Publications by authors named "Renaud Touraine"

94 Publications

Historical Patterns of Diagnosis, Treatments, and Outcome of Epilepsy Associated With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Results From TOSCA Registry.

Front Neurol 2021 8;12:697467. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Cardiology Clinical Academic Group, Molecular and Clinical Sciences Research Centre, St Georges University of London, London, United Kingdom.

Epilepsy is the most common neurological manifestation in individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). However, real-world evidence on diagnosis and treatment patterns is limited. Here, we present data from TuberOus Sclerosis registry to increase disease Awareness (TOSCA) on changes in patterns of epilepsy diagnosis, treatments, and outcomes over time, and detailed epilepsy characteristics from the epilepsy substudy. TuberOus Sclerosis registry to increase disease Awareness (TOSCA) was a multicentre, international disease registry, consisting of a main study that collected data on overall diagnostic characteristics and associated clinical features, and six substudies focusing on specific TSC manifestations. The epilepsy substudy investigated detailed epilepsy characteristics and their correlation to genotype and intelligence quotient (IQ). Epilepsy was reported in 85% of participants, more commonly in younger individuals (67.8% in 1970s to 91.8% in last decade), while rate of treatments was similar across ages (>93% for both infantile spasms and focal seizures, except prior to 1960). Vigabatrin (VGB) was the most commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Individuals with infantile spasms showed a higher treatment response over time with lower usage of steroids. Individuals with focal seizures reported similar rates of drug resistance (32.5-43.3%). Use of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), ketogenic diet, and surgery remained low. The epilepsy substudy included 162 individuals from nine countries. At epilepsy onset, most individuals with infantile spasms (73.2%) and focal seizures (74.5%) received monotherapies. Vigabatrin was first-line treatment in 45% of individuals with infantile spasms. Changes in initial AEDs were commonly reported due to inadequate efficacy. TSC1 mutations were associated with less severe epilepsy phenotypes and more individuals with normal IQ. In individuals with TSC diagnosis before seizure onset, electroencephalogram (EEG) was performed prior to seizures in only 12.5 and 25% of subsequent infantile spasms and focal seizures, respectively. Our study confirms the high prevalence of epilepsy in TSC individuals and less severe phenotypes with mutations. Vigabatrin improved the outcome of infantile spasms and should be used as first-line treatment. There is, however, still a need for improving therapies in focal seizures. Electroencephalogram follow-up prior to seizure-onset should be promoted for all infants with TSC in order to facilitate preventive or early treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.697467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8455825PMC
September 2021

GGCX-related congenital combined vitamin K-dependent clotting factors deficiency-1: Description of a fetus with chondrodysplasia punctata.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service de Génétique, Centre de Référence Anomalies du Développement et Centre de Compétence Maladies Osseuses Constitutionnelles, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Bron, France.

Congenital combined vitamin K-dependent clotting factors deficiency (VKCFD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease resulting in hemorrhagic symptoms usually associated with developmental disorders and bone abnormalities. Pathogenic variants in two genes encoding enzymes of the vitamin K cycle, GGCX and VKORC1, can lead to this disorder. We present the case of a male fetus with a brachytelephalangic chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP), absence of nasal bone, growth restriction, and bilateral ventriculomegaly at 18 weeks of gestation. Pathological examination showed a Binder phenotype, hypoplastic distal phalanges, stippled epiphyses, and brain abnormalities suggestive of a brain hemorrhage. Two GGCX pathogenic variants inherited respectively from the mother and the father were identified. To our knowledge, this is the first prenatal description of VKCFD. Even if it remains a rare etiology, which is mostly described in children or adult patients, VKCFD should be considered in fetuses with CDP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62503DOI Listing
September 2021

Care management in a French cohort with Down syndrome from the AnDDI-Rares/CNSA study.

Eur J Med Genet 2021 Oct 15;64(10):104290. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Centre de Référence Anomalies du Développement et Syndromes Malformatifs Ile de France, APHP Robert Debré, Paris, France.

Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder. In individuals with DS, a multidisciplinary approach to care is required to prevent multiple medical complications. The aim of this study was to describe the rehabilitation, medical care, and educational and social support provided to school-aged French DS patients with varying neuropsychological profiles. A mixed study was conducted. Quantitative data were obtained from a French multicentre study that included patients aged 4-20 years with diverse genetic syndromes. Qualitative data were collected by semi-structured face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Ninety-five DS subjects with a mean age of 10.9 years were included. Sixty-six per cent had a moderate intellectual disability (ID) and 18.9% had a severe ID. Medical supervision was generally multidisciplinary but access to medical specialists was often difficult. In terms of education, 94% of children under the age of six were in typical classes. After the age of 15, 75% were in medico-social institutions. Analysis of multidisciplinary rehabilitation conducted in the public and private sectors revealed failure to access physiotherapy, psychomotor therapy and occupational therapy, but not speech therapy. The main barrier encountered by patients was the difficulty accessing appropriate facilities due to a lack of space and long waiting lists. In conclusion, children and adolescents with DS generally received appropriate care. Though the management of children with DS has been improved considerably, access to health facilities remains inadequate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2021.104290DOI Listing
October 2021

Rare manifestations and malignancies in tuberous sclerosis complex: findings from the TuberOus SClerosis registry to increAse disease awareness (TOSCA).

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 07 6;16(1):301. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Cardiology Clinical Academic Group, Molecular and Clinical Sciences Research Centre, St Georges University of London, London, UK.

Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multisystem autosomal dominant disorder caused by pathogenic variants in either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. Common manifestations of TSC have been grouped into major and minor clinical diagnostic criteria and assessed in clinical routine workup. However, case studies point towards the existence of rare disease manifestations and to the potential association of TSC with malignant tumors. In this study we sought to characterize rare manifestations and malignancies using a large cohort of patients.

Methods: TuberOus SClerosis registry to increAse disease awareness (TOSCA) is a multicenter, international disease registry collecting clinical manifestations and characteristics of patients with TSC, both retrospectively and prospectively. We report rates and characteristics of rare manifestations and malignancies in patients with TSC who had enrolled in the TOSCA registry. We also examined these manifestations by age, sex, and genotype (TSC1 or TSC2).

Results: Overall, 2211 patients with TSC were enrolled in the study. Rare manifestations were reported in 382 (17.3%) study participants and malignancies in 65 (2.9%). Of these rare manifestations, the most frequent were bone sclerotic foci (39.5%), scoliosis (23%), thyroid adenoma (5.5%), adrenal angiomyolipoma (4.5%), hemihypertrophy and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET; both 3.1%). These rare manifestations were more commonly observed in adults than children (66.2% vs. 22.7%), in females versus males (58.4% vs. 41.6%; except for scoliosis: 48.9% vs. 51.1%), and in those with TSC2 versus TSC1 (67.0% vs. 21.1%; except for thyroid adenoma: 42.9% vs. 57.1%). In the 65 individuals with reported malignancies, the most common were renal cell carcinoma (47.7%), followed by breast (10.8%) and thyroid cancer (9.2%). Although malignancies were more common in adult patients, 26.1% were reported in children and 63.1% in individuals < 40 years. TSC1 mutations were over-represented in individuals with malignancies compared to the overall TOSCA cohort (32.1% vs. 18.5%).

Conclusion: Rare manifestations were observed in a significant proportion of individuals with TSC. We recommend further examination of rare manifestations in TSC. Collectively, malignancies were infrequent findings in our cohort. However, compared to the general population, malignant tumors occurred earlier in age and some tumor types were more common.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01917-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259106PMC
July 2021

TuberOus SClerosis registry to increAse disease awareness (TOSCA) Post-Authorisation Safety Study of Everolimus in Patients With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

Front Neurol 2021 23;12:630378. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Pediatric Neurology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, UZ Brussel VUB, Brussels, Belgium.

This non-interventional post-authorisation safety study (PASS) assessed the long-term safety of everolimus in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) who participated in the TuberOus SClerosis registry to increase disease Awareness (TOSCA) clinical study and received everolimus for the licensed indications in the European Union. The rate of adverse events (AEs), AEs that led to dose adjustments or treatment discontinuation, AEs of potential clinical interest, treatment-related AEs (TRAEs), serious AEs (SAEs), and deaths were documented. One hundred seventy-nine patients were included in the first 5 years of observation; 118 of 179 patients had an AE of any grade, with the most common AEs being stomatitis (7.8%) and headache (7.3%). AEs caused dose adjustments in 56 patients (31.3%) and treatment discontinuation in nine patients (5%). AEs appeared to be more frequent and severe in children. On Tanner staging, all patients displayed signs of age-appropriate sexual maturation. Twenty-two of 106 female (20.8%) patients had menstrual cycle disorders. The most frequent TRAEs were stomatitis (6.7%) and aphthous mouth ulcer (5.6%). SAEs were reported in 54 patients (30.2%); the most frequent SAE was pneumonia (>3% patients; grade 2, 1.1%, and grade 3, 2.8%). Three deaths were reported, all in patients who had discontinued everolimus for more than 28 days, and none were thought to be related to everolimus according to the treating physicians. The PASS sub-study reflects the safety and tolerability of everolimus in the management of TSC in real-world routine clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.630378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021912PMC
March 2021

Screening of the duplication 24 pb of ARX gene in Moroccan patients with X-linked Intellectual Disability.

BMC Res Notes 2021 Mar 23;14(1):110. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Biomedical Genomics and Oncogenetics Research Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier, University Abdelmalek Essaadi, P.B.:416, Tangier, Morocco.

Objective: Intellectual Disability (ID) represents a neuropsychiatric disorder, which its etiopathogenesis remains insufficiently understood. Mutations in the Aristaless Related Homeobox gene (ARX) have been identified to cause syndromic and nonsyndromic (NS-ID). The most recurrent mutation of this gene is a duplication of 24pb, c.428-451dup. Epidemiological and genetic studies about ID in the Moroccan population remain very scarce, and none study is carried out on the ARX gene. This work aimed to study c.428-451dup (24 bp) mutation in the exon 2 of the ARX gene in 118 males' Moroccan patients with milder NS-ID to evaluate if the gene screening is a good tool for identifying NS-ID.

Results: Our mutational analysis did not show any dup(24pb) in our patients. This is because based on findings from previous studies that found ARX mutations in 70% of families with NS-ID, and in most cases, 1.5-6.1% of individuals with NS-ID have this duplication. Since 1/118 = 0.0084 (0.84%) is not much different from 1.5%, then it is reasonable that this could a sample size artifact. A complete screening of the entire ARX gene, including the five exons, should be fulfilled. Further investigations are required to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-021-05526-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988900PMC
March 2021

Clinical and neuroimaging findings in 33 patients with MCAP syndrome: A survey to evaluate relevant endpoints for future clinical trials.

Clin Genet 2021 05 20;99(5):650-661. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Centre de Référence Anomalies du Développement et Syndromes Malformatifs, FHU TRANSLAD, Hôpital d'Enfants, CHU Dijon, Dijon, France.

Megalencephaly-CApillary malformation-Polymicrogyria (MCAP) syndrome results from somatic mosaic gain-of-function variants in PIK3CA. Main features are macrocephaly, somatic overgrowth, cutaneous vascular malformations, connective tissue dysplasia, neurodevelopmental delay, and brain anomalies. The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and radiological features of MCAP, to suggest relevant clinical endpoints applicable in future trials of targeted drug therapy. Based on a French collaboration, we collected clinical features of 33 patients (21 females, 12 males, median age of 9.9 years) with MCAP carrying mosaic PIK3CA pathogenic variants. MRI images were reviewed for 21 patients. The main clinical features reported were macrocephaly at birth (20/31), postnatal macrocephaly (31/32), body/facial asymmetry (21/33), cutaneous capillary malformations (naevus flammeus 28/33, cutis marmorata 17/33). Intellectual disability was present in 15 patients. Among the MRI images reviewed, the neuroimaging findings were megalencephaly (20/21), thickening of corpus callosum (16/21), Chiari malformation (12/21), ventriculomegaly/hydrocephaly (10/21), cerebral asymmetry (6/21) and polymicrogyria (2/21). This study confirms the main known clinical features that defines MCAP syndrome. Taking into account the phenotypic heterogeneity in MCAP patients, in the context of emerging clinical trials, we suggest that patients should be evaluated based on the main neurocognitive expression on each patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13918DOI Listing
May 2021

X-linked partial corpus callosum agenesis with mild intellectual disability: identification of a novel L1CAM pathogenic variant.

Neurogenetics 2021 03 7;22(1):43-51. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Genetics and Reference Center for Developmental Disorders, Lyon University Hospital, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France.

Pathogenic variants in L1CAM, the gene encoding the L1 cell adhesion molecule, are responsible for a wide clinical spectrum including X-linked hydrocephalus with stenosis of the Sylvius aqueduct, MASA syndrome (mental retardation, aphasia, shuffling gait, adducted thumbs), and a form of spastic paraplegia (SPG1). A moderate phenotype with mild intellectual disability (ID) and X-linked partial corpus callosum agenesis (CCA) has only been related to L1CAM in one family. We report here a second family, including 5 patients with mild to moderate ID and partial CCA without signs usually associated with L1CAM pathogenic variations (such as hydrocephalus, pyramidal syndrome, thumb adductus, aphasia). We identified a previously unreported c.3226A > C transversion leading to a p.Thr1076Pro amino acid substitution in the fifth fibronectin type III domain (FnIII) of the protein which co-segregates with the phenotype within the family. We performed in vitro assays to assess the pathogenic status of this variation. First, the expression of the novel p.Thr1076Pro mutant in COS7 cells resulted in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention and reduced L1CAM cell surface expression, which is expected to affect both L1CAM-mediated cell-cell adhesion and neurite growth. Second, immunoblotting techniques showed that the immature form of the L1CAM protein was increased, indicating that this variation led to a lack of maturation of the protein. ID associated with CCA is not a common clinical presentation of L1CAM pathogenic variants. Genome-wide analyses will identify such variations and it is important to acknowledge this atypical phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10048-020-00629-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Next-generation sequencing in a series of 80 fetuses with complex cardiac malformations and/or heterotaxy.

Hum Mutat 2020 12 10;41(12):2167-2178. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Centre de Génétique Humaine, CHU Franche-Comté, Besançon, France.

Herein, we report the screening of a large panel of genes in a series of 80 fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHDs) and/or heterotaxy and no cytogenetic anomalies. There were 49 males (61%/39%), with a family history in 28 cases (35%) and no parental consanguinity in 77 cases (96%). All fetuses had complex CHD except one who had heterotaxy and midline anomalies while 52 cases (65%) had heterotaxy in addition to CHD. Altogether, 29 cases (36%) had extracardiac and extra-heterotaxy anomalies. A pathogenic variant was found in 10/80 (12.5%) cases with a higher percentage in the heterotaxy group (8/52 cases, 15%) compared with the non-heterotaxy group (2/28 cases, 7%), and in 3 cases with extracardiac and extra-heterotaxy anomalies (3/29, 10%). The inheritance was recessive in six genes (DNAI1, GDF1, MMP21, MYH6, NEK8, and ZIC3) and dominant in two genes (SHH and TAB2). A homozygous pathogenic variant was found in three cases including only one case with known consanguinity. In conclusion, after removing fetuses with cytogenetic anomalies, next-generation sequencing discovered a causal variant in 12.5% of fetal cases with CHD and/or heterotaxy. Genetic counseling for future pregnancies was greatly improved. Surprisingly, unexpected consanguinity accounts for 20% of cases with identified pathogenic variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24132DOI Listing
December 2020

Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy Caused by a Homozygous Splicing Variant of SLC7A6OS.

Ann Neurol 2021 02 5;89(2):402-407. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Genetics Department, Lyon Civil Hospices, Lyon, France.

Exome sequencing was performed in 2 unrelated families with progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Affected individuals from both families shared a rare, homozygous c.191A > G variant affecting a splice site in SLC7A6OS. Analysis of cDNA from lymphoblastoid cells demonstrated partial splice site abolition and the creation of an abnormal isoform. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot showed a marked reduction of protein expression. Haplotype analysis identified a ~0.85cM shared genomic region on chromosome 16q encompassing the c.191A > G variant, consistent with a distant ancestor common to both families. Our results suggest that biallelic loss-of-function variants in SLC7A6OS are a novel genetic cause of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:402-407.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25941DOI Listing
February 2021

Renal Manifestations of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Key Findings From the Final Analysis of the TOSCA Study Focussing Mainly on Renal Angiomyolipomas.

Front Neurol 2020 16;11:972. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Klinikverbund Allgäu gGmbH, Kempten, Germany.

Renal angiomyolipomas are one of the most common renal manifestations in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), with potentially life-threatening complications and a poor prognosis. Despite the considerable progress in understanding TSC-associated renal angiomyolipomas, there are no large scale real-world data. The aim of our present study was to describe in detail the prevalence and outcome of renal angiomyolipomas in patients with TSC, enrolled into the TuberOus SClerosis registry to increase disease Awareness (TOSCA) from 170 sites across 31 countries worldwide. We also sought to evaluate the relationship of TSC-associated renal angiomyolipomas with age, gender and genotype. The potential risk factors for renal angiomyolipoma-related bleeding and chronic kidney disease (CKD) were studied in patients who participated in the TOSCA renal angiomyolipoma substudy. Of the 2,211 eligible patients, 1,062 (48%) reported a history of renal angiomyolipomas. The median age of TSC diagnosis for the all subjects ( = 2,211) was 1 year. The median age of diagnosis of renal angiomyolipoma in the 1,062 patients was 13 years. Renal angiomyolipomas were significantly more prevalent in female patients ( < 0.0001). Rates of angiomyolipomas >3 cm ( = 0.0119), growing lesions ( = 0.0439), and interventions for angiomyolipomas ( = 0.0058) were also higher in females than males. Pre-emptive intervention for renal angiomyolipomas with embolisation, surgery, or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor may have abolished the gender difference in impaired renal function, hypertension, and other complications. The rate of interventions for angiomyolipomas was less common in children than in adults, but interventions were reported in all age groups. In the substudy of 76 patients the complication rate was too low to be useful in predicting risk for more severe CKD. In addition, in this substudy no patient had a renal hemorrhage after commencing on an mTOR inhibitor. Our findings confirmed that renal angiomyolipomas in subjects with mutations develop on average at the later age, are relatively smaller in size and less likely to be growing; however, by age 40 years, no difference was observed in the percentage of patients with and mutations needing intervention. The peak of appearance of new renal angiomyolipomas was observed in patients aged between 18 and 40 years, but, given that angiomyolipomas can occur later, lifelong surveillance is necessary. We found that pre-emptive intervention was dramatically successful in altering the outcome compared to historical controls; with high pre-emptive intervention rates but low rates of bleeding and other complications. This validates the policy of surveillance and pre-emptive intervention recommended by clinical guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526256PMC
September 2020

Leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts: Genetic and phenotypic spectrum.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 01 7;185(1):15-25. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Paediatric Neurology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK.

Biallelic mutations in SNORD118, encoding the small nucleolar RNA U8, cause leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts (LCC). Given the difficulty in interpreting the functional consequences of variants in nonprotein encoding genes, and the high allelic polymorphism across SNORD118 in controls, we set out to provide a description of the molecular pathology and clinical spectrum observed in a cohort of patients with LCC. We identified 64 affected individuals from 56 families. Age at presentation varied from 3 weeks to 67 years, with disease onset after age 40 years in eight patients. Ten patients had died. We recorded 44 distinct, likely pathogenic, variants in SNORD118. Fifty two of 56 probands were compound heterozygotes, with parental consanguinity reported in only three families. Forty nine of 56 probands were either heterozygous (46) or homozygous (three) for a mutation involving one of seven nucleotides that facilitate a novel intramolecular interaction between the 5' end and 3' extension of precursor-U8. There was no obvious genotype-phenotype correlation to explain the marked variability in age at onset. Complementing recently published functional analyses in a zebrafish model, these data suggest that LCC most often occurs due to combinatorial severe and milder mutations, with the latter mostly affecting 3' end processing of precursor-U8.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61907DOI Listing
January 2021

Burden of Illness and Quality of Life in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Findings From the TOSCA Study.

Front Neurol 2020 28;11:904. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Cardiology Clinical Academic Group, Molecular and Clinical Sciences Research Centre, St Georges University of London, London, United Kingdom.

Research on tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) to date has focused mainly on the physical manifestations of the disease. In contrast, the psychosocial impact of TSC has received far less attention. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the impact of TSC on health, quality of life (QoL), and psychosocial well-being of individuals with TSC and their families. Questionnaires with disease-specific questions on burden of illness (BOI) and validated QoL questionnaires were used. After completion of additional informed consent, we included 143 individuals who participated in the TOSCA (TuberOus SClerosis registry to increase disease Awareness) study. Our results highlighted the substantial burden of TSC on the personal lives of individuals with TSC and their families. Nearly half of the patients experienced negative progress in their education or career due to TSC (42.1%), as well as many of their caregivers (17.6% employed; 58.8% unemployed). Most caregivers (76.5%) indicated that TSC affected family life, and social and working relationships. Further, well-coordinated care was lacking: a smooth transition from pediatric to adult care was mentioned by only 36.8% of adult patients, and financial, social, and psychological support in 21.1, 0, and 7.9%, respectively. In addition, the moderate rates of pain/discomfort (35%) and anxiety/depression (43.4%) reported across all ages and levels of disease demonstrate the high BOI and low QoL in this vulnerable population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485558PMC
August 2020

Natural clusters of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-associated neuropsychiatric disorders (TAND): new findings from the TOSCA TAND research project.

J Neurodev Disord 2020 09 1;12(1):24. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Pediatric Neurology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, UZ Brussel VUB, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-associated neuropsychiatric disorders (TAND) have unique, individual patterns that pose significant challenges for diagnosis, psycho-education, and intervention planning. A recent study suggested that it may be feasible to use TAND Checklist data and data-driven methods to generate natural TAND clusters. However, the study had a small sample size and data from only two countries. Here, we investigated the replicability of identifying natural TAND clusters from a larger and more diverse sample from the TOSCA study.

Methods: As part of the TOSCA international TSC registry study, this embedded research project collected TAND Checklist data from individuals with TSC. Correlation coefficients were calculated for TAND variables to generate a correlation matrix. Hierarchical cluster and factor analysis methods were used for data reduction and identification of natural TAND clusters.

Results: A total of 85 individuals with TSC (female:male, 40:45) from 7 countries were enrolled. Cluster analysis grouped the TAND variables into 6 clusters: a scholastic cluster (reading, writing, spelling, mathematics, visuo-spatial difficulties, disorientation), a hyperactive/impulsive cluster (hyperactivity, impulsivity, self-injurious behavior), a mood/anxiety cluster (anxiety, depressed mood, sleep difficulties, shyness), a neuropsychological cluster (attention/concentration difficulties, memory, attention, dual/multi-tasking, executive skills deficits), a dysregulated behavior cluster (mood swings, aggressive outbursts, temper tantrums), and an autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like cluster (delayed language, poor eye contact, repetitive behaviors, unusual use of language, inflexibility, difficulties associated with eating). The natural clusters mapped reasonably well onto the six-factor solution generated. Comparison between cluster and factor solutions from this study and the earlier feasibility study showed significant similarity, particularly in cluster solutions.

Conclusions: Results from this TOSCA research project in an independent international data set showed that the combination of cluster analysis and factor analysis may be able to identify clinically meaningful natural TAND clusters. Findings were remarkably similar to those identified in the earlier feasibility study, supporting the potential robustness of these natural TAND clusters. Further steps should include examination of larger samples, investigation of internal consistency, and evaluation of the robustness of the proposed natural clusters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11689-020-09327-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465404PMC
September 2020

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex-Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TAND): New Findings on Age, Sex, and Genotype in Relation to Intellectual Phenotype.

Front Neurol 2020 7;11:603. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Pediatric Neurology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, UZ Brussel VUB, Brussels, Belgium.

Knowledge is increasing about TSC-Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TAND), but little is known about the potentially confounding effects of intellectual ability (IA) on the rates of TAND across age, sex, and genotype. We evaluated TAND in (a) children vs. adults, (b) males vs. females, and (c) vs. mutations, after stratification for levels of IA, in a large, international cohort. Individuals of any age with a documented visit for TSC in the 12 months prior to enrolment were included. Frequency and percentages of baseline TAND manifestations were presented by categories of IA (no intellectual disability [ID, intelligence quotient (IQ)>70]; mild ID [IQ 50-70]; moderate-to-profound ID [IQ<50]). Chi-square tests were used to test associations between ID and TAND manifestations. The association between TAND and age (children vs. adults), sex (male vs. female), and genotype ( vs. ) stratified by IA levels were examined using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests. Eight hundred and ninety four of the 2,211 participants had formal IQ assessments. There was a significant association ( < 0.05) between levels of IA and the majority of TAND manifestations, except impulsivity ( = 0.12), overactivity ( = 0.26), mood swings ( = 0.08), hallucinations ( = 0.20), psychosis ( = 0.06), depressive disorder ( = 0.23), and anxiety disorder ( = 0.65). Once controlled for IA, children had higher rates of overactivity, but most behavioral difficulties were higher in adults. At the psychiatric level, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was seen at higher rates in children while anxiety and depressive disorders were observed at higher rates in adults. Compared to females, males showed significantly higher rates of impulsivity and overactivity, as well as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD. No significant age or sex differences were observed for academic difficulties or neuropsychological deficits. After controlling for IA no genotype-TAND associations were observed, except for higher rates of self-injury in individuals with mutations. Findings suggest IA as risk marker for most TAND manifestations. We provide the first evidence of male preponderance of ASD and ADHD in individuals with TSC. The study also confirms the association between and IA but, once controlling for IA, disproves the previously reported association with ASD and with most other TAND manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7358578PMC
July 2020

Genotype-first in a cohort of 95 fetuses with multiple congenital abnormalities: when exome sequencing reveals unexpected fetal phenotype-genotype correlations.

J Med Genet 2021 06 30;58(6):400-413. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Service d'Imagerie médicale, CHU de Besançon, Besançon, France.

Purpose: Molecular diagnosis based on singleton exome sequencing (sES) is particularly challenging in fetuses with multiple congenital abnormalities (MCA). Indeed, some studies reveal a diagnostic yield of about 20%, far lower than in live birth individuals showing developmental abnormalities (30%), suggesting that standard analyses, based on the correlation between clinical hallmarks described in postnatal syndromic presentations and genotype, may underestimate the impact of the genetic variants identified in fetal analyses.

Methods: We performed sES in 95 fetuses with MCA. Blind to phenotype, we applied a genotype-first approach consisting of combined analyses based on variants annotation and bioinformatics predictions followed by reverse phenotyping. Initially applied to OMIM-morbid genes, analyses were then extended to all genes. We complemented our approach by using reverse phenotyping, variant segregation analysis, bibliographic search and data sharing in order to establish the clinical significance of the prioritised variants.

Results: sES rapidly identified causal variant in 24/95 fetuses (25%), variants of unknown significance in OMIM genes in 8/95 fetuses (8%) and six novel candidate genes in 6/95 fetuses (6%).

Conclusions: This method, based on a genotype-first approach followed by reverse phenotyping, shed light on unexpected fetal phenotype-genotype correlations, emphasising the relevance of prenatal studies to reveal extreme clinical presentations associated with well-known Mendelian disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-106867DOI Listing
June 2021

AICA-ribosiduria due to ATIC deficiency: Delineation of the phenotype with three novel cases, and long-term update on the first case.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2020 11 9;43(6):1254-1264. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Service de Génétique, CHU-Hôpital Nord, Saint-Etienne, France.

5-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide-ribosiduria (AICA)-ribosiduria is an exceedingly rare autosomal recessive condition resulting from the disruption of the bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PURH (ATIC), which catalyzes the last two steps of de novo purine synthesis. It is characterized biochemically by the accumulation of AICA-riboside in urine. AICA-ribosiduria had been reported in only one individual, 15 years ago. In this article, we report three novel cases of AICA-ribosiduria from two independent families, with two novel pathogenic variants in ATIC. We also provide a clinical update on the first patient. Based on the phenotypic features shared by these four patients, we define AICA-ribosiduria as the syndromic association of severe-to-profound global neurodevelopmental impairment, severe visual impairment due to chorioretinal atrophy, ante-postnatal growth impairment, and severe scoliosis. Dysmorphic features were observed in all four cases, especially neonatal/infancy coarse facies with upturned nose. Early-onset epilepsy is frequent and can be pharmacoresistant. Less frequently observed features are aortic coarctation, chronic hepatic cytolysis, minor genital malformations, and nephrocalcinosis. Alteration of the transformylase activity of ATIC might result in a more severe impairment than the alteration of the cyclohydrolase activity. Data from literature points toward a cytotoxic mechanism of the accumulated AICA-riboside.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12274DOI Listing
November 2020

Further delineation of the female phenotype with KDM5C disease causing variants: 19 new individuals and review of the literature.

Clin Genet 2020 07 29;98(1):43-55. Epub 2020 May 29.

INSERM UMR1231, Equipe Génétique des Anomalies du Développement, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France.

X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is a genetically heterogeneous condition involving more than 100 genes. To date, 35 pathogenic variants have been reported in the lysine specific demethylase 5C (KDM5C) gene. KDM5C variants are one of the major causes of moderate to severe XLID. Affected males present with short stature, distinctive facial features, behavioral disorders, epilepsy, and spasticity. For most of these variants, related female carriers have been reported, but phenotypic descriptions were poor. Here, we present clinical and molecular features of 19 females carrying 10 novel heterozygous variants affecting KDM5C function, including five probands with de novo variants. Four heterozygous females were asymptomatic. All affected individuals presented with learning disabilities or ID (mostly moderate), and four also had a language impairment mainly affecting expression. Behavioral disturbances were frequent, and endocrine disorders were more frequent in females. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence of the role of KDM5C in ID in females highlighting the increasing implication of XLID genes in females, even in sporadic affected individuals. Disease expression of XLID in females should be taken into consideration for genetic counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13755DOI Listing
July 2020

Identification of TSC1 or TSC2 mutation limited to the tumor in three cases of solitary subependymal giant cell astrocytoma using next-generation sequencing technology.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 05 26;36(5):961-965. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Service de Génétique Clinique, Chromosomique et Moléculaire, Centre de Compétence des Epilepsies rares (CReER), CHU-Hôpital Nord, Saint Etienne, France.

Purpose: Subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are low grade intraventricular tumors typically found in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The occurrence of SEGA in non TSC patients is very rare and from a genetic point of view these so-called solitary SEGA are thought to result either from somatic mutations in one of the TSC genes (TSC1 or TSC2) limited to the tumor, or be part of a "forme fruste" of TSC with somatic mosaicism. We report on three new cases of solitary SEGA with germline and somatic mutation analysis.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed TSC genes in three patients with a solitary SEGA using next-generation sequencing technique.

Results: In the three patients, a somatic mutation of TSC1 or TSC2 was found only in the tumor cells: one patient had a TSC1 heterozygote mutation, involving the natural acceptor splicing site of intron 15 (c.1998-1G > A (p.?). Two patients had a TSC2 mutation located in the canonical splicing donor site of intron 5 (c.599 + 1G > A) in 70% of the alleles in one patient and in exon 9: c.949_955dup7 (p.V319DfxX21) in 25 of the alleles in the second patient. No other TSC mutations were found in patient's blood or tumor and those identified mutations were absent in blood DNA from parents and siblings.

Conclusion: We therefore conclude that solitary SEGA can occur with a TSC1 or TSC2 mutation limited to the tumor in patients without TSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-04551-4DOI Listing
May 2020

Epileptogenicity in tuberous sclerosis complex: A stereoelectroencephalographic study.

Epilepsia 2020 01 20;61(1):81-95. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

National Institute of Health and Medical Research U1028/National Center for Scientific Research, Mixed Unit of Research 5292, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Lyon, France.

Objective: In tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-associated drug-resistant epilepsy, the optimal invasive electroencephalographic (EEG) and operative approach remains unclear. We examined the role of stereo-EEG in TSC and used stereo-EEG data to investigate tuber and surrounding cortex epileptogenicity.

Methods: We analyzed 18 patients with TSC who underwent stereo-EEG (seven adults). One hundred ten seizures were analyzed with the epileptogenicity index (EI). In 13 patients with adequate tuber sampling, five anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) were defined: dominant tuber (tuber with highest median EI), perituber cortex, secondary tuber (tuber with second highest median EI), nearby cortex (normal-appearing cortex in the same lobe as dominant tuber), and distant cortex (in other lobes). At the seizure level, epileptogenicity of ROIs was examined by comparing the highest EI recorded within each anatomical region. At the patient level, epileptogenic zone (EZ) organization was separated into focal tuber (EZ confined to dominant tuber) and complex (all other patterns).

Results: The most epileptogenic ROI was the dominant tuber, with higher EI than perituber cortex, secondary tuber, nearby cortex, and distant cortex (P < .001). A focal tuber EZ organization was identified in seven patients. This group had 80% Engel IA postsurgical outcome and distinct dominant tuber characteristics: continuous interictal discharges (IEDs; 100%), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hypointense center (86%), center-to-rim EI gradient, and stimulation-induced seizures (71%). In contrast, six patients had a complex EZ organization, characterized by nearby cortex as the most epileptogenic region and 40% Engel IA outcome. At the intratuber level, the combination of FLAIR hypointense center, continuous IEDs, and stimulation-induced seizures offered 98% specificity for a focal tuber EZ organization.

Significance: Tubers with focal EZ organization have a striking similarity to type II focal cortical dysplasia. The presence of distinct EZ organizations has significant implications for EZ hypothesis generation, invasive EEG approach, and resection strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16410DOI Listing
January 2020

The TOSCA Registry for Tuberous Sclerosis-Lessons Learnt for Future Registry Development in Rare and Complex Diseases.

Front Neurol 2019 13;10:1182. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, Imagine Institute, Inserm U1163, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.

The TuberOus SClerosis registry to increase disease Awareness (TOSCA) is an international disease registry designed to provide insights into the clinical characteristics of patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). The aims of this study were to identify issues that arose during the design, execution, and publication phases of TOSCA, and to reflect on lessons learnt that may guide future registries in rare and complex diseases. A questionnaire was designed to identify the strengths, weaknesses, and issues that arose at any stage of development and implementation of the TOSCA registry. The questionnaire contained 225 questions distributed in 7 sections (identification of issues during registry planning, during the operation of the registry, during data analysis, during the publication of the results, other issues, assessment of lessons learnt, and additional comments), and was sent by e-mail to 511 people involved in the registry, including 28 members of the Scientific Advisory Board (SAB), 162 principal investigators (PIs), and 321 employees of the sponsor belonging to the medical department or that were clinical research associate (CRA). Questionnaires received within the 2 months from the initial mailing were included in the analysis. A total of 53 (10.4%) questionnaires were received (64.3% for SAB members, 12.3% for PIs and 4.7% for employees of the sponsor), and the overall completeness rate for closed questions was 87.6%. The most common issues identified were the limited duration of the registry (38%) and issues related to handling of missing data (32%). In addition, 25% of the respondents commented that biases might have compromised the validity of the results. More than 80% of the respondents reported that the registry improved the knowledge on the natural history and manifestations of TSC, increased disease awareness and helped to identify relevant information for clinical research in TSC. This analysis shows the importance of registries as a powerful tool to increase disease awareness, to produce real-world evidence, and to generate questions for future research. However, there is a need to implement strategies to ensure patient retention and long-term sustainability of patient registries, to improve data quality, and to reduce biases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.01182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6863928PMC
November 2019

Treatment Patterns and Use of Resources in Patients With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Insights From the TOSCA Registry.

Front Neurol 2019 25;10:1144. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Pediatric Neurology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in the or genes. Patients with TSC may suffer from a wide range of clinical manifestations; however, the burden of TSC and its impact on healthcare resources needed for its management remain unknown. Besides, the use of resources might vary across countries depending on the country-specific clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to describe the use of TSC-related resources and treatment patterns within the TOSCA registry. A total of 2,214 patients with TSC from 31 countries were enrolled and had a follow-up of up to 5 years. A search was conducted to identify the variables containing both medical and non-medical resource use information within TOSCA. This search was performed both at the level of the core project as well as at the level of the research projects on epilepsy, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), and renal angiomyolipoma (rAML) taking into account the timepoints of the study, age groups, and countries. Data from the quality of life (QoL) research project were analyzed by type of visit and age at enrollment. Treatments varied greatly depending on the clinical manifestation, timepoint in the study, and age groups. GAB Aergics were the most prescribed drugs for epilepsy, and mTOR inhibitors are dramatically replacing surgery in patients with SEGA, despite current recommendations proposing both treatment options. mTOR inhibitors are also becoming common treatments in rAML and LAM patients. Forty-two out of the 143 patients (29.4%) who participated in the QoL research project reported inpatient stays over the last year. Data from non-medical resource use showed the critical impact of TSC on job status and capacity. Disability allowances were more common in children than adults (51.1% vs 38.2%). Psychological counseling, social services and social worker services were needed by <15% of the patients, regardless of age. The long-term nature, together with the variability in its clinical manifestations, makes TSC a complex and resource-demanding disease. The present study shows a comprehensive picture of the resource use implications of TSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.01144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6823684PMC
October 2019

Phenotypic and genetic spectrum of alveolar capillary dysplasia: a retrospective cohort study.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2020 Jul 22;105(4):387-392. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Clinical Genetics, CHU Nancy, Nancy, France.

Objective: Alveolar capillary dysplasia (ACD) is one of the causes of pulmonary hypertension. Its diagnosis is histological but new pathogenetic data have emerged. The aim of this study was to describe a French cohort of patients with ACD to improve the comprehension and the diagnosis of this pathology which is probably underdiagnosed.

Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in French hospitals. Patients born between 2005 and 2017, whose biological samples were sent to the French genetic reference centres, were included. Clinical, histological and genetic data were retrospectively collected.

Results: We presented a series of 21 patients. The mean of postmenstrual age at birth was 37.6 weeks. The first symptoms appeared on the median of 2.5 hours. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed in 20 patients out of 21. Two cases had prolonged survival (3.3 and 14 months). Histological analysis was done on lung tissue from autopsy (57.1% of cases) or from percutaneous biopsy (28.6%). was found abnormal in 15 patients (71.4%): 8 deletions and 7 point mutations. Two deletions were found by chromosomal microarray.

Conclusion: This study is one of the largest clinically described series in literature. It seems crucial to integrate genetics early into diagnostic support. We propose a diagnostic algorithm for helping medical teams to improve diagnosis of this pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2019-317121DOI Listing
July 2020

Arthritis associated to cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome related to a MAP2K1 mutation.

Joint Bone Spine 2020 Mar 27;87(2):169. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Department of rheumatology, North hospital, university hospital of St-Étienne, avenue Albert-Raimond, 42270 Saint-Priest-en-Jarez, France; SAINBIOSE, Inserm U1059, university of Lyon, Saint-Etienne, 42023 Saint-Étienne, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2019.09.014DOI Listing
March 2020

Newly Diagnosed and Growing Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma in Adults With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Results From the International TOSCA Study.

Front Neurol 2019 2;10:821. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Cardiology Clinical Academic Group, Molecular and Clinical Sciences Research Centre, St. Georges University of London, London, United Kingdom.

The onset and growth of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) typically occurs in childhood. There is minimal information on SEGA evolution in adults with TSC. Of 2,211 patients enrolled in TOSCA, 220 of the 803 adults (27.4%) ever had a SEGA. Of 186 patients with SEGA still ongoing in adulthood, 153 (82.3%) remained asymptomatic, and 33 (17.7%) were reported to ever have developed symptoms related to SEGA growth. SEGA growth since the previous scan was reported in 39 of the 186 adults (21%) with ongoing SEGA. All but one patient with growing SEGA had mutations in . Fourteen adults (2.4%) were newly diagnosed with SEGA during follow-up, and majority had mutations in . Our findings suggest that surveillance for new or growing SEGA is warranted also in adulthood, particularly in patients with mutations in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.00821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6688052PMC
August 2019

Expanding the phenotypic spectrum of Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome in patients with SLC16A2 mutations.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2019 12 13;61(12):1439-1447. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Centre de Compétence des Leucodystrophies et Leucoencéphalopathies de Cause Rare, Pôle Femme et Enfant, Hôpital Estaing, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

The aim of the study was to redefine the phenotype of Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), which is caused by mutations in the SLC16A2 gene that encodes the brain transporter of thyroid hormones. Clinical phenotypes, brain imaging, thyroid hormone profiles, and genetic data were compared to the existing literature. Twenty-four males aged 11 months to 29 years had a mutation in SLC16A2, including 12 novel mutations and five previously described mutations. Sixteen patients presented with profound developmental delay, three had severe intellectual disability with poor language and walking with an aid, four had moderate intellectual disability with language and walking abilities, and one had mild intellectual disability with hypotonia. Overall, eight had learned to walk, all had hypotonia, 17 had spasticity, 18 had dystonia, 12 had choreoathetosis, 19 had hypomyelination, and 10 had brain atrophy. Kyphoscoliosis (n=12), seizures (n=7), and pneumopathies (n=5) were the most severe complications. This study extends the phenotypic spectrum of AHDS to a mild intellectual disability with hypotonia. Developmental delay, hypotonia, hypomyelination, and thyroid hormone profile help to diagnose patients. Clinical course depends on initial severity, with stable acquisition after infancy; this may be adversely affected by neuro-orthopaedic, pulmonary, and epileptic complications. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Mild intellectual disability is associated with SLC16A2 mutations. A thyroid hormone profile with a free T /T ratio higher than 0.75 can help diagnose patients. Patients with SLC16A2 mutations present a broad spectrum of neurological phenotypes that are also observed in other hypomyelinating disorders. Axial hypotonia is a consistent feature of Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and leads to specific complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.14332DOI Listing
December 2019

Clinical Characteristics of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

Front Neurol 2019 3;10:705. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Cardiology Clinical Academic Group, Molecular and Clinical Sciences Research Centre, St. Georges University of London, London, United Kingdom.

This study evaluated the characteristics of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) entered into the TuberOus SClerosis registry to increase disease Awareness (TOSCA). The study was conducted at 170 sites across 31 countries. Data from patients of any age with a documented clinical visit for TSC in the 12 months preceding enrollment or those newly diagnosed with TSC were entered. SEGA were reported in 554 of 2,216 patients (25%). Median age at diagnosis of SEGA was 8 years (range, <1-51), with 18.1% diagnosed after age 18 years. SEGA growth occurred in 22.7% of patients aged ≤ 18 years and in 11.6% of patients aged > 18 years. SEGA were symptomatic in 42.1% of patients. Symptoms included increased seizure frequency (15.8%), behavioural disturbance (11.9%), and regression/loss of cognitive skills (9.9%), in addition to those typically associated with increased intracranial pressure. SEGA were significantly more frequent in patients with compared to variants (33.7 vs. 13.2 %, < 0.0001). Main treatment modalities included surgery (59.6%) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors (49%). Although SEGA diagnosis and growth typically occurs during childhood, SEGA can occur and grow in both infants and adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.00705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6616060PMC
July 2019

A novel de novo splicing mutation c.1444-2A>T in the TSC2 gene causes exon skipping and premature termination in a patient with tuberous sclerosis syndrome.

IUBMB Life 2019 12 18;71(12):1937-1945. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia.

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) syndrome is a neurocutaneous syndrome that affects the brain, skin, and kidneys that has an adverse impact on the patient's health and quality of life. There have been several recent advances that elucidate the genetic complex of this disorder that will help understand the basic neurobiology of this disorder. We report a Tunisian patient with clinical manifestations of TSC syndrome. We investigated the causative molecular defect in this patient using PCR followed by direct sequencing. Subsequently, in silico studies and mRNA analysis were performed to study the pathogenicity of the new variation found in the TSC2. Bioinformatics tools predicted that the novel mutation c.1444-2A>T have pathogenic effects on splicing machinery. RT-PCR followed by sequencing revealed that the mutation c.1444-2A>T generates two aberrant transcripts. The first, with exon 15 skipping, is responsible for the loss of 52 amino acids, which causes the production of an aberrant protein isoform. The second, with the inclusion of 122 nucleotides of intron 14, is responsible for the creation of new premature termination codons (TGA), which causes the production of a truncated TSC2 protein. This study highlighted the clinical features of a Tunisian patient with TSC syndrome and revealed a splicing mutation c.1444-2A>T within intron 14 of TSC2 gene, which is present for the first time using Sanger sequencing approach, as a disease-causing mutation in a Tunisian patient with TSC syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.2134DOI Listing
December 2019

Risk estimation of uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 or 15 in a fetus with a parent carrying a non-homologous Robertsonian translocation. Should we still perform prenatal diagnosis?

Prenat Diagn 2019 10 19;39(11):986-992. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Centre de Génétique Chromosomique, GH de l'Institut Catholique de Lille-Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Lille, France.

Objective: Uniparental disomy (UPD) testing is currently recommended during pregnancy in fetuses carrying a balanced Robertsonian translocation (ROB) involving chromosome 14 or 15, both chromosomes containing imprinted genes. The overall risk that such a fetus presents a UPD has been previously estimated to be around ~0.6-0.8%. However, because UPD are rare events and this estimate has been calculated from a number of studies of limited size, we have reevaluated the risk of UPD in fetuses for whom one of the parents was known to carry a nonhomologous ROB (NHROB).

Method: We focused our multicentric study on NHROB involving chromosome 14 and/or 15. A total of 1747 UPD testing were performed in fetuses during pregnancy for the presence of UPD(14) and/or UPD(15).

Result: All fetuses were negative except one with a UPD(14) associated with a maternally inherited rob(13;14).

Conclusion: Considering these data, the risk of UPD following prenatal diagnosis of an inherited ROB involving chromosome 14 and/or 15 could be estimated to be around 0.06%, far less than the previous estimation. Importantly, the risk of miscarriage following an invasive prenatal sampling is higher than the risk of UPD. Therefore, we do not recommend prenatal testing for UPD for these pregnancies and parents should be reassured.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.5518DOI Listing
October 2019

Molecular investigation, using chromosomal microarray and whole exome sequencing, of six patients affected by Williams Beuren syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2019 05 31;14(1):121. Epub 2019 May 31.

Service de Génétique, Centre de Référence Anomalies du Développement, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France.

Williams Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a multiple malformations/intellectual disability (ID) syndrome caused by 7q11.23 microdeletion and clinically characterized by a typical neurocognitive profile including excessive talkativeness and social disinhibition, often defined as "overfriendliness" and "hyersociability". WBS is generally considered as the polar opposite phenotype to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Surprisingly, the prevalence of ASD has been reported to be significantly higher in WBS (12%) than in general population (1%). Our study aims to investigate the molecular basis of the peculiar association of ASD and WBS. We performed chromosomal microarray analysis and whole exome sequencing in six patients presenting with WBS and ASD, in order to evaluate the possible presence of chromosomal or gene variants considered as pathogenic.Our study shows that the presence of ASD in the recruited WBS patients is due to i) neither atypically large deletions; ii) nor the presence of pathogenic variants in genes localized in the non-deleted 7q11.23 allele which would unmask recessive conditions; iii) moreover, we did not identify a second, indisputable independent genetic diagnosis, related to pathogenic Copy Number Variations or rare pathogenic exonic variants in known ID/ASD causing genes, although several variants of unknown significance were found. Finally, imprinting effect does not appear to be the only cause of autism in WBS patients, since the deletions occurred in alleles of both maternal and paternal origin.The social disinhibition observed in WBS does not follow common social norms and symptoms overlapping with ASD, such as restricted interests and repetitive behavior, can be observed in "typical" WBS patients: therefore, the terms "overfriendliness" and "hypersociability" appear to be a misleading oversimplification.The etiology of ASD in WBS is likely to be heterogeneous. Further studies on large series of patients are needed to clarify the observed variability in WBS social communication, ranging from excessive talkativeness and social disinhibition to absence of verbal language and social deficit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-019-1094-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6545013PMC
May 2019
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