Publications by authors named "Renato D Lopes"

455 Publications

Clinical and Economic Outcomes Among Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and/or Peripheral Artery Disease.

Am J Cardiol 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Duke University Medical Center and Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC, USA.

To address literature gaps on treatment with real-world evidence, this study compared effectiveness, safety, and cost outcomes among NVAF patients with coronary or peripheral artery disease (CAD, PAD) prescribed apixaban vs other oral anticoagulants. NVAF patients aged ≥65 years co-diagnosed with CAD/PAD initiating warfarin, apixaban, dabigatran, or rivaroxaban were selected from the US Medicare population (01JAN2013-30SEP2015). Propensity score matching was used to match apixaban vs warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban cohorts. Cox models were used to evaluate the risk of stroke/systemic embolism (SE), major bleeding (MB), all-cause mortality, and a composite of stroke/myocardial infarction/all-cause mortality. Generalized linear and two-part models were used to compare stroke/SE, MB, and all-cause costs between cohorts. 33,269 warfarin-apixaban, 9,335 dabigatran-apixaban, and 33,633 rivaroxaban-apixaban pairs were identified after matching. Compared with apixaban, stroke/SE risk was higher in warfarin (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-2.31), dabigatran (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.18-2.43), and rivaroxaban (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.01-1.51) patients. MB risk was higher in warfarin (HR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.52-1.83), dabigatran (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.13-1.68), and rivaroxaban (HR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.71-2.05) patients vs apixaban. Stroke/SE- and MB- related medical costs per-patient per-month were higher in warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban patients vs. apixaban. Total all-cause health care costs were higher among warfarin and rivaroxaban patients compared with apixaban patients. In conclusion, compared with apixaban, patients on dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or warfarin had a higher risk of stroke/SE, MB, and event-related costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.02.021DOI Listing
March 2021

Apixaban Versus Warfarin in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Insights From the ARISTOTLE Trial.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2021 Mar 4:CIRCEP120009614. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (S.M.A.-K., H.M., D.W., R.D.L., J.H.A., C.B.G.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.120.009614DOI Listing
March 2021

Response to: The paradox of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: When guidelines play against care improvement.

Am Heart J 2021 Mar;233:151-152

Division of Cardiology, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.11.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Antithrombotic Therapy in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Treated With Oral Anticoagulation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A North American Perspective: 2021 Update.

Circulation 2021 Feb 8;143(6):583-596. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Brigham and Women's Hospital Heart & Vascular Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (D.L.B., C.P.C., D.P.F.).

A growing number of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation also have atrial fibrillation. This poses challenges for their optimal antithrombotic management because patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI require oral anticoagulation for the prevention of cardiac thromboembolism and dual antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of coronary thrombotic complications. The combination of oral anticoagulation and dual antiplatelet therapy substantially increases the risk of bleeding. Over the last decade, a series of North American Consensus Statements on the Management of Antithrombotic Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention have been reported. Since the last update in 2018, several pivotal clinical trials in the field have been published. This document provides a focused updated of the 2018 recommendations. The group recommends that in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI, a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant is the oral anticoagulation of choice. Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y inhibitor should be given to all patients during the peri-PCI period (during inpatient stay, until time of discharge, up to 1 week after PCI, at the discretion of the treating physician), after which the default strategy is to stop aspirin and continue treatment with a P2Y inhibitor, preferably clopidogrel, in combination with a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (ie, double therapy). In patients at increased thrombotic risk who have an acceptable risk of bleeding, it is reasonable to continue aspirin (ie, triple therapy) for up to 1 month. Double therapy should be given for 6 to 12 months with the actual duration depending on the ischemic and bleeding risk profile of the patient, after which patients should discontinue antiplatelet therapy and receive oral anticoagulation alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.050438DOI Listing
February 2021

Management of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System blockade in patients admitted to hospital with confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection (The McGill RAAS-COVID- 19): A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Feb 5;22(1):115. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Division of Cardiology, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, 1001 Decarie Blvd, Montreal, Quebec, H4A 3J1, Canada.

Objectives: The aim of the RAAS-COVID-19 randomized control trial is to evaluate whether an upfront strategy of temporary discontinuation of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibition versus continuation of RAAS inhibition among patients admitted with established COVID-19 infection has an impact on short term clinical and biomarker outcomes. We hypothesize that continuation of RAAS inhibition will be superior to temporary discontinuation with regards to the primary endpoint of a global rank sum score. The global rank sum score has been successfully used in previous cardiovascular clinical trials.

Trial Design: This is an open label parallel two arm (1,1 ratio) randomized control superiority trial of approximately 40 COVID-19 patients who are on chronic RAAS inhibitor therapy.

Participants: Adults who are admitted to hospital within the McGill University Health Centre systems (MUHC) including Royal Victoria Hospital (RVH), Montreal General Hospital (MGH) and Jewish General Hospital (JGH) and who are within 96 hours of COVID-19 diagnosis (confirmed via PCR on any biological sample) will be considered for the trial. Of note, the initial protocol to screen and enrol within 48 hours of COVID-19 diagnosis was extended through an amendment, to 96 hours to increase feasibility. Participants have to be 18 years or older and would have to be on RAAS inhibitors for at least a month to be considered eligible for the study. Additionally, RAAS inhibitors should not have been held for more than 48 hours before randomization. A list of inclusion and exclusion criteria can be found in the full protocol document. In order to prevent heart failure exacerbation, patients with reduced ejection fraction were excluded from the trial. Once a patient is admitted on the ward with a diagnosis of COVID-19, we will confirm with the treating physician if the participant is suitable for the RAAS-COVID trial and meets all the inclusion and exclusion criteria. If the patient is eligible and informed consent has been obtained we will collect data on sex, age, ethnicity, past medical history and list of medications (e.g. other anti-hypertensives or anticoagulants), for further analysis.

Intervention And Comparator: All the study participants will be randomized to a strategy of temporarily holding the RAAS inhibitor [intervention] versus continuing the RAAS inhibitor [continued standard of care]. Among participants who are randomized to the intervention arm, alternative guide-line directed anti-hypertensive medication will be provided to the treating physician team (detail in study protocol). In the intervention arm RAAS inhibitor will be withheld for a total of 7 days with the possibility of the withdrawn medication being initiated at any point after day 7 or on the day of discharge. The recommendation for re-initiating the withdrawn medication will be made to the treating physician. The re-initiation of these therapies are according to standard convention and follow-up as per Canadian guidelines. Additionally, the date of restarting the withdrawn medication or whether the medication was re-prescribed on discharge or not, will be collected. This will be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, biomarkers such as troponin, c-reactive protein (CRP) and lymphocyte count will be assessed during the same time period. Samples will be collected on randomization, day 4 and day 7.

Main Outcomes: PRIMARY ENDPOINT: In this study the primary end point is a global rank score calculated for all participants, regardless of treatment assignment ( score from 0 to 7). Please refer to table 4 in the full protocol. In the context of the current trial, it is estimated that death is the most meaningful endpoint, and therefore has the highest score ( score of 7). This is followed by admission to ICU, the need for mechanical ventilation etc. The lowest scores ( score of 1) are assigned to biomarker changes (e.g. change in troponin, change in CRP). This strategy has been used successfully in cardiovascular disease trials and therefore is applicable to the current trial. The primary endpoint for the present trial is assessed from baseline to day 7 (or discharge). Participants are ranked across the clinical and biomarker domains. Lower values indicate better health (or stability). Participants who died during the 7th day of the study will be ranked based on all events occurring before their death and also including the fatal event in the score. Next, participants who did not die but were transferred to ICU for invasive ventilation will be ranked based on all the events occurring before the ICU entry and also including the ICU admission in the score. Those participants who did not die were not transferred to ICU for invasive ventilation, will be ranked based on the subsequent outcomes. The mean rank score will then be compared between groups. In this scheme, a lower mean rank score indicates greater overall stability for participants. Secondary endpoints : The key secondary endpoints are the individual components of the primary components and include the following: death, transfer to ICU primarily for invasive ventilation, transfer to ICU for other indication, non-fatal MACE ( any of following, MI, stroke, acute HF, new onset Afib), length of stay > 4 days, development of acute kidney injury ( > 40% decline in eGFR or doubling of serum creatinine), urgent intravenous treatment for high blood pressure, 30% increase in baseline high sensitivity troponin, 30% increase in baseline BNP, increase in CRP to > 30% in 48 hours and lymphocyte count drop> 30%. We will also look at the World Health Organization (WHO) ordinal scale for clinical improvement (in COVID-19) in our data. In this scale death will be assigned the highest score of 8. Patients with no limitation of activity will be assigned a score of 1 which indicates overall more stability (3). Additionally, we will evaluate the potential effects of discontinuing RAAS inhibition on alternative schedules (longer/shorter than 7 days, intermittent discontinuation) using a mechanistic mathematical model of COVID-19 immunopathology calibrated to data collected from our patient cohort. In particular, we will assess the impact of alternative schedules on primary and secondary endpoints including increases to baseline CRP and lymphocyte counts.

Randomization: Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio. Randomization will be performed within an electronic database system at the time of enrolment using a random number generator, an approach that has been successfully used in other clinical trials. Neither participant, study team, or treating team will be blinded to the intervention arm.

Blinding: This is an open label study with no blinding.

Numbers To Be Randomised (sample Size): The approximate number of participants required for this trial is 40 patients (randomized 1:1 to continuation versus discontinuation of RAAS inhibitors). This number was calculated based on previous rates of outcomes for COVID-19 in the literature (e.g. death, ICU transfer) and statistical power calculations.

Trial Status: Protocol number: MP-37-2021-6641, Version 4: 01-10-2020. Trial start date September 1 2020 and currently enrolling participants. Estimated end date for recruitment of participants : July 2021. Estimated end date for study completion: September 1 2021.

Trial Registration: Trial registration: ClincalTrials.gov : NCT04508985 , date of registration: August 11 , 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05080-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862851PMC
February 2021

Pregnancy-Associated Venous Thromboembolism: Insights from GARFIELD-VTE.

TH Open 2021 Jan 27;5(1):e24-e34. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

University College London, London, United Kingdom.

 The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) increases during pregnancy and the puerperium such that VTE is a leading cause of maternal mortality.  We describe the clinical characteristics, diagnostic strategies, treatment patterns, and outcomes of women with pregnancy-associated VTE (PA-VTE) enrolled in the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD (GARFIELD)-VTE. Women of childbearing age (<45 years) were stratified into those with PA-VTE (  = 183), which included pregnant patients and those within the puerperium, and those with nonpregnancy associated VTE (NPA-VTE;  = 1,187). Patients with PA-VTE were not stratified based upon the stage of pregnancy or puerperium.  Women with PA-VTE were younger (30.5 vs. 34.8 years), less likely to have pulmonary embolism (PE) (19.7 vs. 32.3%) and more likely to have left-sided deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (73.9 vs. 54.8%) compared with those with NPA-VTE. The most common risk factors in PA-VTE patients were hospitalization (10.4%), previous surgery (10.4%), and family history of VTE (9.3%). DVT was typically diagnosed by compression ultrasonography (98.7%) and PE by chest computed tomography (75.0%). PA-VTE patients more often received parenteral (43.2 vs. 15.1%) or vitamin K antagonists (VKA) (9.3 vs. 7.6%) therapy alone. NPA-VTE patients more often received a DOAC alone (30.2 vs. 13.7%). The risk (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]) of all-cause mortality (0.59 [0.18-1.98]), recurrent VTE (0.82 [0.34-1.94]), and major bleeding (1.13 [0.33-3.90]) were comparable between PA-VTE and NPA-VTE patients. Uterine bleeding was the most common complication in both groups.  VKAs or DOACs are widely used for treatment of PA-VTE despite limited evidence for their use in this population. Rates of clinical outcomes were comparable between groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1722611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840428PMC
January 2021

Research Priorities in Atrial Fibrillation Screening: A Report From a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Virtual Workshop.

Circulation 2021 Jan 25;143(4):372-388. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Division of Cardiology and Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (R.D.L., J.P.P., S.M.A.-K.).

Clinically recognized atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with higher risk of complications, including ischemic stroke, cognitive decline, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and death. It is increasingly recognized that AF frequently is undetected until complications such as stroke or heart failure occur. Hence, the public and clinicians have an intense interest in detecting AF earlier. However, the most appropriate strategies to detect undiagnosed AF (sometimes referred to as subclinical AF) and the prognostic and therapeutic implications of AF detected by screening are uncertain. Our report summarizes the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's virtual workshop focused on identifying key research priorities related to AF screening. Global experts reviewed major knowledge gaps and identified critical research priorities in the following areas: (1) role of opportunistic screening; (2) AF as a risk factor, risk marker, or both; (3) relationship between AF burden detected with long-term monitoring and outcomes/treatments; (4) designs of potential randomized trials of systematic AF screening with clinically relevant outcomes; and (5) role of AF screening after ischemic stroke. Our report aims to inform and catalyze AF screening research that will advance innovative, resource-efficient, and clinically relevant studies in diverse populations to improve the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of patients with undiagnosed AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047633DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of tocilizumab on clinical outcomes at 15 days in patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019: randomised controlled trial.

BMJ 2021 01 20;372:n84. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

BP-A Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, Rua Maestro Cardim, 769-Bela Vista, São Paulo-SP, 01323-001, Brazil.

Objective: To determine whether tocilizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19).

Design: Randomised, open label trial.

Setting: Nine hospitals in Brazil, 8 May to 17 July 2020.

Participants: Adults with confirmed covid-19 who were receiving supplemental oxygen or mechanical ventilation and had abnormal levels of at least two serum biomarkers (C reactive protein, D dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, or ferritin). The data monitoring committee recommended stopping the trial early, after 129 patients had been enrolled, because of an increased number of deaths at 15 days in the tocilizumab group.

Interventions: Tocilizumab (single intravenous infusion of 8 mg/kg) plus standard care (n=65) versus standard care alone (n=64).

Main Outcome Measure: The primary outcome, clinical status measured at 15 days using a seven level ordinal scale, was analysed as a composite of death or mechanical ventilation because the assumption of odds proportionality was not met.

Results: A total of 129 patients were enrolled (mean age 57 (SD 14) years; 68% men) and all completed follow-up. All patients in the tocilizumab group and two in the standard care group received tocilizumab. 18 of 65 (28%) patients in the tocilizumab group and 13 of 64 (20%) in the standard care group were receiving mechanical ventilation or died at day 15 (odds ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 3.66; P=0.32). Death at 15 days occurred in 11 (17%) patients in the tocilizumab group compared with 2 (3%) in the standard care group (odds ratio 6.42, 95% confidence interval 1.59 to 43.2). Adverse events were reported in 29 of 67 (43%) patients who received tocilizumab and 21 of 62 (34%) who did not receive tocilizumab.

Conclusions: In patients with severe or critical covid-19, tocilizumab plus standard care was not superior to standard care alone in improving clinical outcomes at 15 days, and it might increase mortality.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04403685.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n84DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7815251PMC
January 2021

Effect of Discontinuing vs Continuing Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers on Days Alive and Out of the Hospital in Patients Admitted With COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2021 01;325(3):254-264

D'Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Importance: It is unknown whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have a positive, neutral, or negative effect on clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Objective: To determine whether discontinuation compared with continuation of ACEIs or ARBs changed the number of days alive and out of the hospital through 30 days.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A randomized clinical trial of 659 patients hospitalized in Brazil with mild to moderate COVID-19 who were taking ACEIs or ARBs prior to hospitalization (enrolled: April 9-June 26, 2020; final follow-up: July 26, 2020).

Interventions: Discontinuation (n = 334) or continuation (n = 325) of ACEIs or ARBs.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was the number of days alive and out of the hospital through 30 days. Secondary outcomes included death, cardiovascular death, and COVID-19 progression.

Results: Among 659 patients, the median age was 55.1 years (interquartile range [IQR], 46.1-65.0 years), 14.7% were aged 70 years or older, 40.4% were women, and 100% completed the trial. The median time from symptom onset to hospital admission was 6 days (IQR, 4-9 days) and 27.2% of patients had an oxygen saturation of less than 94% of room air at baseline. In terms of clinical severity, 57.1% of patients were considered mild at hospital admission and 42.9% were considered moderate. There was no significant difference in the number of days alive and out of the hospital in patients in the discontinuation group (mean, 21.9 days [SD, 8 days]) vs patients in the continuation group (mean, 22.9 days [SD, 7.1 days]) and the mean ratio was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90-1.01). There also was no statistically significant difference in death (2.7% for the discontinuation group vs 2.8% for the continuation group; odds ratio [OR], 0.97 [95% CI, 0.38-2.52]), cardiovascular death (0.6% vs 0.3%, respectively; OR, 1.95 [95% CI, 0.19-42.12]), or COVID-19 progression (38.3% vs 32.3%; OR, 1.30 [95% CI, 0.95-1.80]). The most common adverse events were respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (9.6% in the discontinuation group vs 7.7% in the continuation group), shock requiring vasopressors (8.4% vs 7.1%, respectively), acute myocardial infarction (7.5% vs 4.6%), new or worsening heart failure (4.2% vs 4.9%), and acute kidney failure requiring hemodialysis (3.3% vs 2.8%).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among patients hospitalized with mild to moderate COVID-19 and who were taking ACEIs or ARBs before hospital admission, there was no significant difference in the mean number of days alive and out of the hospital for those assigned to discontinue vs continue these medications. These findings do not support routinely discontinuing ACEIs or ARBs among patients hospitalized with mild to moderate COVID-19 if there is an indication for treatment.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04364893.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.25864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816106PMC
January 2021

Apixaban or Vitamin K Antagonists and Aspirin or Placebo According to Kidney Function in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation After Acute Coronary Syndrome or PCI: Insights from The AUGUSTUS Trial.

Circulation 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.

In the AUGUSTUS trial, apixaban resulted in less bleeding and fewer hospitalizations than vitamin K antagonists (VKA), and aspirin caused more bleeding than placebo in patients with atrial fibrillation and acute coronary syndrome or percutaneous coronary intervention treated with a P2Y inhibitor. We evaluated the risk-benefit balance of antithrombotic therapy according to kidney function. In 4456 patients, the CKD-EPI formula was used to calculate baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The effect of apixaban vs. VKA and aspirin vs. placebo was assessed across kidney function categories using Cox models. The primary outcome was ISTH major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding. Secondary outcomes included death or hospitalization and ischemic events (death, stroke, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis [definite or probable], or urgent revascularization). Creatinine clearance below 30 mL/min was an exclusion criterion in the AUGUSTUS trial. Overall, 30%, 52%, and 19% had an eGFR of >80, >50 to 80, and 30-50 mL/min/1.73m, respectively. During 6-months follow-up a total of 543 primary outcomes of bleeding, 1125 death or hospitalizations, and 282 ischemic events occurred. Compared with VKA, patients assigned apixaban had lower rates for all 3 outcomes across most eGFR categories without significant interaction. The absolute risk reduction with apixaban was most pronounced in those with an eGFR of 30-50 mL/min/1.73m for bleeding events with rates of 13.1% vs. 21.3%; HR (95% CI) 0.59 (0.41-0.84). Patients assigned aspirin had a higher risk of bleeding in all eGFR categories with an even greater increase among those with eGFR >80 mL/min/1.73m: 16.6% vs. 5.6%; HR 3.22 (2.19-4.74); p for interaction=0.007). The risk of death or hospitalization and ischemic events were comparable with aspirin and placebo across eGFR categories with HR ranging from 0.97 (0.76-1.23) to 1.28 (1.02-1.59) and from 0.75 (0.48-1.17) to 1.34 (0.81-2.22), respectively. The safety and efficacy of apixaban was consistent irrespective of kidney function, as compared with warfarin, and in accordance with the overall trial results. The risk of bleeding with aspirin was consistently higher across all kidney function categories. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT02415400.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.051020DOI Listing
January 2021

Gaps in Evidence-Based Therapy Use in Insured Patients in the United States With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jan 12;10(2):e016835. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Duke Clinical Research Institute Duke University School of Medicine Durham NC.

Background Evidence-based therapies are generally underused for cardiovascular risk reduction; however, less is known about contemporary patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Pharmacy and medical claims data from within Anthem were queried for patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using an index date of April 18, 2018, we evaluated the proportion of patients with a prescription claim for any of the 3 evidence-based therapies on, or covering, the index date ±30 days: high-intensity statin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, and sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist. The potential benefit of achieving 100% adoption of all 3 evidence-based therapies was simulated using pooled treatment estimates from clinical trials. Of the 155 958 patients in the sample, 24.7% were using a high-intensity statin, 53.1% were using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, and 9.9% were using either an sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists. Overall, only 2.7% of the population were covered by prescriptions for all 3 evidence-based therapies, and 37.4% were on none of them. Over a 12-month period, 70.6% of patients saw a cardiologist, while only 18% saw an endocrinologist. Increasing the use of evidence-based therapies to 100% over 3 years of treatment could be expected to reduce 4546 major atherosclerotic cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death) in eligible but untreated patients. Conclusions Alarming gaps exist in the contemporary use of evidence-based therapies in this large population of insured patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. These data provide a call to action for patients, providers, industry, regulators, professional societies, and payers to close these gaps in care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.016835DOI Listing
January 2021

Antithrombotic Regimens in Low-Risk Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Trials Evaluating Patient-Centered Outcomes Needed.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jan 11;14(1):e010331. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Foundation for Cardiovascular Medicine, San Diego, CA.Duke Clinical Research Institute, and Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (R.D.L.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.010331DOI Listing
January 2021

Effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 and 2 inhibitors on cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis update.

Am Heart J 2021 Mar 29;233:86-91. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC. Electronic address:

In this report, we aim to provide an updated meta-analysis of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors trial data with the new trial data on sotagliflozin, a first-in-class dual SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitor. We searched Medline, Cochrane library, and Embase databases for randomized clinical trials comparing cardiovascular and kidney outcomes between SGLT2 and dual SGLT1/2 inhibitors and placebo. Nine randomized clinical trials with a total of 60,914 patients with type 2 diabetes were included. In patients with type 2 diabetes, the use of SGLT2 and dual SGLT1/2 inhibitors improves the cardiovascular and kidney outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.12.007DOI Listing
March 2021

Heterogeneity of diabetes as a risk factor for major adverse cardiovascular events in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation: an analysis of the ARISTOTLE trial.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother 2020 Dec 28. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 38, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.

Aims: Whether diabetes without insulin therapy is an independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor in atrial fibrillation (AF) has recently been questioned. We investigated the prognostic relevance of diabetes with or without insulin treatment in patients in the ARISTOTLE trial.

Methods And Results: Patients with AF and increased stroke risk randomized to apixaban vs. warfarin were classified according to diabetes status: no diabetes; diabetes on no diabetes medications; diabetes on non-insulin antidiabetic drugs only; or insulin-treated. The associations between such patient subgroups and stroke/systemic embolism (SE), myocardial infarction (MI), and CV death were examined by Cox proportional hazard regression, both unadjusted and adjusted for other prognostic variables. Patients with diabetes were younger and had a higher body mass index. Median CHA2DS2VASc score was 4.0 in patients with diabetes and 3.0 in patients without diabetes. We found no significant difference in stroke/SE incidence across patient subgroups. Compared with no diabetes, only insulin-treated diabetes was significantly associated with higher risk. When adjusted for clinical variables, compared with no diabetes, the hazard ratios (HRs) for MI (95% confidence intervals) were for diabetes on no medication: 1.15 (0.62-2.14); for diabetes on non-insulin antidiabetic drugs: 1.32 (0.90-1.94); for insulin-treated diabetes: 2.34 (1.43-3.82); interaction P = 0.008. HRs for CV death were for diabetes on no medication: 1.19 (0.86-166); for diabetes on non-insulin antidiabetic drugs: 1.12 (0.88-1.42); for insulin-treated diabetes 1.85 (1.36-2.53), interaction P = 0.001.

Conclusion: In anticoagulated patients with AF, a higher risk of MI and CV death is largely confined to diabetes treated with insulin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcvp/pvaa140DOI Listing
December 2020

Anticoagulation dosing in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: Is less more?

Eur J Intern Med 2021 Jan 16;83:8-9. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, and Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2020.12.004DOI Listing
January 2021

The multiplication of loaves and fishes approach: A Critic to Double anti-thrombotics or to Double number of ischemic events?

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother 2020 Dec 19. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

CardioCentro Ticino, Via Tesserete 48, Lugano, Switzerland.

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December 2020

Individual Patient Data from the Pivotal Randomized Controlled Trials of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (COMBINE AF): Design and Rationale: From the COMBINE AF (A Collaboration between Multiple institutions to Better Investigate Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant use in Atrial Fibrillation) Investigators.

Am Heart J 2021 Mar 6;233:48-58. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, 200 Morris St, Durham, NC 27701.

Background: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are the preferred class of medications for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation unless contraindications exist. Five large, international, randomized, controlled trials of NOACs versus either warfarin or aspirin have been completed to date.

Design: COMBINE AF incorporates de-identified individual patient data from 77,282 patients with atrial fibrillation at risk for stroke randomized to NOAC, warfarin, or aspirin from 5 pivotal randomized controlled trials. All patients randomized in the constituent trials are included. Variables common to ≥3 of the constituent trials are included in the master database. Individual trial data sets from the 4 coordinating centers were combined at the Duke Clinical Research Institute. The final database will be securely shared with the 4 academic coordinating centers. The combined master database will be used to perform statistical analyses aimed at better understanding underlying risk factors and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with oral anticoagulants, with a special focus on patient subgroups and uncommon outcomes. The initial analysis from COMBINE AF will be a network meta-analysis investigating the relative efficacy and safety of pooled higher-dose NOACs versus pooled lower-dose NOACs versus warfarin with respect to multiple time-to-event efficacy and safety outcomes. COMBINE AF is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020178771).

Conclusion: In conclusion, COMBINE AF provides a rich and robust database consisting of individual patient data and will offer opportunities to investigate oral anticoagulants across many patient subgroups. Data sharing and collaboration across academic institutions and investigators will serve as overarching themes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.12.002DOI Listing
March 2021

Screening of Multiple Biomarkers Associated With Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 12 9;9(24):e018984. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Uppsala Clinical Research Center Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden.

Background To explore the pathophysiological features of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), we evaluated the association between 268 plasma proteins and subsequent ischemic stroke in 2 large AF cohorts receiving oral anticoagulation. Methods and Results A case-cohort sample of patients with AF from the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial, including 282 cases with ischemic stroke or systemic embolism and a random sample of 4124 without these events, during 1.9 years of follow-up was used for identification. Validation was provided by a similar case-cohort sample of patients with AF from the RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy) trial, including 149 cases with ischemic stroke/systemic embolism and a random sample of 1062 without these events. In plasma obtained before randomization, 268 unique biomarkers were measured with OLINK proximity extension assay panels (CVD II, CVD III, and Inflammation) and conventional immunoassays. The association between biomarkers and outcomes was evaluated by random survival forest and adjusted Cox regression. According to random survival forest or Cox regression analyses, the biomarkers most strongly and consistently associated with ischemic stroke/systemic embolism were matrix metalloproteinase-9, NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), osteopontin, sortilin, soluble suppression of tumorigenesis 2, and trefoil factor-3. The corresponding hazard ratios (95% CIs) for an interquartile difference were as follows: 1.18 (1.00-1.38), 1.55 (1.28-1.88), 1.28 (1.07-1.53), 1.19 (1.02-1.39), 1.23 (1.05-1.45), and 1.19 (0.97-1.45), respectively. Conclusions In patients with AF, of 268 unique biomarkers, the 6 biomarkers most strongly associated with subsequent ischemic stroke/systemic embolism represent fibrosis/remodeling (matrix metalloproteinase-9 and soluble suppression of tumorigenesis 2), cardiac dysfunction (NT-proBNP), vascular calcification (osteopontin), metabolism (sortilin), and mucosal integrity/ischemia (trefoil factor-3). Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifiers: NCT00412984 and NCT00262600.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018984DOI Listing
December 2020

Association of the left common ostium with clinical outcome after pulmonary vein isolation in atrial fibrillation.

Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J 2020 Nov 30. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul / Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Introduction: Electrical pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is used for the invasive treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, despite the procedure's technical evolution, the rate of AF recurrence due to electrical reconnection of the PVs is high. The aims of this study was to assess the influence of left common pulmonary venous ostium (LCO) on clinical outcomes following PVI.

Methods: Retrospective cohort of 254 patients who underwent the first procedure of PVI from the years 2013-2018 was assessed. Patients with persistent AF of long duration and extra-pulmonary focus associated with triggers for arrhythmia were excluded. Patients were stratified into two groups according to the presence of a LCO and received follow up for atrial tachyarrhythmia-free survival. The mean follow-up period was 28 ± 1.73 months.

Results: The majority were men (68.5%), with a mean age of 54 ± 12 years. With respect to the atrial anatomy, LCO occurred in 23.6% of cases after pulmonary venous angiotomography. The arrhythmia-free survival rate was 79.5% in the follow-up period. The Cox regression model was utilized and the adjusted hazard ratio for LCO was 0.36 (95% CI 0.15-0.87; p = 0.02) in terms of age, body mass index, left atrium diameter, bi-directional blocking of the cavotricuspid isthmus, persistent AF, left ventricular ejection fraction adjusted model.

Conclusion: Anatomic abnormality with the presence of the LCO is present in a quarter of patients undergoing AF ablation, which is associated with a lower rate of arrhythmia recurrence in our population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ipej.2020.11.020DOI Listing
November 2020

Myocardial Infarction in the ISCHEMIA Trial: Impact of Different Definitions on Incidence, Prognosis, and Treatment Comparisons.

Circulation 2021 Feb 3;143(8):790-804. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York (J.S.B., H.R.R., S.B., J.S.H.).

Background: In the ISCHEMIA trial (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches), an initial invasive strategy did not significantly reduce rates of cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality in comparison with a conservative strategy in patients with stable ischemic heart disease and moderate/severe myocardial ischemia. The most frequent component of composite cardiovascular end points was myocardial infarction (MI).

Methods: ISCHEMIA prespecified that the primary and major secondary composite end points of the trial be analyzed using 2 MI definitions. For procedural MI, the primary MI definition used creatine kinase-MB as the preferred biomarker, whereas the secondary definition used cardiac troponin. Procedural thresholds were >5 times the upper reference level for percutaneous coronary intervention and >10 times for coronary artery bypass grafting. Procedural MI definitions included (1) a category of elevated biomarker only events with much higher biomarker thresholds, (2) new ST-segment depression of ≥1 mm for the primary and ≥0.5 mm for the secondary definition, and (3) new coronary dissections National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute grade 3. We compared MI type, frequency, and prognosis by treatment assignment using both MI definitions.

Results: Procedural MIs accounted for 20.1% of all MI events with the primary definition and 40.6% of all MI events with the secondary definition. Four-year MI rates in patients undergoing revascularization were more frequent with the invasive versus conservative strategy using the primary (2.7% versus 1.1%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.98 [95% CI, 1.87-4.73]) and secondary (8.2% versus 2.0%; adjusted HR, 5.04 [95% CI, 3.64-6.97]) MI definitions. Type 1 MIs were less frequent with the invasive versus conservative strategy using the primary (3.40% versus 6.89%; adjusted HR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.41-0.69]; <0.0001) and secondary (3.48% versus 6.89%; adjusted HR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.41-0.69]; <0.0001) definitions. The risk of subsequent cardiovascular death was higher after a type 1 MI than after no MI using the primary (adjusted HR, 3.38 [95% CI, 2.03-5.61]; <0.001) or secondary MI definition (adjusted HR, 3.52 [2.11-5.88]; <0.001).

Conclusions: In ISCHEMIA, type 1 MI events using the primary and secondary definitions during 5-year follow-up were more frequent with an initial conservative strategy and associated with subsequent cardiovascular death. Procedural MI rates were greater in the invasive strategy and with the use of the secondary MI definition. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01471522.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902479PMC
February 2021

Management of Atrial Fibrillation in Older Patients by Morbidity Burden: Insights From Get With The Guidelines-Atrial Fibrillation.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 12 26;9(23):e017024. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Duke Clinical Research Institute Duke University Durham NC.

Background Knowledge is scarce regarding how multimorbidity is associated with therapeutic decisions regarding oral anticoagulants (OACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods and Results We conducted a cross-sectional study of hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation using the Get With The Guidelines-Atrial Fibrillation registry from 2013 to 2019. We identified patients ≥65 years and eligible for OAC therapy. Using 16 available comorbidity categories, patients were stratified by morbidity burden. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine the odds of receiving OAC prescription at discharge by morbidity burden. We included 34 174 patients with a median (interquartile range) age of 76 (71-83) years, 56.6% women, and 41.9% were not anticoagulated at admission. Of these patients, 38.6% had 0 to 2 comorbidities, 50.7% had 3 to 5 comorbidities, and 10.7% had ≥6 comorbidities. The overall discharge OAC prescription was high (85.6%). The prevalence of patients with multimorbidity increased from 59.7% in 2014 to 64.3% in 2019 ( trend=0.002). Using 0 to 2 comorbidities as the reference, the adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of OAC prescription were 0.93 (0.82, 1.05) for patients with 3 to 5 comorbidities and 0.72 (0.60, 0.86) for patients with ≥6 comorbidities. In those with ≥6 comorbidities, the most common reason for nonprescription of OACs were frequent falls/frailty (31.0%). Conclusions In a contemporary quality-of-care database of hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation eligible for OAC therapy, multimorbidity was common. A higher morbidity burden was associated with a lower odds of OAC prescription. This highlights the need for interventions to improve adherence to guideline-recommended anticoagulation in multimorbid patients with atrial fibrillation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763767PMC
December 2020

Effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on cardiovascular and kidney outcomes-Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials.

Am Heart J 2021 02 24;232:10-22. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC. Electronic address:

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) use is associated with improved cardiovascular and kidney outcomes. However, the magnitude and potential heterogeneity of effect across patients with varying types of cardiometabolic and kidney disease is unclear. To examine the effect of SGLT2i on cardiovascular and kidney outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and independent of T2DM status, among patients with heart failure (HF), and chronic kidney disease.

Method: Medline, Embase, Cochrane library and scientific conferences were searched from inception till September 24, 2020 for randomized controlled trials comparing cardiovascular and kidney outcomes between SGLT2i and placebo. Random effects hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.

Results: Eight trials with a combined 59,747 patients were included. In the overall population, SGLT2i reduced the risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.84; 95% CI [0.78-0.91]), cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.84; 95% CI [0.76-0.93]) hospitalization for HF (HR 0.69; 95% CI [0.64-0.74]), myocardial infarction (HR 0.91; 95% CI [0.84-0.99]), and composite kidney outcome (HR 0.62; 95% CI [0.56-0.70]). There was no significant effect on the risk of stroke (HR 0.98; 95% CI [0.86-1.11]). Results were consistent across subgroups stratified by diabetes and HF status. SGLT2i use was not associated with a greater risk of hypoglycemia (OR 0.92; 95% CI [0.84-1.01]) or amputation (OR 1.25; 95% CI [0.97-1.62]). There were 64 diabetic ketoacidosis events with SGLT2i use and 18 with placebo (OR 2.86; 95% CI [1.39-5.86]).

Conclusions: In patients with cardiometabolic and kidney disease, SGLT2i improved cardiovascular and kidney outcomes, regardless of T2DM, HF, and/or CKD status. The magnitude of risk reduction was largest for hospitalization for HF and progression of kidney disease, more modest for mortality and MI and absent for stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.10.064DOI Listing
February 2021

Sotagliflozin in Patients with Diabetes and Recent Worsening Heart Failure.

N Engl J Med 2021 01 16;384(2):117-128. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

From Brigham and Women's Hospital Heart and Vascular Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston (D.L.B., C.P.C.); Colorado Prevention Center Clinical Research and Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora (M.S.); State University of New York Downstate School of Public Health, Brooklyn (M.S.); Université de Paris, French Alliance for Cardiovascular Trials, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat, INSERM Unité 1148 (P.G.S.), and Paris Sorbonne University and Groupe Hospitalier Paris Saint Joseph (M.K.), Paris; Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute (L.A.L., S.V.) and the Divisions of Endocrinology and Metabolism (L.A.L.) and Cardiac Surgery (S.V.), St. Michael's Hospital, and the Departments of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences (L.A.L) and Surgery and Pharmacology and Toxicology (S.V.), University of Toronto, Toronto; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and Parkland Health and Hospital System, Dallas (D.K.M.), and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, The Woodlands (P.L.) - both in Texas; Vanderbilt University, Nashville (J.B.L.); the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (M.C.R.); University of Groningen-University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands (A.A.V); Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali Civili and University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy (M.M.); Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (L.H.L.); Yale University, New Haven, CT (J.M.T.); Georgetown University, Washington, DC (C.S.W.); Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland (P.P.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (R.D.L.); and the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (B.P.).

Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes among patients with stable heart failure. However, the safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors when initiated soon after an episode of decompensated heart failure are unknown.

Methods: We performed a multicenter, double-blind trial in which patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were recently hospitalized for worsening heart failure were randomly assigned to receive sotagliflozin or placebo. The primary end point was the total number of deaths from cardiovascular causes and hospitalizations and urgent visits for heart failure (first and subsequent events). The trial ended early because of loss of funding from the sponsor.

Results: A total of 1222 patients underwent randomization (608 to the sotagliflozin group and 614 to the placebo group) and were followed for a median of 9.0 months; the first dose of sotagliflozin or placebo was administered before discharge in 48.8% and a median of 2 days after discharge in 51.2%. Among these patients, 600 primary end-point events occurred (245 in the sotagliflozin group and 355 in the placebo group). The rate (the number of events per 100 patient-years) of primary end-point events was lower in the sotagliflozin group than in the placebo group (51.0 vs. 76.3; hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.85; P<0.001). The rate of death from cardiovascular causes was 10.6 in the sotagliflozin group and 12.5 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.22); the rate of death from any cause was 13.5 in the sotagliflozin group and 16.3 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.14). Diarrhea was more common with sotagliflozin than with placebo (6.1% vs. 3.4%), as was severe hypoglycemia (1.5% vs. 0.3%). The percentage of patients with hypotension was similar in the sotagliflozin group and the placebo group (6.0% and 4.6%, respectively), as was the percentage with acute kidney injury (4.1% and 4.4%, respectively). The benefits of sotagliflozin were consistent in the prespecified subgroups of patients stratified according to the timing of the first dose.

Conclusions: In patients with diabetes and recent worsening heart failure, sotagliflozin therapy, initiated before or shortly after discharge, resulted in a significantly lower total number of deaths from cardiovascular causes and hospitalizations and urgent visits for heart failure than placebo. (Funded by Sanofi and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals; SOLOIST-WHF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03521934.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2030183DOI Listing
January 2021

Sotagliflozin in Patients with Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease.

N Engl J Med 2021 01 16;384(2):129-139. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

From Brigham and Women's Hospital Heart and Vascular Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston (D.L.B., C.P.C., B.M.S.); Colorado Prevention Center Clinical Research and Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora (M.S.); the State University of New York Downstate School of Public Health, Brooklyn (M.S.); the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (B.P.); Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute and the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St. Michael's Hospital, and the Departments of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto (L.A.L.), and the Division of Nephrology (D.Z.I.C.) and the Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Women's College Hospital and Peter Munk Cardiac Centre (J.A.U.), University Health Network, University of Toronto - all in Toronto; the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and Parkland Health and Hospital System, Dallas (D.K.M.), and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, The Woodlands (P.L.) - both in Texas; Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (J.B.L., J.P.D.); the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (M.C.R.); the Section of Endocrinology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (S.E.I.); Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City (M.N.K.); the School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham (C.J.B.), and the Imperial Centre for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London (K.K.R.) - both in the United Kingdom; the Department of Medicine, Estudios Clínicos Latinoamérica, Instituto Cardiovascular de Rosario, Rosario, Argentina (R.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (R.D.L.); and Université de Paris, French Alliance for Cardiovascular Trials, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat, INSERM Unité 1148, Paris (P.G.S.).

Background: The efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors such as sotagliflozin in preventing cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes with chronic kidney disease with or without albuminuria have not been well studied.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter, double-blind trial in which patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (glycated hemoglobin level, ≥7%), chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25 to 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m of body-surface area), and risks for cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive sotagliflozin or placebo. The primary end point was changed during the trial to the composite of the total number of deaths from cardiovascular causes, hospitalizations for heart failure, and urgent visits for heart failure. The trial ended early owing to loss of funding.

Results: Of 19,188 patients screened, 10,584 were enrolled, with 5292 assigned to the sotagliflozin group and 5292 assigned to the placebo group, and followed for a median of 16 months. The rate of primary end-point events was 5.6 events per 100 patient-years in the sotagliflozin group and 7.5 events per 100 patient-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 0.88; P<0.001). The rate of deaths from cardiovascular causes per 100 patient-years was 2.2 with sotagliflozin and 2.4 with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.12; P = 0.35). For the original coprimary end point of the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, the hazard ratio was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.99); for the original coprimary end point of the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure, the hazard ratio was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.91). Diarrhea, genital mycotic infections, volume depletion, and diabetic ketoacidosis were more common with sotagliflozin than with placebo.

Conclusions: In patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, with or without albuminuria, sotagliflozin resulted in a lower risk of the composite of deaths from cardiovascular causes, hospitalizations for heart failure, and urgent visits for heart failure than placebo but was associated with adverse events. (Funded by Sanofi and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals; SCORED ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03315143.).
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January 2021

Rivaroxaban in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and a Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve.

N Engl J Med 2020 11 14;383(22):2117-2126. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

From the HCor Research Institute (H.P.G., P.G.M.B.S., F.C.S.K., L.D., R.H.N.S., N.V., V.B.C., R.P., A.B.C., O.B.), Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia (I.L.L.), Instituto do Coração do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (R.O.S., F.T.), Sociedade de Cardiologia do Estado de São Paulo (J.F.K.S., F.H.F., I.M.P., C.C.M., J.F.M.F., R.P., O.B.), and Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (O.B.), São Paulo, Hospital Regional Hans Dieter Schmidt, Joinville (C.R.H.-F.), Hospital Metropolitano Sul Dom Helder Câmara, Cabo de Santo Agostinho (R.L.S.P.), Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (T.L.L.L.), Pronto Socorro Cardiológico Prof. Luiz Tavares, Procape (D.L.), Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (F.A.M.S.F.), Recife, Sociedade Hospitalar Angelina Caron, Campina Grande do Sul (D.B.P.), Instituto de Cardiologia do Distrito Federal, Brasília (F.A.A.), Centro de Pesquisa Clínica do Coração, Aracajú (F.S.S.), Quanta Diagnóstico e Terapia, Curitiba (F.R.F.), Hospital Evangélico de Vila Velha, Vila Velha (D.O.B.), Unidade Médico Cirúrgica-Unimec, Vitória da Conquista (A.P.A.), Hospital de Caridade São Vicente de Paulo, Jundiaí (A.C.Z.), Hospital de Messejana Dr. Carlos Alberto Studart Gomes, Fortaleza (J.D.S.N.), Hospital Regional de Presidente Prudente-Universidade do Oeste Paulista, Presidente Prudente (M.A.C.), and Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica de Campinas, Campinas (J.F.K.S.) - all in Brazil; and Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke Health, Durham, NC (R.D.L., J.H.A.).

Background: The effects of rivaroxaban in patients with atrial fibrillation and a bioprosthetic mitral valve remain uncertain.

Methods: In this randomized trial, we compared rivaroxaban (20 mg once daily) with dose-adjusted warfarin (target international normalized ratio, 2.0 to 3.0) in patients with atrial fibrillation and a bioprosthetic mitral valve. The primary outcome was a composite of death, major cardiovascular events (stroke, transient ischemic attack, systemic embolism, valve thrombosis, or hospitalization for heart failure), or major bleeding at 12 months.

Results: A total of 1005 patients were enrolled at 49 sites in Brazil. A primary-outcome event occurred at a mean of 347.5 days in the rivaroxaban group and 340.1 days in the warfarin group (difference calculated as restricted mean survival time, 7.4 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.4 to 16.3; P<0.001 for noninferiority). Death from cardiovascular causes or thromboembolic events occurred in 17 patients (3.4%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 26 (5.1%) in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.20). The incidence of stroke was 0.6% in the rivaroxaban group and 2.4% in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.88). Major bleeding occurred in 7 patients (1.4%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 13 (2.6%) in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.21 to 1.35). The frequency of other serious adverse events was similar in the two groups.

Conclusions: In patients with atrial fibrillation and a bioprosthetic mitral valve, rivaroxaban was noninferior to warfarin with respect to the mean time until the primary outcome of death, major cardiovascular events, or major bleeding at 12 months. (Funded by PROADI-SUS and Bayer; RIVER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02303795.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2029603DOI Listing
November 2020

COVID-19 in Brazil: the headlines should be about science.

Lancet 2020 12 10;396(10265):1803. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Cardiology Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre 90035-903, Brazil; Cardiology Division, Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32375-8DOI Listing
December 2020

Cause of Death Among Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease: Insights From the EUCLID Trial.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2020 Nov 12;13(11):e006550. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Duke Heart Center, Division of Cardiology, School of Medicine (R.D.L., M.R.P., W.S.J.), Duke University, Durham, NC.

Background: Peripheral artery disease is common and associated with high mortality. There are limited data detailing causes of death among patients with peripheral artery disease.

Methods: EUCLID (Examining Use of Ticagrelor in Peripheral Artery Disease) was a randomized clinical trial that assigned patients with peripheral artery disease to clopidogrel or ticagrelor. We describe the causes of death in EUCLID using mortality end points adjudicated through a clinical events classification process. The association between baseline factors and cardiovascular death was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards modeling. The competing risk of noncardiovascular death was assessed by the cumulative incidence function for cardiovascular death and the Fine and Gray method to ascertain the association between baseline characteristics and cardiovascular mortality.

Results: A total of 1263 out of 13 885 (9.1%) patients died (median follow-up: 30 months). There were 706 patients (55.9%) with a cardiovascular cause of death and 522 (41.3%) with a noncardiovascular cause of death. The most common cause of cardiovascular death was sudden cardiac death (20.1%); while myocardial infarction (5.2%) and ischemic stroke (3.2%) were uncommon. The most common causes of noncardiovascular death were malignancies (17.9%) and infections (11.9%). The factor most associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular death was age per 5 year increase (HR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.20-1.32]). Female sex was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular death (HR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.56-0.82]). To evaluate the effect of noncardiovascular death as a competing risk, we superimposed the cumulative incidence function curve with the Kaplan-Meier curve. These curves closely approximated each other. After accounting for the competing risk of noncardiovascular death, the magnitude and direction of the factors associated with cardiovascular death were minimally changed.

Conclusions: Among patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease, noncardiovascular causes of death reflected a high proportion (40%) of deaths. Accounting for noncardiovascular deaths as a competing risk, there was not a significant change in the risk estimation for cardiovascular death. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01732822.
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November 2020

Risk stratification using late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2020 Nov 7. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC, USA.

Background The role of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (c-MRI) for predicting outcomes of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has been debated. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase and various published bibliographies for prospective studies published in English between January 1990 and February 2019. Two investigators screened 2646 abstracts and full-text articles for inclusion and relevant outcomes. We then performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to calculate pooled odds ratios for LGE on c-MRI and a pooled sensitivity and specificity analysis. Results Our systematic review included 8 prospective studies and 3808 patients. LGE positivity was associated with higher odds of the endpoint of sudden cardiac death (SCD;OR 1.69, 95%CI 1.03-2.78), aborted SCD or appropriate implantable cardioverter- defibrillator (ICD) discharge (OR 3.27 [1.75-6.10]), SCD or aborted SCD or appropriate ICD discharge (OR 2.32 [1.56-3.43]), and all-cause mortality (OR 2.10 [CI 1.00-4.41]). The pooled sensitivity and specificity of positive LGE on c-MRI for SCD were 65% and 42%, respectively; for aborted SCD or appropriate ICD discharge, 79% and 39%; for SCD or aborted SCD or appropriate ICD discharge, 74% and 39%; and for all-cause mortality, 78% and 39%. Conclusion In patients with HCM, LGE on c-MRI is a strong predictor of arrhythmic outcomes including SCD, aborted SCD, and appropriate ICD therapy. These data support the routine use of LGE on c-MRI as a marker of SCD risk in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2020.11.001DOI Listing
November 2020

Association between levosimendan, postoperative AKI, and mortality in cardiac surgery: Insights from the LEVO-CTS trial.

Am Heart J 2021 01 28;231:18-24. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the association between levosimendan treatment and acute kidney injury (AKI) as well as assess the clinical sequelae of AKI in cardiac surgery patients with depressed left ventricular function (ejection fraction <35%).

Methods: Patients in the LEVO-CTS trial undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve, or CABG/valve surgery were stratified by occurrence and severity of postoperative AKI using the AKIN classification. The association between levosimendan infusion and AKI was modeled using multivariable regression.

Results: Among 854 LEVO-CTS patients, 231 (27.0%) experienced postoperative AKI, including 182 (21.3%) with stage 1, 35 (4.1%) with stage 2, and 14 (1.6%) with stage 3 AKI. The rate of AKI was similar between patients receiving levosimendan or placebo. The odds of 30-day mortality significantly increased by AKI stage compared to those without AKI (stage 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8-4.9; stage 2: aOR 9.1, 95% CI 3.2-25.7; stage 3: aOR 12.4, 95% CI 3.0-50.4). No association was observed between levosimendan, AKI stage, and odds of 30-day mortality (interaction P = .69). Factors independently associated with AKI included increasing age, body mass index, diabetes, and increasing baseline systolic blood pressure. Increasing baseline eGFR and aldosterone antagonist use were associated with a lower risk of AKI.

Conclusions: Postoperative AKI is common among high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery and associated with significantly increased risk of 30-day death or dialysis. Levosimendan was not associated with the risk of AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.10.066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755750PMC
January 2021

Characteristics of clinical trials evaluating cardiovascular therapies for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: a cross sectional analysis.

Am Heart J 2021 02 26;232:105-115. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Brigham and Women's Hospital Heart & Vascular Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 has increased exponentially, and patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease are at risk for poor outcomes. Several lines of evidence suggest a potential role for CV therapies in COVID-19 treatment. Characteristics of clinical trials of CV therapies related to COVID-19 registered on ClinicalTrials.gov have not been described.

Methods: ClinicalTrials.gov was queried on August 7, 2020 for COVID-19 related trials. Studies evaluating established CV drugs, other fibrinolytics (defibrotide), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were included. Studies evaluating anti-microbial, convalescent plasma, non-colchicine anti-inflammatory, and other therapies were excluded. Trial characteristics were tabulated from study-specific entries.

Results: A total of 2,935 studies related to COVID-19 were registered as of August 7, 2020. Of these, 1,645 were interventional studies, and the final analytic cohort consisted of 114 studies evaluating 10 CV therapeutic categories. Antithrombotics (32.5%; n = 37) were most commonly evaluated, followed by pulmonary vasodilators (14.0%; n = 16), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system-related therapies (12.3%; n = 14), and colchicine (8.8%; n = 10). Trials evaluating multiple CV therapy categories and CV therapies in combination with non-CV therapies encompassed 4.4% (n = 5) and 9.6% (n = 11) of studies, respectively. Most studies were designed for randomized allocation (87.7%; n = 100), enrollment of less than 1000 participants (86.8%; n = 99), single site implementation (55.3%; n = 63), and had a primary outcome of mortality or a composite including mortality (56.1%; n = 64). Most study populations consisted of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 (81.6%; n = 93). At the time of database query, 28.9% (n = 33) of studies were not yet recruiting and the majority were estimated to be completed after December 2020 (67.8%; n = 78). Most lead sponsors were located in North America (43.9%; n = 50) or Europe (36.0%; n = 41).

Conclusions: A minority (7%) of clinical trials related to COVID-19 registered on ClinicalTrials.gov plan to evaluate CV therapies. Of CV therapy studies, most were planned to be single center, enroll less than 1000 inpatients, sponsored by European or North American academic institutions, and estimated to complete after December 2020. Collectively, these findings underscore the need for a network of sites with a platform protocol for rapid evaluation of multiple therapies and generalizability to inform clinical care and health policy for COVID-19 moving forward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.10.065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586939PMC
February 2021