-Related Coronary Artery (From the ELISA-3 Trial).

Am J Cardiol 2018 05 21;121(10):1123-1128. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Isala Heart Centre, Zwolle, Netherlands; Maastricht UMC+, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Previous studies found that patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) due to occlusion of the left circumflex (LC) coronary artery often present without ST-elevation, leading to a delay in diagnosis and revascularization, a larger infarct size, and a worse prognosis. In this subgroup analysis of the ELISA-3 study (early or late intervention in high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes [NSTE-ACS]) incidence, characteristics and prognosis of LC-related NSTE-ACS was investigated, and the outcome of early versus late invasive strategy was compared. In 383 of 542 patients the culprit vessel could be identified, with the LC artery in 112 (29%) of them. Patients with LC-related ACS had more often single vessel disease and underwent percutaneous coronary intervention more and CABG less frequently. The primary end point of the combined incidences of death, myocardial infarction, and recurrent ischemia at 30-day follow-up occurred in 9.0% of LC versus 16.5% of non-LC-related ACS (p = 0.057). Enzymatic infarct size and incidence of bleeding were comparable. Of patients with LC-related ACS, 62 were assigned to an early and 50 to a late invasive treatment with a median time from admission to angiography of 5.5 and 65.7 hours, respectively. The primary end point occurred in 9.7% and 8.0%, respectively (p = 1.00) with comparable enzymatic infarct size and bleeding. In conclusion, no significant differences in outcome were found between patients with an LC- and a non-LC-related NSTE-ACS. In LC-related NSTE-ACS, angiography within 12 hours of admission is feasible but not superior to angiography after more than 48 hours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2018.01.031DOI Listing
May 2018

Two-year outcome after early or late Intervention in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.

Open Heart 2017;4(1):e000538. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Department of Cardiology, Isala klinieken, Zwolle, Netherlands.

Objective: To compare long-term outcome of an early to a delayed invasive strategy in high-risk patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS).

Methods: This prospective, multicentre trial included patients with NSTE-ACS and at least two out of three of the following high-risk criteria: (1) evidence of extensive myocardial ischaemia on ECG, (2) elevated biomarkers for myocardial necrosis and (3) age above 65 years. Patients were randomised to either an early (angiography and revascularisation if appropriate <12 hours) or a delayed invasive strategy (>48 hours after randomisation). Endpoint for this prespecified long-term follow-up was the composite incidence of death or reinfarction after 2 years. Data collection was performed by telephone contact with the patients, their relatives or general practitioner and by review of hospital records.

Results: Endpoint status after 2-year follow-up was collected in 521 of 542 initially enrolled patients. Incidence of death or reinfarction was 11.8% in the early and 13.1% in the delayed treatment group (relative risk (RR)=0.90, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.42). No significant differences were found in occurrence of the individual components of the primary endpoint: death 6.1% vs 8.9%, RR 0.69 (95% CI 0.37 to 1.27), reinfarction 6.5% vs 5.4%, RR 1.20 (95% CI 0.60 to 2.38). Post-hoc subgroup analysis showed statistical significant interaction between age and treatment strategy on outcome (p=0.02).

Conclusions: After 2 years follow-up, no difference in incidence of death or reinfarction was seen between early to late invasive strategy. These findings are in line with results of other studies with longer follow-up. Older patients seem to benefit more from early invasive treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2016-000538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5384464PMC
March 2017

Factors associated with deferred lesion failure following fractional flow reserve assessment in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2017 Dec 17;90(7):1077-1083. Epub 2017 Mar 17.

Isala Hartcentrum, Zwolle, The Netherlands.

Objective: To explore the predictors of deferred lesion failure (DLF) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and lesions with a fractional flow reserve (FFR) >0.80 and to examine whether a predictive relationship between negative FFR values (>0.80-1.00) and DLF exists.

Background: DM is associated with rapidly progressive atherosclerosis and predictors of DLF in FFR negative lesions in this high-risk group are unknown.

Methods: All DM patients who underwent FFR-assessment between 1/01/2010 and 31/12/2013 were included, and followed until 1/7/2015. Patients carrying ≥1 FFR negative lesion(s) were assessed for DLF, and multivariate models used to identify independent factors associated with DLF.

Results: A total of 205 patients with 252 FFR >0.80 lesions were identified. At a mean follow-up of 3.1 ± 1.4 years, DLF occurred in 29/205 (14.1%) patients, 31/252 (12.3%) lesions. Using marginal Cox regression multivariate analysis, insulin requiring DM [HR 2.24 (95%CI; 1.01-4.95), P = 0.046] and prior revascularization [HR 2.70 (95%CI 1.21-6.01), P = 0.015] were identified as being associated with a higher incidence of DLF. Absolute FFR values in FFR negative lesions in DM patients are not predictive of DLF (receiver operating characteristics curve analysis: area under the curve: 0.57 ± 0.06, 95%CI 0.46-0.69).

Conclusions: In DM patients with FFR negative lesions, insulin requiring DM and prior revascularization are predictors for DLF. In contrast to non-DM patients, no predictive relationship between absolute negative FFR values (ranging >0.80-1.00) and the risk of DLF exists in DM patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.27002DOI Listing
December 2017
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