Publications by authors named "Renaud Lafage"

201 Publications

Lateral Thoracolumbar Listhesis as an Independent Predictor of Disability in Adult Scoliosis Patients: Multivariable Assessment Before and After Surgical Realignment.

Neurosurgery 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: Lateral (ie, coronal) vertebral listhesis may contribute to disability in adult scoliosis patients.

Objective: To assess for a correlation between lateral listhesis and disability among patients with adult scoliosis.

Methods: This was a retrospective multi-center analysis of prospectively collected data. Patients eligible for a minimum of 2-yr follow-up and with coronal plane deformity (defined as maximum Cobb angle ≥20º) were included (n = 724). Outcome measures were Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and leg pain numeric scale rating. Lateral thoracolumbar listhesis was measured as the maximum vertebral listhesis as a percent of the superior endplate across T1-L5 levels. Linear and logistic regression was utilized, as appropriate. Multivariable analyses adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, surgical invasiveness, maximum Cobb angle, and T1-PA. Minimally clinically important difference (MCID) in ODI was defined as 12.8.

Results: In total, 724 adult patients were assessed. The mean baseline maximum lateral thoracolumbar listhesis was 18.3% (standard deviation 9.7%). The optimal statistical grouping for lateral listhesis was empirically determined to be none/mild (<6.7%), moderate (6.7-15.4%), and severe (≥15.4%). In multivariable analysis, listhesis of moderate and severe vs none/mild was associated with worse baseline ODI (none/mild = 33.7; moderate = 41.6; severe = 43.9; P < .001 for both comparisons) and leg pain NSR (none/mild = 2.9, moderate = 4.0, severe = 5.1, P < .05). Resolution of severe lateral listhesis to none/mild was independently associated with increased likelihood of reaching MCID in ODI at 2 yr postoperatively (odds ratio 2.1 95% confidence interval 1.2-3.7, P = .0097).

Conclusion: Lateral thoracolumbar listhesis is associated with worse baseline disability among adult scoliosis patients. Resolution of severe lateral listhesis following deformity correction was independently associated with increased likelihood of reaching MCID in ODI at 2-yr follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyab356DOI Listing
September 2021

The impact of preoperative supine radiographs on surgical strategy in adult spinal deformity.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Sep 10:1-7. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Objective: Preoperative planning for adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery is essential to prepare the surgical team and consistently obtain postoperative alignment goals. Positional imaging may allow the surgeon to evaluate spinal flexibility and anticipate the need for more invasive techniques. The purpose of this study was to determine whether spine flexibility, defined by the change in alignment between supine and standing imaging, is associated with the need for an osteotomy in ASD surgery.

Methods: A single-center, dual-surgeon retrospective analysis was performed of adult patients with ASD who underwent correction of a thoracolumbar deformity between 2014 and 2018 (pelvis to upper instrumented vertebra between L1 and T9). Patients were stratified into osteotomy (Ost) and no-osteotomy (NOst) cohorts according to whether an osteotomy was performed (Schwab grade 2 or higher). Demographic, surgical, and radiographic parameters were compared. The sagittal correction from intraoperative prone positioning alone (sagittal flexibility percentage [Sflex%]) was assessed by comparing the change in lumbar lordosis (LL) between preoperative supine to standing radiographs and preoperative to postoperative alignment.

Results: Demographics and preoperative and postoperative sagittal alignment were similar between the Ost (n = 60, 65.9%) and NOst (n = 31, 34.1%) cohorts (p > 0.05). Of all Ost patients, 71.7% had a grade 2 osteotomy (mean 3 per patient), 21.7% had a grade 3 osteotomy, and 12.5% underwent both grade 3 and grade 2 osteotomies. Postoperatively, the NOst and Ost cohorts had similar pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) mismatch (mean PI-LL 5.2° vs 1.2°; p = 0.205). Correction obtained through positioning (Sflex%) was significantly lower for in the osteotomy cohort (38.0% vs 76.3%, p = 0.004). A threshold of Sflex% < 70% predicted the need for osteotomy at a sensitivity of 78%, specificity of 56%, and positive predictive value of 77%.

Conclusions: The flexibility of the spine is quantitatively related to the use of an osteotomy. Prospective studies are needed to determine thresholds that may be used to standardize surgical decision-making in ASD surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.3.SPINE201739DOI Listing
September 2021

Association of findings on preoperative extension lateral cervical radiography with osteotomy type, approach, and postoperative cervical alignment after cervical deformity surgery.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Sep 3:1-6. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California.

Objective: The authors' objective was to determine whether preoperative lateral extension cervical spine radiography can be used to predict osteotomy type and postoperative alignment parameters after cervical spine deformity surgery.

Methods: A total of 106 patients with cervical spine deformity were reviewed. Radiographic parameters on preoperative cervical neutral and extension lateral radiography were compared with 3-month postoperative radiographic alignment parameters. The parameters included T1 slope, C2 slope, C2-7 cervical lordosis, cervical sagittal vertical axis, and T1 slope minus cervical lordosis. Associations of radiographic parameters with osteotomy type and surgical approach were also assessed.

Results: On extension lateral radiography, patients who underwent lower grade osteotomy had significantly lower T1 slope, T1 slope minus cervical lordosis, cervical sagittal vertical axis, and C2 slope. Patients who achieved more normal parameters on extension lateral radiography were more likely to undergo surgery via an anterior approach. Although baseline parameters were significantly different between neutral lateral and extension lateral radiographs, 3-month postoperative lateral and preoperative extension lateral radiographs were statistically similar for T1 slope minus cervical lordosis and C2 slope.

Conclusions: Radiographic parameters on preoperative extension lateral radiography were significantly associated with surgical approach and osteotomy grade and were similar to those on 3-month postoperative lateral radiography. These results demonstrated that extension lateral radiography is useful for preoperative planning and predicting postoperative alignment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.3.SPINE202156DOI Listing
September 2021

Sagittal age-adjusted score (SAAS) for adult spinal deformity (ASD) more effectively predicts surgical outcomes and proximal junctional kyphosis than previous classifications.

Spine Deform 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Orthopedics, Hospital for Special Surgery, 525 E 71st St., Belaire 4E, New York, NY, 10021, USA.

Background: Several methodologies have been proposed to determine ideal ASD sagittal spinopelvic alignment (SRS-Schwab classification) global alignment and proportion (GAP) score, patient age-adjusted alignment). A recent study revealed the ability and limitations of these methodologies to predict PJK. The aim of the study was to develop a new approach, inspired by SRS classification, GAP score, and age-alignment to improve the evaluation of the sagittal plane.

Method: A multi-center ASD database was retrospectively evaluated for surgically treated ASD patients with complete fusion of the lumbar spine, and minimum 2 year follow-up. The Sagittal age-adjusted score (SAAS) methodology was created by assigning numerical values to the difference between each patient's postoperative sagittal alignment and ideal alignment defined by previously reported age generational norms for PI-LL, PT, and TPA. Postoperative HRQOL and PJK severity between each SAAS categories were evaluated.

Results: 409 of 667 (61.3%) patients meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated. At 2 year SAAS score showed that 27.0% of the patients were under-corrected, 51.7% over-corrected, and 21.3% matched their age-adjusted target. SAAS score increased as PJK worsened (from SAAS = 0.2 for no-PJK, to 4.0 for PJF, p < 0.001). Post-operatively, HRQOL differences between SAAS groups included ODI, SRS pain, and SRS total.

Conclusion: Inspired by SRS classification, the concept of the GAP score, and age-adjusted alignment targets, the results demonstrated significant association with PJK and patient reported outcomes. With a lower rate of failure and better HRQOL, the SAAS seems to represent a "sweet spot" to optimize HRQOL while mitigating the risk of mechanical complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00397-1DOI Listing
August 2021

Global coronal decompensation and adult spinal deformity surgery: comparison of upper-thoracic versus lower-thoracic proximal fixation for long fusions.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Aug 27:1-13. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

18Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Objective: Deterioration of global coronal alignment (GCA) may be associated with worse outcomes after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. The impact of fusion length and upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) selection on patients with this complication is unclear. The authors' objective was to compare outcomes between long sacropelvic fusion with upper-thoracic (UT) UIV and those with lower-thoracic (LT) UIV in patients with worsening GCA ≥ 1 cm.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of a prospective multicenter database of consecutive ASD patients. Index operations involved instrumented fusion from sacropelvis to thoracic spine. Global coronal deterioration was defined as worsening GCA ≥ 1 cm from preoperation to 2-year follow-up.

Results: Of 875 potentially eligible patients, 560 (64%) had complete 2-year follow-up data, of which 144 (25.7%) demonstrated worse GCA at 2-year postoperative follow-up (35.4% of UT patients vs 64.6% of LT patients). At baseline, UT patients were younger (61.6 ± 9.9 vs 64.5 ± 8.6 years, p = 0.008), a greater percentage of UT patients had osteoporosis (35.3% vs 16.1%, p = 0.009), and UT patients had worse scoliosis (51.9° ± 22.5° vs 32.5° ± 16.3°, p < 0.001). Index operations were comparable, except UT patients had longer fusions (16.4 ± 0.9 vs 9.7 ± 1.2 levels, p < 0.001) and operative duration (8.6 ± 3.2 vs 7.6 ± 3.0 hours, p = 0.023). At 2-year follow-up, global coronal deterioration averaged 2.7 ± 1.4 cm (1.9 to 4.6 cm, p < 0.001), scoliosis improved (39.3° ± 20.8° to 18.0° ± 14.8°, p < 0.001), and sagittal spinopelvic alignment improved significantly in all patients. UT patients maintained smaller positive C7 sagittal vertical axis (2.7 ± 5.7 vs 4.7 ± 5.7 cm, p = 0.014). Postoperative 2-year health-related quality of life (HRQL) significantly improved from baseline for all patients. HRQL comparisons demonstrated that UT patients had worse Scoliosis Research Society-22r (SRS-22r) Activity (3.2 ± 1.0 vs 3.6 ± 0.8, p = 0.040) and SRS-22r Satisfaction (3.9 ± 1.1 vs 4.3 ± 0.8, p = 0.021) scores. Also, fewer UT patients improved by ≥ 1 minimal clinically important difference in numerical rating scale scores for leg pain (41.3% vs 62.7%, p = 0.020). Comparable percentages of UT and LT patients had complications (208 total, including 53 reoperations, 77 major complications, and 78 minor complications), but the percentage of reoperated patients was higher among UT patients (35.3% vs 18.3%, p = 0.023). UT patients had higher reoperation rates of rod fracture (13.7% vs 2.2%, p = 0.006) and pseudarthrosis (7.8% vs 1.1%, p = 0.006) but not proximal junctional kyphosis (9.8% vs 8.6%, p = 0.810).

Conclusions: In ASD patients with worse 2-year GCA after long sacropelvic fusion, UT UIV was associated with worse 2-year HRQL compared with LT UIV. This may suggest that residual global coronal malalignment is clinically less tolerated in ASD patients with longer fusion to the proximal thoracic spine. These results may inform operative planning and improve patient counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.2.SPINE201938DOI Listing
August 2021

Does Matching Roussouly Spinal Shape and Improvement in SRS-Schwab Modifier Contribute to Improved Patient-reported Outcomes?

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Sep;46(18):1258-1263

Department of Orthopedics, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Study Design: Retrospective review.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of matching Roussouly and improving in Schwab modifier following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery.

Summary Of Background Data: The Roussouly Classification system of sagittal spinal shape and the SRS-Schwab classification system have become important indicators of spine deformity. No previous studies have examined the outcomes of matching both Roussouly type and improving in Schwab modifiers postoperatively.

Methods: Surgical ASD patients with available baseline (BL) and 1 year (1Y) radiographic data were isolated in the single-center spine database. Patients were classified by their "theoretical" and "current" Roussouly types as previously published. Patients were considered a "Match" if their theoretical and current Roussouly types were the same, or a "Mismatch" if the types differed. Patients were noted as improved if they were Roussouly "Mismatch" preoperatively, and "Match" at 1Y postop. Schwab modifiers at BL were categorized as follows: no deformity (0), moderate deformity (+), and severe deformity (++) for PT, SVA, and PI-LL. Improvement in SRS-Schwab was defined as a decrease in any modifier severity at 1Y.

Results: 103 operative ASD patients (61.8 years, 63.1% female, 30 kg/m2) were included. At baseline, breakdown of "current" Roussouly type was: 28% Type 1, 25.3% Type 2, 32.0% Type 3, 14.7% Type 4. 65.3% of patients were classified as Roussouly "Mismatch" at BL. Breakdown of BL Schwab modifier severity: PT (+: 41.7%, ++: 49.5%), SVA (+: 20.3%, ++: 50%), PI-LL (+: 25.2%, ++: 46.6%). At 1 year postop, 19.2% of patients had Roussouly "Match". Analysis of Schwab modifiers showed that 12.6% improved in SVA, 42.7% in PI-LL, and 45.6% in PT. Count of patients who both had a Roussouly type "Match" at 1Y and improved in Schwab modifier severity: nine PT (8.7%), eight PI-LL (7.8%), and two SVA (1.9%). There were two patients (1.9%) who met their Roussouly type and improved in all three Schwab. 1Y matched Roussouly patients improved more in health-related quality of life scores (minimal clinically important difference [MCID] for Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], EuroQol-5D-3L [EQ5D], Visual Analogue Score Leg/Back Pain), compared to mismatched, but was not significant (P > 0.05). Match Roussouly and improvement in PT Schwab met MCID for EQ5D more (P = 0.050). Matched Roussouly and improvement in SVA Schwab met MCID for ODI more (P = 0.024).

Conclusion: Patients who both matched Roussouly sagittal spinal type and improved in SRS-Schwab modifiers had superior patient-reported outcomes. Utilizing both classification systems in surgical decision-making can optimize postop outcomes.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003999DOI Listing
September 2021

Multicenter assessment of outcomes and complications associated with transforaminal versus anterior lumbar interbody fusion for fractional curve correction.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Aug 20:1-14. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

18Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Objective: Few studies have compared fractional curve correction after long fusion between transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for adult symptomatic thoracolumbar/lumbar scoliosis (ASLS). The objective of this study was to compare fractional correction, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and complications associated with L4-S1 TLIF versus those of ALIF as an operative treatment of ASLS.

Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed a prospective multicenter adult spinal deformity database. Inclusion required a fractional curve ≥ 10°, a thoracolumbar/lumbar curve ≥ 30°, index TLIF or ALIF performed at L4-5 and/or L5-S1, and a minimum 2-year follow-up. TLIF and ALIF patients were propensity matched according to the number and type of interbody fusion at L4-S1.

Results: Of 135 potentially eligible consecutive patients, 106 (78.5%) achieved the minimum 2-year follow-up (mean ± SD age 60.6 ± 9.3 years, 85% women, 44.3% underwent TLIF, and 55.7% underwent ALIF). Index operations had mean ± SD 12.2 ± 3.6 posterior levels, 86.6% of patients underwent iliac fixation, 67.0% underwent TLIF/ALIF at L4-5, and 84.0% underwent TLIF/ALIF at L5-S1. Compared with TLIF patients, ALIF patients had greater cage height (10.9 ± 2.1 mm for TLIF patients vs 14.5 ± 3.0 mm for ALIF patients, p = 0.001) and lordosis (6.3° ± 1.6° for TLIF patients vs 17.0° ± 9.9° for ALIF patients, p = 0.001) and longer operative duration (6.7 ± 1.5 hours for TLIF patients vs 8.9 ± 2.5 hours for ALIF patients, p < 0.001). In all patients, final alignment improved significantly in terms of the fractional curve (20.2° ± 7.0° to 6.9° ± 5.2°), maximum coronal Cobb angle (55.0° ± 14.8° to 23.9° ± 14.3°), C7 sagittal vertical axis (5.1 ± 6.2 cm to 2.3 ± 5.4 cm), pelvic tilt (24.6° ± 8.1° to 22.7° ± 9.5°), and lumbar lordosis (32.3° ± 18.8° to 51.4° ± 14.1°) (all p < 0.05). Matched analysis demonstrated comparable fractional correction (-13.6° ± 6.7° for TLIF patients vs -13.6° ± 8.1° for ALIF patients, p = 0.982). In all patients, final HRQL improved significantly in terms of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score (42.4 ± 16.3 to 24.2 ± 19.9), physical component summary (PCS) score of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (32.6 ± 9.3 to 41.3 ± 11.7), and Scoliosis Research Society-22r score (2.9 ± 0.6 to 3.7 ± 0.7) (all p < 0.05). Matched analysis demonstrated worse ODI (30.9 ± 21.1 for TLIF patients vs 17.9 ± 17.1 for ALIF patients, p = 0.017) and PCS (38.3 ± 12.0 for TLIF patients vs 45.3 ± 10.1 for ALIF patients, p = 0.020) scores for TLIF patients at the last follow-up (despite no differences in these parameters at baseline). The rates of total complications were similar (76.6% for TLIF patients vs 71.2% for ALIF patients, p = 0.530), but significantly more TLIF patients had rod fracture (28.6% of TLIF patients vs 7.1% of ALIF patients, p = 0.036). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that a 1-mm increase in L4-5 TLIF cage height led to a 2.2° reduction in L4 coronal tilt (p = 0.011), and a 1° increase in L5-S1 ALIF cage lordosis led to a 0.4° increase in L5-S1 segmental lordosis (p = 0.045).

Conclusions: Operative treatment of ASLS with L4-S1 TLIF versus ALIF demonstrated comparable mean fractional curve correction (66.7% vs 64.8%), despite use of significantly larger, more lordotic ALIF cages. TLIF cage height had a significant impact on leveling L4 coronal tilt, whereas ALIF cage lordosis had a significant impact on restoration of lumbosacral lordosis. The advantages of TLIF may include reduced operative duration and hospitalization; however, associated HRQL was inferior and more rod fractures were detected in the TLIF patients included in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.11.SPINE201915DOI Listing
August 2021

Does Achieving Global Spinal Alignment Lead to Higher Patient Satisfaction and Lower Disability in Adult Spinal Deformity?

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Aug;46(16):1105-1110

Spine service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Study Design: Multicenter retrospective review of prospective database.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between postoperative alignment and satisfaction.

Summary Of Background Data: Achieving high satisfaction is the main goal of any treatment, including adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. Despite being one of the key elements, literature is sparse regarding postoperative factors influencing patient satisfaction.

Methods: ASD patients with 2-year follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Patients without revision after the index procedure were stratified according to deformity type: sagittal (T1 pelvic angle >22°), coronal (C7 plumb line [C7PL] >5 cm or MaxCobb >50°), or mixed. Bivariate correlation between satisfaction and postoperative data was conducted on the entire cohort as well as by type of preoperative deformity. Multivariate regression controlling for pre-op alignment and demographic information was used to identify independent predictors of 2Y satisfaction.

Results: A total of 509 patients were included in the analysis (58.7 ± 14.8, 80% females). The quality of life significantly improved between pre- and 2-year (ΔOswestry Disability Index [ODI]: 17.6, p < 0.001). At 2 years, SRS22 satisfaction was 4.27 ± 0.89 (median 4.5). Significant associations were found between satisfaction and disability (ODI, r = -0.50) and global coronal (C7PL r = -0.15) and sagittal (sagittal vertical axis [SVA], r = -0.10) alignment (all p < 0.01) but not with the coronal clavicle angle. Stratification by preoperative deformity revealed significant associations between satisfaction and SVA for sagittal deformity only, C7PL and MaxCobb for coronal only, and C7PL for combined deformity. In the multivariate analysis controlling for demographic and pre-op deformity, 2-year ODI and 2-year C7PL were independent predictors of satisfaction. Multilinear regression demonstrated 2-year SVA, pre-op ODI and patient's age were the independent predictors 2-year ODI.

Conclusion: The ability to restore global alignment depends on the severity of the preoperative deformity as well as the correction of the main aspect of the deformity. Achieving global coronal and sagittal alignment is an independent predictor of both satisfaction and disability at 2 years post-op. Patients who continue to be disabled are also not satisfied.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000004002DOI Listing
August 2021

Increasing Cost Efficiency in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Identifying Predictors of Lower Total Costs.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Division of Spinal Surgery/Departments of Orthopaedic and Neurosurgery, NYU Medical Center, NY Spine Institute, New York, NY, USA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Norton Leatherman Spine Center, Louisville, KY, USA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Seattle, WA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baylor Scoliosis Center, Dallas, Texas, USA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD Department of Spine Surgery, Denver International Spine Clinic, Presbyterian St. Luke's/Rocky Mountain Hospital for Children, Denver, Colorado. Department of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA.

Study Design: Retrospective study of a prospective multicenter database.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of lower total surgery costs at 3 years for Adult Spinal Deformity (ASD) patients.

Summary Of Background Data: ASD surgery involves complex deformity correction.

Methods: Inclusion criteria: surgical ASD (scoliosis≥20°, SVA≥5 cm, PT≥25°, or thoracic kyphosis ≥60°) patients >18 years. Total costs for surgery were calculated using the PearlDiver database. Cost per quality adjusted life year was assessed. A Conditional Variable Importance Table used non-replacement sampling set of 20,000 Conditional Inference trees to identify top factors associated with lower cost surgery for low (LSVA), moderate (MSVA), and high (HSVA) SRS Schwab SVA grades.

Results: 316/322 ASD patients met inclusion criteria. At 3Y follow up, the potential cost of ASD surgery ranged from $57,606.88 to $116,312.54. The average costs of surgery at 3 years was found to be $72,947.87, with no significant difference in costs between deformity groups (p > 0.05). There were 152 LSVA patients, 53 MSVA patients, and 111 HSVA patients. For all patients, the top predictors of lower costs were frailty scores <0.19, BL SRS Activity >1.5, baseline (BL) ODI <50 (all p < 0.05). For LSVA patients, no history of osteoporosis, SRS Activity scores >1.5, age <64, were the top predictors of lower costs (all p < 0.05). Among MSVA patients, ASD invasiveness scores <94.16, no past history of cancer, and frailty scores <0.3 trended towards lower total costs (p = 0.071, p = 0.210). For HSVA, no history of smoking and BMI <27.8 trended towards lower costs (both p = 0.060).

Conclusions: ASD surgery has the potential for improved cost efficiency, as costs ranged from $57,606.88 to $116,312.54. Predictors of lower costs included higher baseline SRS activity, decreased frailty, and not having depression. Additionally, predictors of lower costs were identified for different baseline deformity profiles, allowing for the optimization of cost efficiency for all patients.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000004201DOI Listing
August 2021

Examination of Adult Spinal Deformity Patients Undergoing Surgery with Implanted Spinal Cord Stimulators and Intrathecal Pumps.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Orthopaedics, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI Brown University, Providence, RI Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA Department of Orthopedics, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York, NY University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA Duke University, Durham, NC Washington University, St. Louis, MO University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA Norton Leatherman Spine Center, Louisville, KY Scripp's Clinic, La Jolla, CA Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD University of Calgary Spine Program, University of Calgary, Alberta Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baylor Scoliosis Center, Dallas, TX University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS Denver International Spine Center, Denver, CO University of California-San Francisco, CA Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Seattle, WA.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study of a prospectively collected multi-center database of adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients.

Objective: We hypothesized that patients undergoing ASD surgery with and without previous SCS/ITP would exhibit increased complication rates but comparable improvement in HRQOL.

Summary Of Background Data: ASD patients sometimes seek pain management with spinal cord stimulators (SCS) or intrathecal medication pumps (ITP) prior to spinal deformity correction. Few studies have examined outcomes in this patient population.

Methods: Patients undergoing ASD surgery and eligible for 2-year follow-up were included. Pre-operative radiographs were reviewed for the presence of SCS/ITP. Outcomes included complications, ODI, SF-36 MCS, and SRS-22r. Propensity score matching was utilized.

Results: In total, out of 1,034 eligible ASD patients, a propensity score-matched cohort of 60 patients (30 with SCS/ITP, 30 controls) was developed. SCS/ITP were removed intra-operatively in most patients (56.7%, n = 17). The overall complication rate was 80.0% versus 76.7% for SCS/ITP versus control (p > 0.2), with similarly non-significant differences for intraoperative and infection complications (all p > 0.2). ODI was significantly higher among patients with SCS/ITP at baseline (59.2 versus 47.6, p = 0.0057) and at 2-year follow-up (44.4 versus 27.7, p = 0.0295). The magnitude of improvement, however, did not significantly differ (p = 0.45). Similar results were observed for SRS-22r pain domain. Satisfaction did not differ between groups at either baseline or follow-up (p > 0.2). No significant difference was observed in the proportion of patients with SCS/ITP versus control reaching MCID in ODI (47.6% versus 60.9%, p = 0.38). Narcotic usage was more common among patients with SCS/ITP at both baseline and follow-up (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: ASD patients undergoing surgery with SCS/ITP exhibited worse preoperative and post-operative ODI and SRS-22r pain domain; however, the mean improvement in outcome scores was not significantly different from patients without stimulators or pumps. No significant differences in complications were observed between patients with versus without SCS/ITP.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000004176DOI Listing
July 2021

Redefining cervical spine deformity classification through novel cutoffs: An assessment of the relationship between radiographic parameters and functional neurological outcomes.

J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2021 Apr-Jun;12(2):157-164. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Spine Surgery, Denver International Spine Center, Presbyterian St. Luke's/Rocky Mountain Hospital for Children, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Purpose: The aim is to investigate the relationship between cervical parameters and the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association scale (mJOA).

Materials And Methods: Surgical adult cervical deformity (CD) patients were included in this retrospective analysis. After determining data followed a parametric distribution through the Shapiro-Wilk Normality ( = 0.15, > 0.05), Pearson correlations were run for radiographic parameters and mJOA. For significant correlations, logistic regressions were performed to determine a threshold of radiographic measures for which the correlation with mJOA scores was most significant. mJOA score of 14 and <12 reported cut-off values for moderate (M) and severe (S) disability. New modifiers were compared to an existing classification using Spearman's rho and logistic regression analyses to predict outcomes up to 2 years.

Results: A total of 123 CD patients were included (60.5 years, 65%F, 29.1 kg/m). For significant baseline factors from Pearson correlations, the following thresholds were predicted: MGS (M:-12 to-9° and 0°-19°, = 0.020; S: >19° and <-12°, χ= 4.291, = 0.036), TS-CL (M: 26°to 45°, = 0.201; S: >45°, χ= 7.8, = 0.005), CL (M:-21° to 3°, χ= 8.947, = 0.004; S: <-21°, χ= 9.3, = 0.009), C2-T3 (M: -35° to -25°, χ= 5.485, = 0.046; S: <-35°, χ= 4.1, = 0.041), C2 Slope (M: 33° to 49°, = 0.122; S: >49°, χ= 5.7, = 0.008), and Frailty (Mild: 0.18-0.27, = 0.129; Severe: >0.27, = 0.002). Compared to existing Ames- International Spine Study Group classification, the novel thresholds demonstrated significant predictive value for reoperation and mortality up to 2 years.

Conclusions: Collectively, these radiographic values can be utilized in refining existing classifications and developing collective understanding of severity and surgical targets in corrective surgery for adult CD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcvjs.jcvjs_22_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214235PMC
June 2021

Not Frail and Elderly: How Invasive Can We Go In This Different Type of Adult Spinal Deformity Patient?

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Spinal Surgery/Departments of Orthopaedic and Neurosurgery, NYU Medical Center, NY Spine Institute, New York, NY, USA UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York, NY Department of Orthopaedics, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, SUNY Downstate, New York, NY.

Study Design: Retrospective review of a single-center spine database.

Objective: Investigate the intersections of chronological age and physiological age via frailty to determine the influence of surgical invasiveness on patient outcomes.

Summary Of Background Data: Frailty is a well-established factor in preoperative risk stratification and prediction of postoperative outcomes. The surgical profile of operative adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients who present as elderly and not frail has yet to be investigated. Our aim was to examine the surgical profile and outcomes of ASD patients who were not frail and elderly.

Methods: Included: ASD patients≥18 years old, ≥4 levels fused, with baseline(BL) and follow up data. Patients were categorized by ASD frailty index: Not Frail[NF], Frail[F], Severely Frail [SF]. An elderly patient was defined as ≥70 years. Patients were grouped into NF/elderly and F/elderly. SRS-Schwab modifiers were assessed at baseline and 1-year(0, +, ++). Logistic regression analysis assessed the relationship between increasing invasiveness, no reoperations, or major complications, and improvement in SRS-Schwab modifiers[Good Outcome]. Decision tree analysis assessed thresholds for an invasiveness risk/benefit cutoff point.

Results: 598 ASD pts included(55.3yrs, 59.7%F, 28.3 kg/m2). 29.8% of patients were above age 70. At baseline, 51.3% of patients were NF, 37.5% F, and 11.2% SF. 66(11%) of patients were NF and elderly. 24.2% of NF-Elderly patients improved in SRS-Schwab by 1-year and had no reoperation or complication postoperatively. Binary regression analysis found a relationship between worsening SRS-Schwab, postop complication, and reoperation with invasiveness score(OR: 1.056[1.013-1.102], p = 0.011). Risk/benefit cut-off was 10(p = 0.004). Patients below this threshold were 7.9[2.2-28.4] times more likely to have a Good Outcome. 156 patients were elderly and F/SF with 16.7% having Good Outcome, with a risk/benefit cut-off point of <8 (4.4[2.2-9.0], p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Frailty status impacted the balance of surgical invasiveness relative to operative risk in an inverse manner, while the opposite was seen amongst elderly patients with a frailty status less than their chronologic age. Surgeons should perhaps consider incorporation of frailty status over age status when determining realignment plans in patients of advanced age.Level of Evidence: ???
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000004148DOI Listing
June 2021

Improvement in some Ames-ISSG cervical deformity classification modifier grades may correlate with clinical improvement.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Jul 21;89:297-304. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

This retrospective cohort study describes adult cervical deformity(ACD) patients with Ames-ACD classification at baseline(BL) and 1-year post-operatively and assesses the relationship of improvement in Ames modifiers with clinical outcomes. Patients ≥ 18yrs with BL and post-op(1-year) radiographs were included. Patients were categorized with Ames classification by primary deformity descriptors (C = cervical; CT = cervicothoracic junction; T = thoracic; S = coronal) and alignment/myelopathy modifiers(C2-C7 Sagittal Vertical Axis[cSVA], T1 Slope-Cervical Lordosis[TS-CL], Horizontal Gaze[Horiz], mJOA). Univariate analysis evaluated demographics, clinical intervention, and Ames deformity descriptor. Patients were evaluated for radiographic improvement by Ames classification and reaching Minimal Clinically Important Differences(MCID) for mJOA, Neck Disability Index(NDI), and EuroQuol-5D(EQ5D). A total of 73 patients were categorized: C = 41(56.2%), CT = 18(24.7%), T = 9(12.3%), S = 5(6.8%). By Ames modifier 1-year improvement, 13(17.8%) improved in mJOA, 26(35.6%) in cSVA grade, 19(26.0%) in Horiz, and 15(20.5%) in TS-CL. The overall proportion of patients without severe Ames modifier grades at 1-year was as follows: 100% cSVA, 27.4% TS-CL, 67.1% Horiz, 69.9% mJOA. 1-year post-operatively, severe myelopathy(mJOA = 3) prevalence differed between Ames-ACD descriptors (C = 26.3%, CT = 15.4%, T = 0.0%, S = 0.0%, p = 0.033). Improvement in mJOA modifier correlated with reaching 1-year NDI MCID in the overall cohort (r = 0.354,p = 0.002). For C descriptors, cSVA improvement correlated with reaching 1-year NDI MCID (r = 0.387,p = 0.016). Improvement in more than one radiographic Ames modifier correlated with reaching 1-year mJOA MCID (r = 0.344,p = 0.003) and with reaching more than one MCID for mJOA, NDI, and EQ-5D (r = 0.272,p = 0.020). In conclusion, improvements in radiographic Ames modifier grades correlated with improvement in 1-year postoperative clinical outcomes. Although limited in scope, this analysis suggests the Ames-ACD classification may describe cervical deformity patients' alignment and outcomes at 1-year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2021.05.007DOI Listing
July 2021

Gait kinematic alterations in subjects with adult spinal deformity and their radiological determinants.

Gait Posture 2021 07 4;88:203-209. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Saint-Joseph in Beirut, Lebanon; Institut de Biomécanique Humaine Georges Charpak, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Adults with spinal deformity (ASD) are known to have postural malalignment affecting their quality of life. Classical evaluation and follow-up are usually based on full-body static radiographs and health related quality of life questionnaires. Despite being an essential daily life activity, formal gait assessment lacks in clinical practice.

Research Question: What are the main alterations in gait kinematics of ASD and their radiological determinants?

Methods: 52 ASD and 63 control subjects underwent full-body 3D gait analysis with calculation of joint kinematics and full-body biplanar X-rays with calculation of 3D postural parameters. Kinematics and postural parameters were compared between groups. Determinants of gait alterations among postural radiographic parameters were explored.

Results: ASD had increased sagittal vertical axis (SVA:34 ± 59 vs -5 ± 20 mm), pelvic tilt (PT:19 ± 13 vs 11 ± 6°) and frontal Cobb (25 ± 21 vs 4 ± 6°) compared to controls (all p < 0.001). ASD displayed decrease walking speed (0.9 ± 0.3 vs 1.2 ± 0.2 m/s), step length (0.58 ± 0.11 vs 0.64 ± 0.07 m) and increased single support (0.45 ± 0.05 vs 0.42 ± 0.04 s). ASD walked with decreased hip extension in stance (-3 ± 10 vs -7 ± 8°), increased knee flexion at initial contact and in stance (10 ± 11 vs 5 ± 10° and 19 ± 7 vs 16 ± 8° respectively), and decreased knee flexion/extension ROM (55 ± 9 vs 59 ± 7°). ASD had increased trunk flexion (12 ± 12 vs 6 ± 11°) and reduced dynamic lumbar lordosis (-11 ± 12 vs -15 ± 7°, all p < 0.001). Sagittal knee ROM, walking speed and step length were negatively determined by SVA; lack of lumbar lordosis during gait was negatively determined by radiological lumbar lordosis.

Significance: Static compensations in ASD persist during gait, where they exhibit a flexed attitude at the trunk, hips and knees, reduced hip and knee mobility and loss of dynamic lordosis. ASD walked at a slower pace with increased single and double support times that might contribute to their gait stability. These dynamic discrepancies were strongly related to static sagittal malalignment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2021.06.003DOI Listing
July 2021

Use of rhBMP-2 for adult spinal deformity surgery: patterns of usage and changes over the past decade.

Neurosurg Focus 2021 06;50(6):E4

7Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York.

Objective: Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has been shown to increase fusion rates; however, cost, limited FDA approval, and possible complications impact its use. Decisions regarding rhBMP-2 use and changes over time have not been well defined. In this study, the authors aimed to assess changes in rhBMP-2 use for adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery over the past decade.

Methods: A retrospective review of the International Spine Study Group prospective multicenter database was performed to identify ASD patients treated surgically from 2008 to 2018. For assessment of rhBMP-2 use over time, 3 periods were created: 2008-2011, 2012-2015, and 2016-2018.

Results: Of the patients identified, 1180 met inclusion criteria, with a mean age 60 years and 30% of patients requiring revision surgery; rhBMP-2 was used in 73.9% of patients overall. The mean rhBMP-2 dose per patient was 23.6 mg. Patients receiving rhBMP-2 were older (61 vs 58 years, p < 0.001) and had more comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index 1.9 vs 1.4, p < 0.001), a higher rate of the Scoliosis Research Society-Schwab pelvic tilt modifier (> 0; 68% vs 62%, p = 0.026), a greater deformity correction (change in pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis 15° vs 12°, p = 0.01), and more levels fused (8.9 vs 7.9, p = 0.003). Over the 3 time periods, the overall rate of rhBMP-2 use increased and then stabilized (62.5% vs 79% vs 77%). Stratified analysis showed that after an overall increase in rhBMP-2 use, only patients who were younger than 50 years, those who were smokers, those who received a three-column osteotomy (3CO), and patients who underwent revision sustained an increased rate of rhBMP-2 use between the later two periods. No similar increases were noted for older patients, nonsmokers, primary surgery patients, and patients without a 3CO. The total rhBMP-2 dose decreased over time (26.6 mg vs 24.8 mg vs 20.7 mg, p < 0.001). After matching patients by preoperative alignment, 215 patients were included, and a significantly lower rate of complications leading to revision surgery was observed within the 2012-2015 period compared with the 2008-2011 (21.4% vs 13.0%, p = 0.029) period, while rhBMP-2 was increasingly used (80.5% vs 66.0%, p = 0.001). There was a trend toward a lower rate of pseudarthrosis for patients in the 2012-2015 period, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (7% vs 4.2%, p = 0.283).

Conclusions: The authors found that rhBMP-2 was used in the majority of ASD patients and was more commonly used in those with greater deformity correction. Additionally, over the last 10 years, rhBMP-2 was increasingly used for ASD patients, but the dose has decreased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.3.FOCUS2164DOI Listing
June 2021

Predictors of serious, preventable, and costly medical complications in a population of adult spinal deformity patients.

Spine J 2021 Sep 8;21(9):1559-1566. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

Background Context: In 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) established a list of hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) with significant deleterious effects on both patients and providers. Adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery is complex and highly invasive, and as such may result in significant morbidity including these HACs.

Purpose: Identify predictors for developing the most common HACs among adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients undergoing corrective surgery.

Study Design/setting: Retrospective analysis.

Patient Sample: One thousand one hundred and seventy-one ASD patients.

Outcome Measures: HACs, Health-Related Quality of Life scores(HRQLs), Reoperation, Integrated Health State (IHS) METHODS: ASD pts undergoing surgery (>18 years, scoliosis ≥20°, SVA ≥5 cm, PT ≥25° and/or TK >60°) with complete data at BL and up to 2 years post-op were included. Patients were stratified by presence of >1 HAC, defined as at least one superficial/deep SSI, UTI, DVT, or PE within a 30-day post-op window. Random forest analysis generated 5,000 Conditional Inference Trees to compute a variable importance table for top predictors of HACs. An area-under-the-curve (AUC) methodology compared normalized HRQL scores between groups to determine an IHS with 2-year follow-up.

Results: Total of 1,171 pts (59.8 years, 76.2%F, 28.1kg/m) underwent corrective ASD surgery, with 1,053 pts in the non-HAC group and 118 in the HAC group. Of these pts, 25.4% had UTI, 15.4% DVT, 19.2% superficial SSI, 20.8% deep SSI, and 19.2% PE. HAC pts were on average older (63.5 vs 59.3, p=.004) and more often frail (51.3 vs 39.7%, p=.021) than non-HAC pts. Postop LOS and reoperation were most associated with HAC groups: [1] LOS >7 days [2] reoperation. Patient-related predictors of HACs were [3] age >50 yerr, [4] frailty, and [13] BMI >31. Procedure-related predictors of HACs were [5] operative-time >405 minutes, [6] levels fused >9, EBL >1450 mL, and [11] decompression. BL radiographic predictors were [7] PT >20°, [9] PI-LL>6°, [10] TL Cobb angle >15°, [12] SVA C7-S1 >29 mm. No differences were observed between groups with regards to IHS ODI (0.73 vs 0.74, p=.863), SRS (1.3 vs1.3, p=.374), NRS Back (0.6 vs 0.6, p=.158). HAC had higher rates of reoperation than non-HAC (0.08 vs 0.01, p=.066), and any HAC within 30-days of index was a significant predictor of reoperation (OR: 2.448 [1.94-3.09], p<.001).

Conclusions: In a population of ASD patients, HACs were associated with length of stay, reoperation, age, and frailty. Radiographic parameters such as pelvic tilt >20°, PI-LL >6°, & SVA >29 mm also increased odds of HACs, and should raise postoperative awareness for HAC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2021.04.020DOI Listing
September 2021

The utility of supine radiographs in the assessment of thoracic flexibility and risk of proximal junctional kyphosis.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 May 7:1-7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Objective: Supine radiographs have successfully been used for preoperative planning of lumbar deformity corrections. However, they have not been used to assess thoracic flexibility, which has recently garnered attention as a potential contributor to proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK). The purpose of this study was to compare supine to standing radiographs to assess thoracic flexibility and to determine whether thoracic flexibility is associated with PJK.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of a single-institution database of patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD). Sagittal alignment parameters were compared between standing and supine and between pre- and postoperative radiographs. Thoracic flexibility was determined as the change between preoperative standing thoracic kyphosis (TK) and preoperative supine TK, and these changes were measured over the overall thoracic spine and the fused portion of the thoracic spine (i.e., TK fused). A case-control analysis was performed to compare thoracic flexibility between patients with PJK and those without (no PJK). The cohort was also stratified into three groups based on thoracic flexibility: kyphotic change (increased TK), lordotic change (decreased TK), and no change. The PJK rate was compared between the cohorts.

Results: A total of 101 patients (mean 63 years old, 82.2% female, mean BMI 27.4 kg/m2) were included. Preoperative Scoliosis Research Society-Schwab ASD classification showed moderate preoperative deformity (pelvic tilt 27.7% [score ++]; pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch 44.6% [score ++]; sagittal vertical axis 42.6% [score ++]). Postoperatively, the average offset from age-adjusted alignment goals demonstrated slight overcorrection in the study sample (-8.5° ± 15.6° pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch, -29.2 ± 53.1 mm sagittal vertical axis, -5.4 ± 10.8 pelvic tilt, and -7.6 ± 11.7 T1 pelvic angle). TK decreased between standing and supine radiographs and increased postoperatively (TK fused: -25.3° vs -19.6° vs -29.9°; all p < 0.001). The overall rate of radiographic PJK was 23.8%. Comparisons between PJK and no PJK demonstrated that offsets from age-adjusted alignment goals were similar (p > 0.05 for all). There was a significant difference in the PJK rate when stratified by thoracic flexibility cohorts (kyphotic: 0.0% vs no change: 18.4% vs lordotic: 35.0%; p = 0.049). Logistic regression revealed thoracic flexibility (p = 0.045) as the only independent correlate of PJK.

Conclusions: Half of patients with ASD experienced significant changes in TK during supine positioning, a quality that may influence surgical strategy. Increased thoracic flexibility is associated with PJK, possibly secondary to fusing the patient's spine in a flattened position intraoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.11.SPINE201565DOI Listing
May 2021

Outcomes of Same-Day Orthopedic Surgery: Are Spine Patients More Likely to Have Optimal Immediate Recovery From Outpatient Procedures?

Int J Spine Surg 2021 Apr 1;15(2):334-340. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Orthopedics, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York, New York.

Background: Spinal surgery is associated with an inherently elevated risk profile, and thus far there has been limited discussion about how these outpatient spine patients are benefiting from these same-day procedures against other typical outpatient orthopedic surgeries.

Methods: Orthopedic patients who received either inpatient or outpatient surgery were isolated in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality of Improvement Program (2005-2016). Patients were stratified by type of orthopedic surgery received (spine, knee, ankle, shoulder, or hip). Mean comparisons and chi-squared tests assessed basic demographics. Perioperative complications were analyzed via regression analyses in regard to their principal inpatient or outpatient orthopedic surgery received.

Results: This study included 729 480 surgical patients: 32.5% received spinal surgery, 36.5% knee, 24.1% hip, 4.9% shoulder, and 1.7%ankle. Of those who received a spinal procedure, 74.7% were inpatients (IN), and 25.3% were outpatients (OUT): knee: 96.1% IN, 3.9% OUT; hip:98.9% IN, 1.1% OUT; ankle: 29% IN, 71% OUT; and shoulder: 52.6% IN, 47.6% OUT. Hip patients were the oldest, and knee patients had the highest body mass index out of the orthopedic groups ( < .00). Spine IN patients experienced more complications than the other orthopedic groups and had the lowest OUT complications(both < .05). This same trend of having higher IN complications than OUT complications was identified for hip, shoulder, and knee. However, ankle procedures had greater OUT procedure complications than IN ( < .05). After controlling for age, body mass index, and Charlson Comorbidity Index, IN procedures, such as knee, hip, spine, and shoulder, were significantly associated with experiencing postoperative complications. From 2006 to 2016, IN and OUT surgeries were significantly different among complications experienced for all of the orthopedic groups ( < .05) with complications decreasing for IN and OUT patients by 2016.

Conclusions: Over the past decade, spine surgery has decreased in complications for IN and OUT procedures along with IN/OUT knee, ankle, hip, and shoulder procedures, reflecting greater tolerance for risk in an outpatient setting.

Level Of Evidence: 3.

Clinical Relevance: Despite the increase in riskier spine procedures, complications have decreased over the years. Surgeons should aim to continue to decrease inpatient spine complications to the level of other orthopedic surgeries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14444/8043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059381PMC
April 2021

Artificial intelligence clustering of adult spinal deformity sagittal plane morphology predicts surgical characteristics, alignment, and outcomes.

Eur Spine J 2021 Aug 15;30(8):2157-2166. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Alpert Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, 1 Kettle Point Avenue, East Providence, RI, 02914, USA.

Purpose: AI algorithms have shown promise in medical image analysis. Previous studies of ASD clusters have analyzed alignment metrics-this study sought to complement these efforts by analyzing images of sagittal anatomical spinopelvic landmarks. We hypothesized that an AI algorithm would cluster preoperative lateral radiographs into groups with distinct morphology.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of a multicenter, prospectively collected database of adult spinal deformity. A total of 915 patients with adult spinal deformity and preoperative lateral radiographs were included. A 2 × 3, self-organizing map-a form of artificial neural network frequently employed in unsupervised classification tasks-was developed. The mean spine shape was plotted for each of the six clusters. Alignment, surgical characteristics, and outcomes were compared.

Results: Qualitatively, clusters C and D exhibited only mild sagittal plane deformity. Clusters B, E, and F, however, exhibited marked positive sagittal balance and loss of lumbar lordosis. Cluster A had mixed characteristics, likely representing compensated deformity. Patients in clusters B, E, and F disproportionately underwent 3-CO. PJK and PJF were particularly prevalent among clusters A and E. Among clusters B and F, patients who experienced PJK had significantly greater positive sagittal balance than those who did not.

Conclusions: This study clustered preoperative lateral radiographs of ASD patients into groups with highly distinct overall spinal morphology and association with sagittal alignment parameters, baseline HRQOL, and surgical characteristics. The relationship between SVA and PJK differed by cluster. This study represents significant progress toward incorporation of computer vision into clinically relevant classification systems in adult spinal deformity.

Level Of Evidence Iv: Diagnostic: individual cross-sectional studies with the consistently applied reference standard and blinding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-021-06799-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Effect of age-adjusted alignment goals and distal inclination angle on the fate of distal junctional kyphosis in cervical deformity surgery.

J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2021 Jan-Mar;12(1):65-71. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Age-adjusted alignment targets in the context of distal junctional kyphosis (DJK) development have yet to be investigated. Our aim was to assess age-adjusted alignment targets, reciprocal changes, and role of lowest instrumented level orientation in DJK development in cervical deformity (CD) patients.

Methods: CD patients were evaluated based on lowest fused level: cervical (C7 or above), upper thoracic (UT: T1-T6), and lower thoracic (LT: T7-T12). Age-adjusted alignment targets were calculated using published formulas for sagittal vertical axis (SVA), pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis (PI-LL), pelvic tilt (PT), T1 pelvic angle (TPA), and LL-thoracic kyphosis (TK). Outcome measures were cervical and global alignment parameters: Cervical SVA (cSVA), cervical lordosis, C2 slope, C2-T3 angle, C2-T3 SVA, TS-CL, PI-LL, PT, and SVA. Subanalysis matched baseline PI to assess age-adjusted alignment between DJK and non-DJK.

Results: Seventy-six CD patients included. By 1Y, 20 patients developed DJK. Non-DJK patients had 27% cervical lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV), 68% UT, and 5% LT. DJK patients had 25% cervical, 50% UT, and 25% LT. There were no baseline or 1Y differences for PI, PI-LL, SVA, TPA, or PT for actual and age-adjusted targets. DJK patients had worse baseline cSVA and more severe 1Y cSVA, C2-T3 SVA, and C2 slope ( < 0.05). The distribution of over/under corrected patients and the offset between actual and ideal alignment for SVA, PT, TPA, PI-LL, and LL-TK were similar between DJK and non-DJK patients. DJK patients requiring reoperation had worse postoperative changes in all cervical parameters and trended toward larger offsets for global parameters.

Conclusion: CD patients with severe baseline malalignment went on to develop postoperative DJK. Age-adjusted alignment targets did not capture differences in these populations, suggesting the need for cervical-specific goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_170_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035585PMC
March 2021

Patient-related and radiographic predictors of inferior health-related quality-of-life measures in adult patients with nonoperative spinal deformity.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Apr 2:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

3Department of Orthopedics, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York.

Objective: Patients with nonoperative (N-Op) adult spinal deformity (ASD) have inferior long-term spinopelvic alignment and clinical outcomes. Predictors of lower quality-of-life measures in N-Op populations have yet to be sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study was to identify patient-related factors and radiographic parameters associated with inferior health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) scores in N-Op ASD patients.

Methods: N-Op ASD patients with complete radiographic and outcome data at baseline and 2 years were included. N-Op patients and operative (Op) patients were propensity score matched for baseline disability and deformity. Patient-related factors and radiographic alignment parameters (pelvic tilt [PT], sagittal vertical axis [SVA], pelvic incidence [PI]-lumbar lordosis [LL] mismatch, mismatch between cervical lordosis and T1 segment slope [TS-CL], cervical-thoracic pelvic angle [PA], and others) at baseline and 2 years were analyzed as predictors for moderate to severe 2-year Oswestry Disability Index (ODI > 20) and failing to meet the minimal clinically importance difference (MCID) for 2-year Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire (SRS) scores (< 0.4 increase from baseline). Conditional inference decision trees identified predictors of each HRQOL measure and established cutoffs at which factors have a global effect. Random forest analysis (RFA) generated 5000 conditional inference trees to compute a variable importance table for top predictors of inferior HRQOL. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results: Six hundred sixty-two patients with ASD (331 Op patients and 331 N-Op patients) with complete radiographic and HRQOL data at their 2-year follow-up were included. There were no differences in demographics, ODI, and Schwab deformity modifiers between groups at baseline (all p > 0.05). N-Op patients had higher 2-year ODI scores (27.9 vs 20.3, p < 0.001), higher rates of moderate to severe disability (29.3% vs 22.4%, p = 0.05), lower SRS total scores (3.47 vs 3.91, p < 0.001), and higher rates of failure to reach SRS MCID (35.3% vs 15.7%, p < 0.001) than Op patients at 2 years. RFA ranked the top overall predictors for moderate to severe ODI at 2 years for N-Op patients as follows: 1) frailty index > 2.8, 2) BMI > 35 kg/m2, T4PA > 28°, and 4) Charlson Comorbidity Index > 1. Top radiographic predictors were T4PA > 28° and C2-S1 SVA > 93 mm. RFA also ranked the top overall predictors for failure to reach 2-year SRS MCID for N-Op patients, as follows: 1) T12-S1 lordosis > 53°, 2) cervical SVA (cSVA) > 28 mm, 3) C2-S1 angle > 14.5°, 4) TS-CL > 12°, and 5) PT > 23°. The top radiographic predictors were T12-S1 Cobb angle, cSVA, C2-S1 angle, and TS-CL.

Conclusions: When controlling for baseline deformity in N-Op versus Op patients, subsequent deterioration in frailty, BMI, and radiographic progression over a 2-year follow-up were found to drive suboptimal patient-reported outcome measures in N-Op cohorts as measured by validated ODI and SRS clinical instruments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.9.SPINE20519DOI Listing
April 2021

Timing of conversion to cervical malalignment and proximal junctional kyphosis following surgical correction of adult spinal deformity: a 3-year radiographic analysis.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Mar 19:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York.

Objective: The goal of this study was to assess the conversion rate from baseline cervical alignment to postoperative cervical deformity (CD) and the corresponding proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) rate in patients undergoing thoracolumbar adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery.

Methods: The operative records of patients with ASD with complete radiographic data beginning at baseline up to 3 years were included. Patients with no baseline CD were postoperatively stratified by Ames CD criteria (T1 slope-cervical lordosis mismatch [TS-CL] > 20°, cervical sagittal vertical axis [cSVA] > 40 mm), where CD was defined as fulfilling one or more of the Ames criteria. Severe CD was defined as TS-CL > 30° or cSVA > 60 mm. Follow-up intervals were established after ASD surgery, with 6 weeks postoperatively defined as early; 6 weeks-1 year as intermediate; 1-2 years as late; and 2-3 years as long-term. Descriptive analyses and McNemar tests identified the CD conversion rate, PJK rate (< -10° change in uppermost instrumented vertebra and the superior endplate of the vertebra 2 levels superior to the uppermost instrumented vertebra), and specific alignment parameters that converted.

Results: Two hundred sixty-six patients who underwent ASD surgery (mean age 59.7 years, 77.4% female) met the inclusion criteria; 103 of these converted postoperatively, and the remaining 163 did not meet conversion criteria. Thirty-eight patients converted to CD early, 26 converted at the intermediate time point, 29 converted late, and 10 converted in the long-term. At conversion, the early group had the highest mean TS-CL at 25.4° ± 8.5° and the highest mean cSVA at 33.6 mm-both higher than any other conversion group. The long-term group had the highest mean C2-7 angle at 19.7° and the highest rate of PJK compared to other groups (p = 0.180). The early group had the highest rate of conversion to severe CD, with 9 of 38 patients having severe TS-CL and only 1 patient per group converting to severe cSVA. Seven patients progressed from having only malaligned TS-CL at baseline (with normal cSVA) to CD with both malaligned TS-CL and cSVA by 6 weeks. Conversely, only 2 patients progressed from malaligned cSVA to both malaligned cSVA and TS-CL. By 1 year, the former number increased from 7 to 26 patients, and the latter increased from 2 to 20 patients. The revision rate was highest in the intermediate group at 48.0%, versus the early group at 19.2%, late group at 27.3%, and long-term group at 20% (p = 0.128). A higher pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch, lower thoracic kyphosis, and a higher thoracic kyphosis apex immediately postoperatively significantly predicted earlier rather than later conversion (all p < 0.05). Baseline lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, and sacral slope were not significant predictors.

Conclusions: Patients with ASD with normative cervical alignment who converted to CD after thoracolumbar surgery had varying radiographic findings based on timing of conversion. Although the highest number of patients converted within 6 weeks postoperatively, patients who converted in the late or long-term follow-up intervals had higher rates of concurrent PJK and greater radiographic progression.
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March 2021

Appropriate Risk Stratification and Accounting for Age-Adjusted Reciprocal Changes in the Thoracolumbar Spine Reduces the Incidence and Magnitude of Distal Junctional Kyphosis in Cervical Deformity Surgery.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Orthopedics, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York, NY, USA Department of Orthopedics, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA Department of Orthopedic Surgery, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rocky Mountain Scoliosis and Spine, Denver, CO Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA San Diego Center for Spinal Disorders, La Jolla, CA, USA Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, CA, USA Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study of a prospective cervical deformity (CD) database.

Objective: Identify factors associated with Distal Junctional Kyphosis (DJK); assess differences across DJK types.

Summary Of Background Data: DJK may develop as compensation for mal-correction of sagittal deformity in the thoracic curve. There is limited understanding of DJK drivers, especially for different DJK types.

Methods: Included: patients with pre- and postoperative clinical/radiographic data. Excluded: patients with previous fusion to L5 or below. DJK was defined per surgeon note or DJK angle (kyphosis from LIV to LIV-2)<-10°, and pre- to postoperative change in DJK angle by<-10°. Age-specific target LL-TK alignment was calculated as published. Offset from target LL-TK was correlated to DJK magnitude and inclination. DJK types: severe (DJK<-20°), progressive (DJK increase>4.4°), symptomatic (reoperation or published disability thresholds of NDI ≥ 24 or mJOA≤14). Random forest identified factors associated with DJK. Means comparison tests assessed differences.

Results: Included: 136 CD patients (61 ± 10yrs, 61%F). DJK rate was 30%. Postop offset from ideal LL-TK correlated with greater DJK angle (r = 0.428) and inclination of the distal end of the fusion construct (r = 0.244, both p < 0.02). Seven of the top 15 factors associated with DJK were radiographic, four surgical, and four clinical. Breakdown by type: severe (22%), progressive (24%), symptomatic (61%). Symptomatic had more posterior osteotomies than asymptomatic (p = 0.018). Severe had worse NDI and upper-cervical deformity (CL, C2 slope, C0-C2), as well as more posterior osteotomies than non-severe (all p < 0.01). Progressive had greater malalignment both globally and in the cervical spine (all p < 0.03) than static. Each type had varying associated factors.

Conclusion: Offset from age-specific alignment is associated with greater DJK and more anterior distal construct inclination, suggesting DJK may develop due to inappropriate realignment. Preoperative clinical and radiographic factors are associated with symptomatic and progressive DJK, suggesting the need for preoperative risk stratification.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000004033DOI Listing
March 2021

Baseline Frailty Status Influences Recovery Patterns and Outcomes Following Alignment Correction of Cervical Deformity.

Neurosurgery 2021 05;88(6):1121-1127

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Frailty severity may be an important determinant for impaired recovery after cervical spine deformity (CD) corrective surgery.

Objective: To evaluate postop clinical recovery among CD patients between frailty states undergoing primary procedures.

Methods: Patients >18 yr old undergoing surgery for CD with health-related quality of life (HRQL) data at baseline, 3-mo, and 1-yr postoperative were identified. Patients were stratified by the modified CD frailty index scale from 0 to 1 (no frailty [NF] <0.3, mild/severe fraily [F] >0.3). Patients in NF and F groups were propensity score matched for TS-CL (T1 slope [TS] minus angle between the C2 inferior end plate and the C7 inferior end plate [CL]) to control for baseline deformity. Area under the curve was calculated for follow-up time intervals determining overall normalized, time-adjusted HRQL outcomes; Integrated Health State (IHS) was compared between NF and F groups.

Results: A total of 106 CD patients were included (61.7 yr, 66% F, 27.7 kg/m2)-by frailty group: 52.8% NF, 47.2% F. After propensity score matching for TS-CL (mean: 38.1°), 38 patients remained in each of the NF and F groups. IHS-adjusted HRQL outcomes from baseline to 1 yr showed a significant difference in Euro-Qol 5 Dimension scores (NF: 1.02, F: 1.07, P = .016). No significant differences were found in the IHS Neck Disability Index (NDI) and modified Japanese Orthopedic Association between frailty groups (P > .05). F patients had more postop major complications (31.3%) compared to the NF (8.9%), P = .004, though DJK occurrence and reoperation between the groups was not significant.

Conclusion: While all groups exhibited improved postop disability and pain scores, frail patients experienced greater amount of improvement in overall health state compared to baseline disability. This signifies that with frailty severity, patients have more room for improvement postop compared to baseline quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyab039DOI Listing
May 2021

The relationship of global sagittal malalignment to fatty infiltration in the aging spine.

Eur Spine J 2021 Sep 20;30(9):2480-2485. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th St., New York, NY, 10021, USA.

Purpose: To investigate associations between muscle size, fat infiltration (FI), and global sagittal alignment in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD).

Methods: Retrospective cohort study was conducted on a single-institution database of ASD patients with preoperative radiographs and CTs. Following multiplanar reconstructions of CTs, images in the plane of each vertebra were generated. The posterior vertebral musculature (PVM) was contoured on axial images at three vertebral levels (T2, T10, L3). FI was calculated by comparing Hounsfield units within muscles to the normative values of fat. Correlation analyses were conducted between demographics, alignment, and muscle characteristics.

Results: 107 patients underwent preoperative spine CT (58yo, 79%F, BMI 27 kg/m). Muscle data were available for 49 pts at T2, 39 pts at T10, and 81 pts at L3. Mean FI was T2 = 33% ± 18, T10 = 28% ± 19, L3_Erector = 39% ± 19, and L3_Psoas = 19% ± 9. FI correlated across levels (T2 vs. T10 r = 0.698; T10 vs L3_Erector r = 0.506; L3_Erector vs Psoas r = 0.419) and with demographics; older pts had greater fat percentages (r = 0.31-0.45) and BMIs (r = 0.24-0.51). Increased FI at T2, T10, and L3 was associated with increased pelvic retroversion (PT: r = 0.25-0.43), global deformity (TPA: r = 0.27-0.45), and anterior malalignment (SVA: r = 0.23-0.41). The degree of FI in the PVM increased with the severity of SRS-Schwab PT and SVA modifiers.

Conclusion: In ASD patients, global sagittal malalignment is related to FI of the PVM throughout the lumbar and thoracic spine, as identified through CT. Future research should investigate how FI relates to ASD pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-021-06759-7DOI Listing
September 2021

Predictors of Superior Recovery Kinetics in Adult Cervical Deformity Correction: An Analysis Using a Novel Area Under the Curve Methodology.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 05;46(9):559-566

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

Study Design: Retrospective review of a prospective database.

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify demographic, surgical, and radiographic factors that predict superior recovery kinetics following cervical deformity (CD) corrective surgery.

Summary Of Background Data: Analyses of CD corrective surgery use area under the curve (AUC) to assess health-related quality of life (HRQL) metrics throughout recovery.

Methods: Outcome measures were baseline (BL) to 1-year (1Y) health-related quality of life (HRQL) (Neck Disability Index [NDI]). CD criteria were C2-7 Cobb angle >10°, coronal Cobb angle >10°, C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (cSVA) >4 cm, TS-CL >10°, or chin-brow vertical angle >25°. AUC normalization divided BL and postoperative outcomes by BL. Normalized scores (y axis) were plotted against follow-up (x axis). AUC was calculated and divided by cumulative follow-up length to determine overall, time-adjusted recovery (Integrated Health State [IHS]). IHS NDI was stratified by quartile, uppermost 25% being "Superior" Recovery Kinetics (SRK) versus "Normal" Recovery Kinetics (NRK). BL demographic, clinical, and surgical information predicted SRK using generalized linear modeling.

Results: Ninety-eight patients included (62 ± 10 years, 28 ± 6 kg/m2, 65% females, Charlson Comorbidity Index: 0.95), 6% smokers, 31% smoking history. Surgical approach was: combined (33%), posterior (49%), anterior (18%). Posterior levels fused: 8.7, anterior: 3.6, estimated blood loss: 915.9ccs, operative time: 495 minutes. Ames BL classification: cSVA (53.2% minor deformity, 46.8% moderate), TS-CL (9.8% minor, 4.3% moderate, 85.9% marked), horizontal gaze (27.4% minor, 46.6% moderate, 26% marked). Relative to BL NDI (Mean: 47), normalized NDI decreased at 3 months (0.9 ± 0.5, P = 0.260) and 1Y (0.78 ± 0.41, P < 0.001). NDI IHS correlated with age (P = 0.011), sex (P = 0.042), anterior approach (P = 0.042), posterior approach (P = 0.042). Greater BL pelvic tilt (PT) (SRK: 25.6°, NRK: 17°, P = 0.002), pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) (SRK: 8.4°, NRK: -2.8°, P = 0.009), and anterior approach (SRK: 34.8%, NRK: 13.3%; P = 0.020) correlated with SRK. 69.4% met MCID for NDI (<Δ-15) and 63.3% met substantial clinical benefit for NDI (<Δ-10); 100% of SRK met both MCID and substantial clinical benefit. The predictive model for SRK included (AUC = 88.1%): BL visual analog scale (VAS) EuroQol five-dimensional descriptive system (EQ5D) (odds rario [OR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-0.99), BL swallow sleep score (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06), BL PT (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.22), BL modified Japanese Orthopedic Association scale (mJOA) (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.07-2.16), BL T4-T12, BL T10-L2, BL T12-S1, and BL L1-S1.

Conclusion: Superior recovery kinetics following CD surgery was predicted with high accuracy using BL patient-reported (VAS EQ5D, swallow sleep, mJOA) and radiographic factors (PT, TK, T10-L2, T12-S1, L1-S1). Awareness of these factors can improve decision-making and reduce postoperative neck disability.Level of Evidence: 3.
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May 2021

Surgical outcomes in rigid versus flexible cervical deformities.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Feb 12:1-9. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

13Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Objective: Cervical deformity (CD) patients have severe disability and poor health status. However, little is known about how patients with rigid CD compare with those with flexible CD. The main objectives of this study were to 1) assess whether patients with rigid CD have worse baseline alignment and therefore require more aggressive surgical corrections and 2) determine whether patients with rigid CD have similar postoperative outcomes as those with flexible CD.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of a prospective, multicenter CD database. Rigid CD was defined as cervical lordosis (CL) change < 10° between flexion and extension radiographs, and flexible CD was defined as a CL change ≥ 10°. Patients with rigid CD were compared with those with flexible CD in terms of cervical alignment and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) at baseline and at multiple postoperative time points. The patients were also compared in terms of surgical and intraoperative factors such as operative time, blood loss, and number of levels fused.

Results: A total of 127 patients met inclusion criteria (32 with rigid and 95 with flexible CD, 63.4% of whom were females; mean age 60.8 years; mean BMI 27.4); 47.2% of cases were revisions. Rigid CD was associated with worse preoperative alignment in terms of T1 slope minus CL, T1 slope, C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (cSVA), and C2 slope (C2S; all p < 0.05). Postoperatively, patients with rigid CD had an increased mean C2S (29.1° vs 22.2°) at 3 months and increased cSVA (47.1 mm vs 37.5 mm) at 1 year (p < 0.05) compared with those with flexible CD. Patients with rigid CD had more posterior levels fused (9.5 vs 6.3), fewer anterior levels fused (1 vs 2.0), greater blood loss (1036.7 mL vs 698.5 mL), more 3-column osteotomies (40.6% vs 12.6%), greater total osteotomy grade (6.5 vs 4.5), and mean osteotomy grade per level (3.3 vs 2.1) (p < 0.05 for all). There were no significant differences in baseline HRQOL scores, the rate of distal junctional kyphosis, or major/minor complications between patients with rigid and flexible CD. Both rigid and flexible CD patients reported significant improvements from baseline to 1 year according to the numeric rating scale for the neck (-2.4 and -2.7, respectively), Neck Disability Index (-8.4 and -13.3, respectively), modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (0.1 and 0.6), and EQ-5D (0.01 and 0.05) (p < 0.05). However, HRQOL changes from baseline to 1 year did not differ between rigid and flexible CD patients.

Conclusions: Patients with rigid CD have worse baseline cervical malalignment compared with those with flexible CD but do not significantly differ in terms of baseline disability. Rigid CD was associated with more invasive surgery and more aggressive corrections, resulting in increased operative time and blood loss. Despite more extensive surgeries, rigid CD patients had equivalent improvements in HRQOL compared with flexible CD patients. This study quantifies the importance of analyzing flexion-extension images, creating a prognostic tool for surgeons planning CD correction, and counseling patients who are considering CD surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.8.SPINE191185DOI Listing
February 2021

Surgical Planning for Adult Spinal Deformity: Anticipated Sagittal Alignment Corrections According to the Surgical Level.

Global Spine J 2021 Feb 11:2192568220988504. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Spine Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Objectives: Establish simultaneous focal and regional corrective guidelines accounting for reciprocal global and pelvic compensation.

Methods: 433 ASD patients (mean age 62.9 yrs, 81.3% F) who underwent corrective realignment (minimum L1-pelvis) were included. Sagittal parameters, and segmental and regional Cobb angles were assessed pre and post-op. Virtual postoperative alignment was generated by combining post-op alignment of the fused spine with the pre-op alignment on the unfused thoracic kyphosis and the pre-op pelvic retroversion. Regression models were then generated to predict the relative impact of segmental (L4-L5) and regional (L1-L4) corrections on PT, SVA (virtual), and TPA.

Results: Baseline analysis revealed distal (L4-S1) lordosis of 33 ± 15°, flat proximal (L1-L4) lordosis (1.7 ± 17°), and segmental kyphosis from L2-L3 to T10-T11. Post-op, there was no mean change in distal lordosis (L5-S1 decreased by 2°, and L4-L5 increased by 2°), while the more proximal lordosis increased by 18 ± 16°. Regression formulas revealed that Δ10° in distal lordosis resulted in Δ10° in TPA, associated with Δ100 mm in SVA or Δ3° in PT; Δ10° in proximal lordosis yielded Δ5° in TPA associated with Δ50 mm in SVA; and finally Δ10° in thoraco-lumbar junction yielded Δ2.5° in TPA associated with Δ25 mm in SVA and no impact on PT correction.

Conclusions: Overall impact of lumbar lordosis restoration is critically determined by location of correction. Distal correction leads to a greater impact on global alignment and pelvic retroversion. More specifically, it can be assumed that 1° L4-S1 lordosis correction produces 1° change in TPA / 10 mm change in SVA and 0.5° in PT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568220988504DOI Listing
February 2021

A Simpler, Modified Frailty Index Weighted by Complication Occurrence Correlates to Pain and Disability for Adult Spinal Deformity Patients.

Int J Spine Surg 2020 Dec;14(6):1031-1036

Department of Orthopedics, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York.

Background: The Miller et al adult spinal deformity frailty index (ASD-FI) correlates with complication risk; however, its development was not rooted in clinical outcomes, and the 40 factors needed for its calculation limit the index's clinical utility. The present study aimed to develop a simplified, weighted frailty index for ASD patients METHODS: This study is a retrospective review of a single-center database. Component ASD-FI parameters contributing to overall ASD-FI score were assessed via Pearson correlation. Top significant, clinically relevant factors were regressed against ASD-FI score to generate the modified ASD-FI (mASD-FI). Component mASD-FI factors were regressed against incidence of medical complications, and factor weights were calculated from regression of these coefficients. Total mASD-FI score ranged from 0 to 21, and was calculated by summing weights of expressed parameters. Linear regression and published ASD-FI cutoffs generated corresponding mASD-FI frailty cutoffs: not frail (NF, <7), frail (7-12), severely frail (SF, >12). Analysis of variance assessed the relationship between frailty category and validated baseline measures of pain and disability at baseline.

Results: The study included 50 ASD patients. Eight factors were included in the mASD-FI. Overall mean mASD-FI score was 5.7 ± 5.2. Combined, factors comprising the mASD-FI showed a trend of predicting the incidence of medical complications (Nagelkerke = 0.558; Cox & Snell = 0.399; = .065). Breakdown by frailty category is NF (70%), frail (12%), and SF (18%). Increasing frailty category was associated with significant impairments in measures of pain and disability: Oswestry Disability Index (NF: 23.4; frail: 45.0; SF: 49.3; < .001), SRS-22r (NF: 3.5; frail: 2.6; SF: 2.4; = .001), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (NF: 41.9; frail: 32.4; SF: 27.6; < .001), and NRS Leg Pain (NF: 2.3; frail: 7.2; SF: 5.6; = .001).

Conclusions: This study modifies an existing ASD frailty index and proposes a weighted, shorter mASD-FI. The mASD-FI relies less on patient-reported variables, and it weights component factors by their contribution to adverse outcomes. Because increasing mASD-FI score is associated with inferior clinical measures of pain and disability, the mASD-FI may serve as a valuable tool for preoperative risk assessment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7872408PMC
December 2020

Vertebral Coplanar Alignment Technique Versus Bilateral Apical Vertebral Derotation Technique in Neuromuscular Scoliosis.

Global Spine J 2021 Feb 9:2192568221992313. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Redsalud, Santiago, Chile.

Study Design: Single-center retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.

Objective: Our aim was to compare the correction capacity in 3 planes of the VCA technique versus the AD technique in neuromuscular scoliosis patients.

Methods: We analized patients with neuromuscular scoliosis that underwent posterior spinal fusion from 2013 to 2017 using 2 different techniques for correction: vertebral coplanar alignment (VCA) that takes into consideration the fact that the medial cortex is more resistant than the lateral cortex, with more anchor points for better distribution of forces and ligamentotaxis and the more widely spread apical derotation (AD) technique. Clinical, surgical, and radiographic information of patients operated on with the AD technique were compared to those operated on with the VCA technique in the coronal, sagittal and axial plane at pre-op, immediate post-op, and 2 year follow-up.

Results: 64 patients met inclusion criteria, 34 patients underwent the VCA technique and 30 patients underwent the AD technique. The 2 cohorts did not differ in terms of demographics, clinical presentation or preoperative alignment. There were no significant differences in the correction ability between both techniques regarding curve magnitude, apical vertebral rotation, or pelvic obliquity. There was a significant decrease in thoracic kyphosis in the AD group compared to the VCA group in the immediate postop period (4.2 ± 26.6º for VCA and 13.2 ± 21.3º for AD (p = 0.048)).

Conclusion: Both apical derotation technique and vertebral coplanar alignment allow for correction in the 3 planes for patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. VCA is a less hypokyphosing technique than AD.
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February 2021
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