Publications by authors named "Renee R Hukkanen"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Opinion on Performing Pathology Peer-Review During the Global Pandemic: Challenges and Opportunities.

Toxicol Pathol 2020 12 12;48(8):944-948. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

6728Covance, Somerset, NJ, USA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has affected business on numerous fronts in unprecedented and abrupt ways. From site closures and local "stay-at-home orders" to travel advisories and restrictions, the day-to-day practice of toxicologic pathology has been impacted dramatically and rapidly. A critical function of Toxicologic Pathologists is performing pathology peer review for nonclinical studies. Traditionally, corroborating the findings of histological assessment could be achieved through shipment of histopathological slides to the peer review pathologist, or by the peer review pathologist traveling to the location of the slides (eg, the test facility). Since early 2020, many pathologists have been unable to perform the latter due to local, regional, national, test facility, company, and/or personal restrictions. The disruption for some has been minimal, while others are working from home for the first time. We recommend that contingency plans for all peer review procedures and personnel should be in-place to accommodate sudden and unexpected workflow transitions. Now, more than ever, approaching peer reviews with enhanced adaptability will help ensure success.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623320964087DOI Listing
December 2020

Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Points to Consider*: The Toxicologic Pathologist's Role in the 3Rs.

Toxicol Pathol 2019 10;47(7):789-798

Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA, USA.

Pathologists are trained medical professionals with special expertise in diagnostics, research, and pathophysiology. In these roles, pathologists are well qualified and positioned to engage in conversations about animal use replacement, reduction, and refinement (3Rs), thereby championing the guiding principles of the 3Rs. In particular, toxicology or nonclinical safety assessment is an important area where the discipline of toxicologic pathology can have a critical role in adopting 3Rs principles. As such, a working group of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee was formed to investigate and summarize some of the areas where veterinary pathologists working in the field of toxicology can increase involvement and impact on 3Rs. This "Points to Consider" publication provides an overview of areas within toxicology where the veterinary pathologist's perspective may maximize animal value, including refinement of study design, optimizing sample collection, the development of 3Rs focused regulatory policy, and humane end point determination.[Box: see text].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623319859261DOI Listing
October 2019

Use of Severity Grades to Characterize Histopathologic Changes.

Toxicol Pathol 2018 04 12;46(3):256-265. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

11 Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland, USA.

The severity grade is an important component of a histopathologic diagnosis in a nonclinical toxicity study that helps distinguish treatment-related effects from background findings and aids in determining adverse dose levels during hazard characterization. Severity grades should be assigned based only on the extent (i.e., amount and complexity) of the morphologic change in the examined tissue section(s) and be clearly defined in the pathology report for critical lesions impacting study interpretation. However, the level of detail provided and criteria by which severity grades are assigned can vary, which can lead to inappropriate comparisons and confusion when evaluating pathology results. To help address this issue, a Working Group of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology's Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee was formed to provide a "points to consider" article on the assignment and application of pathology severity grades. Overall, the Working Group supports greater transparency and consistency in the reporting of grading scales and provides recommendations to improve selection of diagnoses requiring more detailed severity criteria. This information should enhance the overall understanding by toxicologic pathologists, toxicologists, and regulatory reviewers of pathology findings and thereby improve effective communication in regulatory submissions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623318761348DOI Listing
April 2018

Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece: Review of FDA Draft Guidance Testicular Toxicity-Evaluation during Drug Development Guidance for Industry.

Toxicol Pathol 2016 10 29;44(7):927-30. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

MPI Research, Mattawan, Michigan, USA.

In July 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) posted a new draft guidance entitled "Testicular Toxicity: Evaluation during Drug Development Guidance for Industry," with a 90-day public comment period. As the nonclinical assessment of testicular toxicity often relies on the expert interpretation of pathology affecting the male reproductive tract, this draft guidance is considered directly relevant to the toxicologic pathology community. Therefore, a working group was formed through the Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee of the Society of Toxicologic Pathologists (STPs) to provide a detailed review of the draft guidance. Specific comments on the guidance were submitted to the FDA by the STP. The draft guidance and all comments received are currently under review with the FDA. This commentary provides a summary of the components of the draft guidance and the comments submitted by the STP with acknowledgment of different perspectives reflected in comments from other respondents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623316656416DOI Listing
October 2016

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor knockout rats are insensitive to the pathological effects of repeated oral exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

J Appl Toxicol 2016 Jun 17;36(6):802-14. Epub 2015 Aug 17.

The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, USA.

Sustained activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is believed to be the initial key event in AHR receptor-mediated tumorigenesis in the rat liver. The role of AHR in mediating pathological changes in the liver prior to tumor formation was investigated in a 4-week, repeated-dose study using adult female wild-type (WT) and AHR knockout (AHR-KO) rats treated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Beginning at 8 weeks of age, AHR-KO and WT rats were dosed by oral gavage with varying concentrations of TCDD (0, 3, 22, 100, 300 and 1000 ng kg(-1)  day(-1) ). Lung, liver and thymus histopathology, hematology, serum chemistry and the distribution of TCDD in liver and adipose tissue were examined. Treatment-related increases in the severity of liver and thymus pathology were observed in WT, but not AHR-KO rats. In the liver, these included hepatocellular hypertrophy, bile duct hyperplasia, multinucleated hepatocytes and inflammatory cell foci. A loss of cellularity in the thymic cortex and thymic atrophy was observed. Treatment-related changes in serum chemistry parameters were also observed in WT, but not AHR-KO rats. Finally, dose-dependent accumulation of TCDD was observed primarily in the liver of WT rats and primarily in the adipose tissue of AHR-KO rats. The results suggest that AHR activation is the initial key event underlying the progression of histological effects leading to liver tumorigenesis following TCDD treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.3211DOI Listing
June 2016

Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee (SRPC) Points to Consider: Histopathology Evaluation of the Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function Assay (OPPTS 890.1450, OPPTS 890.1500) in Rats to Screen for Endocrine Disruptors.

Toxicol Pathol 2015 Dec 6;43(8):1047-63. Epub 2015 May 6.

The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan, USA Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) is a multitiered approach to determine the potential for environmental chemicals to alter the endocrine system. The Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Intact Juvenile/Peripubertal Female and Male Rats (OPPTS 890.1450, 890.1500) are 2 of the 9 EDSP tier 1 test Guidelines, which assess upstream mechanistic pathways along with downstream morphological end points including histological evaluation of the kidneys, thyroid, and select male/female reproductive tissues (ovaries, uterus, testes, and epididymides). These assays are part of a battery of in vivo and in vitro screens used for initial detection of test article endocrine activity. In this Points to Consider article, we describe tissue processing, evaluation, and nomenclature to aid in standardization of assay results across laboratories. Pubertal assay end points addressed include organ weights, estrous cyclicity, clinical pathology, hormonal assays, and histological evaluation. Potential treatment-related findings that may indicate endocrine disruption are reviewed. Additional tissues that may be useful in assessment of endocrine disruption (vagina, mammary glands, and liver) are discussed. This Points to Consider article is intended to provide information for evaluating peripubertal tissues within the context of individual assay end points, the overall pubertal assay, and tier I assays of the EDSP program.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623315579943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4636471PMC
December 2015

Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee (SRPC) Review: Interpretation and Use of Cell Proliferation Data in Cancer Risk Assessment.

Toxicol Pathol 2015 Aug 22;43(6):760-75. Epub 2015 Apr 22.

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Increased cell proliferation is a central key event in the mode of action for many non-genotoxic carcinogens, and quantitative cell proliferation data play an important role in the cancer risk assessment of many pharmaceutical and environmental compounds. Currently, there is limited unified information on assay standards, reference values, targeted applications, study design issues, and quality control considerations for proliferation data. Here, we review issues in measuring cell proliferation indices, considerations for targeted studies, and applications within current risk assessment frameworks. As the regulatory environment moves toward more prospective evaluations based on quantitative pathway-based models, standardization of proliferation assays will become an increasingly important part of cancer risk assessment. To help address this development, we also discuss the potential role for proliferation data as a component of alternative carcinogenicity testing models. This information should improve consistency of cell proliferation methods and increase efficiency of targeted testing strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623315576005DOI Listing
August 2015

Knockout of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor results in distinct hepatic and renal phenotypes in rats and mice.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2013 Oct 13;272(2):503-18. Epub 2013 Jul 13.

The Hamner Institute for Health Sciences, Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, RTP, NC 27709, USA.

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which plays a role in the development of multiple tissues and is activated by a large number of ligands, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In order to examine the roles of the AHR in both normal biological development and response to environmental chemicals, an AHR knockout (AHR-KO) rat model was created and compared with an existing AHR-KO mouse. AHR-KO rats harboring either 2-bp or 29-bp deletion mutation in exon 2 of the AHR were created on the Sprague-Dawley genetic background using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology. Rats harboring either mutation type lacked expression of AHR protein in the liver. AHR-KO rats were also insensitive to thymic involution, increased hepatic weight and the induction of AHR-responsive genes (Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Ahrr) following acute exposure to 25 μg/kg TCDD. AHR-KO rats had lower basal expression of transcripts for these genes and also accumulated ~30-45-fold less TCDD in the liver at 7 days post-exposure. In untreated animals, AHR-KO mice, but not AHR-KO rats, had alterations in serum analytes indicative of compromised hepatic function, patent ductus venosus of the liver and persistent hyaloid arteries in the eye. AHR-KO rats, but not AHR-KO mice, displayed pathological alterations to the urinary tract: bilateral renal dilation (hydronephrosis), secondary medullary tubular and uroepithelial degenerative changes and bilateral ureter dilation (hydroureter). The present data indicate that the AHR may play significantly different roles in tissue development and homeostasis and toxicity across rodent species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2013.06.024DOI Listing
October 2013

Pulmonary embolization of fat and bone marrow in cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

Comp Med 2011 Feb;61(1):86-91

Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, USA.

Fat embolization (FE), the introduction of bone marrow elements into circulation, is a known complication of bone fractures. Although FE has been described in other animal models, this study represents the first reported cases of FE and bone marrow embolism in nonhuman primates. Histopathologic findings from cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) indicated that in all 5 cases, fat and bone marrow embolization occurred subsequent to multiple bone marrow biopsies. In the most severe case, extensive embolization was associated pulmonary damage consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is an infrequent clinical outcome of FE and is triggered by systemic biochemical and mechanical responses to fat in circulation. Although clinical criteria diagnostic of FES were not investigated at the time of death, this severe case may represent the fulminant form of FES, which occurs within 12 h after trauma. Bone marrow biopsy as an etiology of FES has been reported only once in humans. In addition, the association of embolization with bone marrow biopsies suggests that nonhuman primates may be a useful animal model of FE. FE and FES represent important research confounders and FES should be considered as a differential diagnosis for clinical complications subsequent to skeletal trauma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060615PMC
February 2011

Risk factors for dystocia in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina).

Comp Med 2011 Apr;61(2):170-5

Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Dystocia (difficult labor) is an important component of the management of nonhuman primates and results in significant fetal and maternal morbidity and increased use of veterinary resources. Dystocias can arise from abnormalities of the maternal pelvis or fetus or uncoordinated uterine activity. Although risk factors for stillbirths have been established in nonhuman primates, risk factors for dystocias have not. The objective of this study was to determine maternal and fetal risk factors for dystocia in macaques. Retrospective data were collected from 83 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) diagnosed with dystocia. The diagnosis of dystocia was made based on clinical or pathologic evidence. Maternal records of age, reproductive history, experimental history, clinical records, and fetal birth weight and any applicable fetal necropsy reports were reviewed. The gestational age of the fetus, the infant's birth weight, total previous births by the dam, and the proportions of both viable delivery (inverse effect) and surgical pregnancy interventions (direct effect) in the dam's history generated a model that maximized the experimental variance for predicting dystocia in the current pregnancy and explained 24% of the dystocia deliveries. The number of total previous births and proportion of previous cesarean sections accounted for the greatest effect. This model can identify individual dams within a colony that are at risk for dystocias and allow for changes in breeding colony management, more intense monitoring of dams at risk, or allocation of additional resources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3079820PMC
April 2011

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome in nonhuman primates culminating in multiple organ failure, acute lung injury, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

Toxicol Pathol 2009 Oct;37(6):799-804

University of Washington, Department of Comparative Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195-7190, USA.

The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a clinicopathological manifestation of overexuberant acute-phase inflammation caused by infectious or noninfectious etiologies. The systemic release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and lipid and vasoactive mediators induces endothelial damage and microvascular thrombosis, potentially culminating in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) or failure (MOF). We present five cases in the pig-tailed macaque and olive baboon where SIRS resulted in MOF, ARDS, DIC, and the Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome; each with gross and histological elements manifested as edema, deposition of fibrin, hemorrhage, and thrombosis. In the described cases, SIRS was the end-common pathway for multiple risk factors that parallel those documented in humans: major surgery, obstetric complications, and infection. The diagnosis of SIRS should be considered when evaluating nonhuman primate (NHP) cases of MOF manifesting with histological evidence of vascular leakage. Experimental manipulation of NHP models may be complicated by SIRS and accompanying rapid clinical decompensation. Such adverse events may compromise toxicological studies and should be avoided when possible.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623309343778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4113424PMC
October 2009

West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus antibody seroconversion, prevalence, and persistence in naturally infected pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina).

Clin Vaccine Immunol 2006 Jun;13(6):711-4

Deparatment of Comparative Medicine, Box 357190, University of Wasington School of Medicine, Seattle, 98195-7330, USA.

Pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) naturally infected with West Nile virus were monitored from 1999 to 2005 to determine virus-specific antibody seroconversion, prevalence, and persistence. Antibodies persisted for up to 36 months, as detected by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent and hemagglutination inhibition assays. Exposure to cocirculating St. Louis encephalitis virus was evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00031-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1489554PMC
June 2006

Detection of systemic amyloidosis in the pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina).

Comp Med 2006 Apr;56(2):119-27

Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, USA.

Secondary amyloidosis is a progressive systemic disease for which there is no reliable diagnostic assay, preventive measure, or treatment. In an attempt to elucidate an antemortem diagnosis, 30 female pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) at the Washington National Primate Research Center were surveyed for amyloidosis. Amyloid was demonstrated histologically in 47% (14 of 30) of the animals. The distribution and severity of amyloid deposition was variable. Affected animals had a mean age (+/-1 standard deviation) of 13.2 +/- 4.9 y, which was significantly greater than the mean age of unaffected animals (9.3 +/- 4.1) y. Twelve tests were evaluated for detection of amyloidosis; the diagnostic value of each was determined through comparison of histologically positive and histologically negative animals. Diagnostic tests evaluated were endoscopic examination and biopsy of the stomach and colon, abdominal ultrasonography, hepatic radiology, serum amyloid A (SAA), endothelin 1, alpha-fetal protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, C-reactive proteins, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Amyloidotic animals demonstrated a distinctive serologic profile: elevated SAA, GGT, and AST in combination with decreased total protein and albumin. Radiology demonstrated hepatomegaly in animals with hepatic amyloid deposition. In the absence of known infection or trauma, an amyloidotic serologic profile and radiologic hepatomegaly are consistent with systemic amyloidosis in M. nemestrina.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
April 2006

Comparison of commercially available and novel West Nile virus immunoassays for detection of seroconversion in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina).

Comp Med 2006 Feb;56(1):46-54

Department of Comparative Medicine, Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.

We report the assessment and validation of an NS1 epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) in macaques. Sera from naturally infected Macaca nemestrina were tested by ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results were correlated with hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) data. Our results demonstrate that the blocking ELISA rapidly and specifically detects WNV infection in M. nemestrina. In addition, the diagnostic value of 7 commercially available immunoassays (PanBio immunoglobulin [Ig] M ELISA, PanBio IgG ELISA, PanBio immunofluorescence assay (IFA), InBios IgG ELISA, InBios IgM ELISA, Focus Diagnostics IgG ELISA, and Focus Diagnostics IgM ELISA) in M. nemestrina was evaluated and compared with that of the epitope-blocking ELISA. The PanBio IgG ELISA was found to effectively diagnose WNV exposure in M. nemestrina. Further, PanBio IFA slides are fast and reliable screening tools for diagnosing flaviviral exposure in M. nemestrina.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2006

Avipox sp. in a colony of gray-crowned rosy finches (Leucosticte tephrocotis).

Comp Med 2003 Oct;53(5):548-52

Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington, Box 357190, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

Members of a wild-caught colony of 16 gray-crowned rosy finches (Leucosticte tephrocotis) were presented with dermal and mucosal lesions, anorexia, emaciation, lethargy, and sudden death. Lesions included dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and glossitis. Skin scrapings from and bacterial culture of dermal lesions yielded Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Necropsy and histologic examination revealed characteristic epidermal and mucosal pox lesions, with the presence of characteristic Bollinger body intracellular inclusions. Electron microscopy (EM) provided confirmation of pox virus infection. This epornitic resulted in the death or euthanasia of 12 birds (75% morbidity and associated mortality) and was brought to conclusion through culling of affected birds. The source of infection remains unknown, although multiple modes of introduction exist. Similar epornitics may be prevented through indoor, species-specific housing, and quarantine. Vaccination and antiparasitic treatment may reduce the risk of disease spread.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
October 2003