Publications by authors named "René Chapot"

89 Publications

Bailout stentectomy of 47 self-expandable intracranial stents.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Intracranial Endovascular Therapy, Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: Self-expanding stents are increasingly being deployed for stent-assisted coiling or flow diversion of intracranial aneurysms. Complications related to stent misbehavior may arise, however, including lack of expansion, device displacement, or parent vessel thrombosis. We present our experience of various stent removal techniques (stentectomy) with a focus on technical and clinical outcomes.

Methods: Stentectomy was attempted either with a single device, including the Alligator, Microsnare, or Solitaire, or by combining a Microsnare with a second device. Dual techniques included in this report are the Snare-over-Stentretriever technique we developed using a Microsnare and a Solitaire, and the previously described Loop-and-Snare technique using a Microsnare and a microwire. The technical success and complication rate, as well as the clinical outcome using the mRS were analyzed.

Results: Forty-seven stentectomies were attempted in 36 patients treated for 37 aneurysms. Forty-two devices (89.3%) were successfully retrieved. Single-device stentectomy was successful in 34% of cases, compared with 74% with dual-device techniques. Of the 20 patients with a thrombosed parent or efferent vessel, 17 were successfully recanalized using stentectomy. All successful stentectomy patients made a clinically uneventful recovery, except one with a minor postoperative stroke (mRS 1 at discharge). Failed stentectomy was associated with major ischemic stroke in two patients and death in one patient. There were no stentectomy-related vessel perforations or dissections.

Conclusion: While various single devices can be used to safely retrieve dysfunctional intracranial self-expandable stents, dual-device techniques are more than twice as effective, according to our experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-017279DOI Listing
March 2021

Thrombectomy for Primary Distal Posterior Cerebral Artery Occlusion Stroke: The TOPMOST Study.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Apr;78(4):434-444

Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.

Importance: Clinical evidence of the potential treatment benefit of mechanical thrombectomy for posterior circulation distal, medium vessel occlusion (DMVO) is sparse.

Objective: To investigate the frequency as well as the clinical and safety outcomes of mechanical thrombectomy for isolated posterior circulation DMVO stroke and to compare them with the outcomes of standard medical treatment with or without intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in daily clinical practice.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This multicenter case-control study analyzed patients who were treated for primary distal occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) of the P2 or P3 segment. These patients received mechanical thrombectomy or standard medical treatment (with or without IVT) at 1 of 23 comprehensive stroke centers in Europe, the United States, and Asia between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2020. All patients who met the inclusion criteria were matched using 1:1 propensity score matching.

Interventions: Mechanical thrombectomy or standard medical treatment with or without IVT.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Clinical end point was the improvement of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at discharge from baseline. Safety end point was the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and hemorrhagic complications were classified based on the Second European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study (ECASSII). Functional outcome was evaluated with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 90-day follow-up.

Results: Of 243 patients from all participating centers who met the inclusion criteria, 184 patients were matched. Among these patients, the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 74 (62-81) years and 95 (51.6%) were female individuals. Posterior circulation DMVOs were located in the P2 segment of the PCA in 149 patients (81.0%) and in the P3 segment in 35 patients (19.0%). At discharge, the mean NIHSS score decrease was -2.4 points (95% CI, -3.2 to -1.6) in the standard medical treatment cohort and -3.9 points (95% CI, -5.4 to -2.5) in the mechanical thrombectomy cohort, with a mean difference of -1.5 points (95% CI, 3.2 to -0.8; P = .06). Significant treatment effects of mechanical thrombectomy were observed in the subgroup of patients who had higher NIHSS scores on admission of 10 points or higher (mean difference, -5.6; 95% CI, -10.9 to -0.2; P = .04) and in the subgroup of patients without IVT (mean difference, -3.0; 95% CI, -5.0 to -0.9; P = .005). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 4 of 92 patients (4.3%) in each treatment cohort.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study suggested that, although rarely performed at comprehensive stroke centers, mechanical thrombectomy for posterior circulation DMVO is a safe, and technically feasible treatment option for occlusions of the P2 or P3 segment of the PCA compared with standard medical treatment with or without IVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.0001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900924PMC
April 2021

Safety, Efficacy, and Durability of Stent Plus Balloon-Assisted Coiling for the Treatment of Wide-Necked Intracranial Bifurcation Aneurysms.

Neurosurgery 2021 Apr;88(5):1028-1037

Department of Neuroradiology and Intracranial Endovascular Therapy, Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Essen, Germany.

Background: Wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms remain a challenge for endovascular surgeons. Dual-stent-assisted coiling techniques have been defined to treat bifurcation aneurysms with a complex neck morphology. However, there are still concerns about the safety of dual-stenting procedures. Stent plus balloon-assisted coiling is a recently described endovascular technique that enables the coiling of wide-necked complex bifurcation aneurysms by implanting only a single stent.

Objective: To investigate the feasibility, efficacy, safety, and durability of this technique for the treatment of wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed of patients with wide-necked intracranial bifurcation aneurysms treated with stent plus balloon-assisted coiling. The initial and follow-up clinical and angiographic outcomes were assessed. Preprocedural and follow-up clinical statuses were assessed using modified Rankin scale.

Results: A total of 61 patients (mean age: 54.6 ± 10.4 yr) were included in the study. The immediate postprocedural digital subtraction angiography revealed complete aneurysm occlusion in 86.9% of the cases. A periprocedural complication developed in 11.5% of the cases. We observed a delayed ischemic complication in 4.9%. There was no mortality in this study. The permanent morbidity rate was 3.3%. The follow-up angiography was performed in 55 of 61 patients (90.1%) (the mean follow-up period was 25.5 ± 27.3 mo). The rate of complete aneurysm occlusion at the final angiographic follow-up was 89.1%. The retreatment rate was 1.8%.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that stent plus balloon-assisted coiling is a feasible, effective, and relatively safe endovascular technique for the treatment of wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms located in the posterior and anterior circulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa590DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical outcomes of isolated deep grey matter infarcts after endovascular treatment of large vessel occlusion stroke.

Neuroradiology 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Clinical Neurosciences, Foothills Medical Centre, University of Calgary, 1403 29th St. NW, Calgary, AB, T2N2T9, Canada.

Purpose: There are few data on the prevalence and impact of isolated deep grey matter infarction in acute stroke. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of isolated deep grey matter infarcts and their impact on the outcome.

Methods: Infarcts on 24-h follow-up imaging (non-contrast head CT or diffusion-weighted MRI) in the ESCAPE-NA1 trial were categorized into predominantly deep grey matter infarcts vs. infarcts involving additional territories ("other infarcts"). Total infarct volume was manually segmented. Baseline characteristics and proportions of good outcome (primary outcome, defined as modified Rankin Score [mRS] 0-2 at 90 days), excellent outcome (mRS 0-1) and mortality were compared between patients with and without predominantly deep grey matter infarcts. Multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for baseline variables and total infarct volume was used to determine a possible association of predominantly deep grey matter infarcts and clinical outcome.

Results: Predominantly deep grey matter infarcts were seen in 316/1026 patients (30.8%). Compared to other patients, their ASPECTS was higher, collateral status and reperfusion quality were better and time to treatment was shorter. Good outcome was seen in 239/316 (75.6%) with vs. 374/704 (53.1%) without predominantly deep grey matter infarcts. After adjusting for baseline variables and total infarct volume, predominantly deep grey matter infarcts were independently associated with excellent outcome (OR: 1.45 [CI: 1.04-2.02]), but not with good outcome (OR: 1.24 [CI: 0.86-1.80]) or mortality (OR: 0.73 [CI:0.39-1.35]) CONCLUSION: Predominantly deep grey matter infarct patterns were seen in 1/3rd of patients and were significantly associated with increased chances of excellent outcome, independent of patient baseline status and infarct size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-021-02656-4DOI Listing
February 2021

Effectiveness of very low profile thrombectomy device in primary distal medium vessel occlusion, as rescue therapy after incomplete proximal recanalization or following iatrogenic thromboembolic events.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Intracranial Endovascular Therapy, Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus Essen, Essen, Germany

Background: Recent progress with smaller retrievers has expanded the ability to reach distal brain arteries. We herein report recanalization, bleeding complications and short-term clinical outcomes with the smallest currently known low profile thrombectomy device in patients with primary or secondary distal medium vessel occlusion (DMVO).

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 115 patients receiving mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in DMVO using the extended Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (eTICI), European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) II classification, The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at admission and discharge to evaluate outcomes. Patients were stratified into three groups: (1) primary isolated distal occlusion (n=34), (2) secondary distal occlusion after MT of a proximal vessel occlusion (n=71), or (3) during endovascular treatment of aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) (n=10).

Results: Successful distal recanalization, defined as an eTICI score of 2b67, 2c and 3, was achieved in 74.7% (86/115) of patients. More specifically, it was 70.5% (24/34), 73.2% (52/71), and 100% (10/10) of primary DMVO, secondary DMVO after proximal MT, and rescue MT during aneurysm or AVM embolization, respectively. Symptomatic intraparenchymal bleeding occurred in 6.9% (eight patients). In-hospital mortality occurred in 18.1% (19/105) of patients with stroke. The most common cause of death was large infarct, old age, and therapy limitation.

Conclusion: Direct or rescue MT of DMVO using a very low profile thrombectomy device is associated with a high rate of successful recanalization and a reasonable rate of symptomatic hemorrhagic complication, despite a risk of 18.1% hospital mortality in elderly patients. Further trials are needed to confirm our results and assess long-term clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017035DOI Listing
January 2021

Clinical Diffusion Mismatch to Select Pediatric Patients for Embolectomy 6 to 24 Hours After Stroke: An Analysis of the Save ChildS Study.

Neurology 2021 01 3;96(3):e343-e351. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

From the Department of Neuroradiology (P.B.S., M.-N.P., A.B.), Clinic for Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Switzerland; Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology (P.B.S., U.H., G.B., J.F.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Departments of Pediatrics (R.S.), and Neurology (J.M.), University Hospital of Muenster; Department of Neuroradiology (R.C.), Alfried-Krupp Hospital, Essen; Department of Neuroradiology (H.H., E.H.), Klinikum Stuttgart, Germany; Department of Neuroradiology (A.G.), Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria; Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology (F.D.), University of Munich (LMU), Campus Grosshadern; Department of Neuroradiology (O.N., M.W.), RWTH Aachen University; Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology (G.B.), Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen; Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology (A.W.), University Hospital Knappschaftskrankenhaus Bochum Langendreer; Department of Neuroradiology (D.K.), University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden7; Department of Neuroradiology (U.Y.), Saarland University Hospital, Homburg, Germany; ASST Valcamonica (A.M.), Ospedale di Esine, UOSD Neurologia, Esine, Italy; Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology (W.M.), Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, and Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy (R.N.), Division of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria; Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology (U.J.-K.), University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel; Section of Neuroradiology (M.B.), University of Ulm, Guenzburg; Department for Neuroradiology (S.S.), University Hospital Leipzig; Department of Neuroradiology (O.B.), University Hospital of Magdeburg; Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology (F.G.), Hannover Medical School, Germany; Institute of Neuroradiology (J.T.), Kepler University Hospital, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria; Institute of Neuroradiology (B.T.), University Hospital Duesseldorf; Department of Neuroradiology at Heidelberg University Hospital (M.M.); Department of Radiology (C.W.), University Hospital Regensburg; Department of Neuroradiology (P.S., A. Kemmling), University Hospital of Luebeck, Germany; Department of Neurology (P.L.M.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston; Division of Child Neurology (S.L.), Department of Neurology, Stanford University, CA; Department of Neuroradiology (M.S.), University Hospital of Cologne; Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology (A.R.), University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen; Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine (A. Karch, N.R.), University of Muenster; and Department of Radiology, University of Munich (LMU) (M.W.), Campus Grosshadern, Germany.

Objective: To determine whether thrombectomy is safe in children up to 24 hours after onset of symptoms when selected by mismatch between clinical deficit and infarct.

Methods: A secondary analysis of the Save ChildS Study (January 2000-December 2018) was performed, including all pediatric patients (<18 years) diagnosed with arterial ischemic stroke who underwent endovascular recanalization at 27 European and United States stroke centers. Patients were included if they had a relevant mismatch between clinical deficit and infarct.

Results: Twenty children with a median age of 10.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 7-14.6) years were included. Of those, 7 were male (35%), and median time from onset to thrombectomy was 9.8 (IQR 7.8-16.2) hours. Neurologic outcome improved from a median Pediatric NIH Stroke Scale score of 12.0 (IQR 8.8-20.3) at admission to 2.0 (IQR 1.2-6.8) at day 7. Median modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was 1.0 (IQR 0-1.6) at 3 months and 0.0 (IQR 0-1.0) at 24 months. One patient developed transient peri-interventional vasospasm; no other complications were observed. A comparison of the mRS score to the mRS score in the DAWN and DEFUSE 3 trials revealed a higher proportion of good outcomes in the pediatric compared to the adult study population.

Conclusions: Thrombectomy in pediatric ischemic stroke in an extended time window of up to 24 hours after onset of symptoms seems safe and neurologic outcomes are generally good if patients are selected by a mismatch between clinical deficit and infarct.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for children with acute ischemic stroke with a mismatch between clinical deficit and infarct size, thrombectomy is safe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884981PMC
January 2021

A DELPHI consensus statement on antiplatelet management for intracranial stenting due to underlying atherosclerosis in the setting of mechanical thrombectomy.

Neuroradiology 2021 Apr 24;63(4):627-632. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Purpose: There is little data and lack of consensus regarding antiplatelet management for intracranial stenting due to underlying intracranial atherosclerosis in the setting of endovascular treatment (EVT). In this DELPHI study, we aimed to assess whether consensus on antiplatelet management in this situation among experienced experts can be achieved, and what this consensus would be.

Methods: We used a modified DELPHI approach to address unanswered questions in antiplatelet management for intracranial stenting due to underlying atherosclerosis in the setting of EVT. An expert-panel (19 neurointerventionalists from 8 countries) answered structured, anonymized on-line questionnaires with iterative feedback-loops. Panel-consensus was defined as agreement ≥ 70% for binary closed-ended questions/≥ 50% for closed-ended questions with > 2 response options.

Results: Panel members answered a total of 5 survey rounds. They acknowledged that there is insufficient data for evidence-based recommendations in many aspects of antiplatelet management for intracranial stenting due to underlying atherosclerosis in the setting of EVT. They believed that antiplatelet management should follow a standardized regimen, irrespective of imaging findings and reperfusion quality. There was no consensus on the timing of antiplatelet-therapy initiation. Aspirin was the preferred antiplatelet agent for the peri-procedural period, and oral Aspirin in combination with a P2Y12 inhibitor was the favored postprocedural regimen.

Conclusion: Data on antiplatelet management for intracranial stenting due to underlying atherosclerosis in the setting of EVT are limited. Panel-members in this study achieved consensus on postprocedural antiplatelet management but did not agree upon a preprocedural and intraprocedural antiplatelet regimen. Further prospective studies to optimize antiplatelet regimens are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-020-02556-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Challenging the Ischemic Core Concept in Acute Ischemic Stroke Imaging.

Stroke 2020 10 16;51(10):3147-3155. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (M.F.).

Endovascular treatment is a highly effective therapy for acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion and has recently revolutionized stroke care. Oftentimes, ischemic core extent on baseline imaging is used to determine endovascular treatment-eligibility. There are, however, 3 fundamental issues with the core concept: First, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which are mostly used in the acute stroke setting, are not able to precisely determine whether and to what extent brain tissue is infarcted (core) or still viable, due to variability in tissue vulnerability, the phenomenon of selective neuronal loss and lack of a reliable gold standard. Second, treatment decision-making in acute stroke is multifactorial, and as such, the relative importance of single variables, including imaging factors, is reduced. Third, there are often discrepancies between core volume and clinical outcome. This review will address the uncertainty in terminology and proposes a direction towards more clarity. This theoretical exercise needs empirical data that clarify the definitions further and prove its value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030620DOI Listing
October 2020

Derivo embolization device in the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: a prospective multicenter study.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Sep 8. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Intracranial Endovascular Therapy, Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: Flow diverters (FD) are used regularly for the endovascular treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of the Derivo embolization device (DED) with respect to long-term clinical and angiographic outcomes.

Methods: A prospective multicenter trial was conducted at 12 centers. Patients presenting with modified Rankin Score (mRS) of 0-1, treated for unruptured intracranial aneurysms with DED were eligible. Primary endpoint was the mRS assessed at 18 months with major morbidity defined as mRS 3-5. Satisfactory angiographic occlusion was defined as 3+4 on the Kamran scale.

Results: Between July 2014 and February 2018, 119 patients were enrolled. Twenty-three patients were excluded. Ninety-six patients, 71 (74%) female, mean age 54±12.0 years, were included in the analysis. Mean aneurysm size was 14.2±16.9 mm. The mean number of devices implanted per patient was 1.2 (range 1-3). Clinical follow-up at 18 months was available in 90 (94%) patients, resulting in a mean follow-up period of 14.8±5.2 months. At last available follow-up of 96 enrolled patients, 91 (95%) remained mRS 0-1. The major morbidity rate (mRS 3-5) was 3.1% (3/96), major stroke rate was 4.2% (4/96), and mortality was 0%. Follow-up angiographies were available in 89 (93%) patients at a median of 12.4±5.84 months with a core laboratory adjudicated satisfactory aneurysm occlusion in 89% (79/89).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that DED is a safe and effective treatment for unruptured aneurysms with high rates of satisfactory occlusion and comparably low rates of permanent neurological morbidity and mortality.

Trial Registration: DRKS00006103.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016303DOI Listing
September 2020

The transvenous retrograde pressure cooker technique for the curative embolization of high-grade brain arteriovenous malformations.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Sep 8. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Neuroradiology and Intracranial Endovascular Therapy, Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus Rüttenscheid, Essen, Germany.

Background: Transvenous embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) can be curative. We aimed to evaluate the cure rate and safety of the transvenous retrograde pressure cooker technique (RPCT) using coils and n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate as a venous plug.

Methods: All AVM patients treated via transvenous embolization between December 2004 and February 2017 in a single center were extracted from our database. Inclusion criteria were: inability to achieve transarterial cure alone; AVM < 3 cm; and single main draining vein. Outcome measures were immediate and 90 days' angiographic AVM occlusion rate, and morbidity and mortality at 30 days and 12 months, according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score.

Results: Fifty-one patients (20 women; median age 47 years) were included. A majority (71%) were high grade (3 to 5 in the Spetzler-Martin classification). AVMs were deeply seated in 30 (59%) and cortical in 21 patients (41%). Thirty-three patients were previously embolized transarterially (65%). All patients but one were cured within a single session with the RPCT (96%). Cure was confirmed on follow-up digital subtraction angiography at 3 months in 82% of patients. Three patients experienced intracranial hemorrhage (6%), one requiring surgical evacuation. There were no deaths. One treatment-related major permanent deficit was observed (2.0%). Mean mRS before treatment, at 30 days, and 12 months after RPCT was 1.5, 1.5, and 1.3, respectively.

Conclusions: The retrograde pressure cooker technique can be curative in carefully selected high-grade AVMs. Long-term follow-up and prospective studies are needed to confirm our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016566DOI Listing
September 2020

First clinical multicenter experience with the new Scepter Mini microballoon catheter.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Mar 16;13(3):261-266. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany

Background: Balloon-assisted techniques can improve the endovascular treatment of cerebrospinal vascular malformations. The aim of this study was to report the first clinical multicenter experience with the new Scepter Mini dual-lumen microballoon catheter.

Methods: Patients with cerebral or spinal vascular malformations treated with the Scepter Mini at seven European neurovascular centers were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data, angiographic features of the vascular malformations, procedural parameters including the type of application, navigability, technical failures, complications and embolization success were assessed.

Results: The usage of 34 Scepter Mini microballoon catheters in 20 patients was analyzed. Most treated malformations (80.0%) were cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Four different applications were reported: embolization via Scepter Mini (n=23, 67.6%), balloon-occlusion with simultaneous embolization via a second microcatheter (n=3, 8.8%), diagnostic angiography with simultaneous balloon-inflation for flow arrest (n=4, 11.8%), and navigation support (n=4, 11.8%). The mean diameter of the blood vessels in which the Scepter Mini was inflated was 1.9±0.5 mm. The navigability of the Scepter Mini was rated as 'easy' or 'very easy' in 88.2% of cases. Complete occlusion of the malformation was achieved in 60.9% of cases. Technical failures occurred in 4/23 embolization procedures, and all were related to insufficient stability of the balloon within the vessel. No complications related to the Scepter Mini were observed, while unrelated complications occurred in three patients (15.0%).

Conclusions: The Scepter Mini is a promising new device for balloon-assisted embolization of cerebrospinal vascular malformations via small feeders. Beyond embolization, the Scepter Mini can also be used for other applications, such as superselective flow arrest and navigation support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016115DOI Listing
March 2021

Feasibility and safety of thrombectomy for isolated occlusions of the posterior cerebral artery: a multicenter experience and systematic literature review.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Mar 11;13(3):217-220. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Substantial clinical evidence supporting the benefit of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for distal occlusions within the posterior circulation is still missing. This study aims to investigate the procedural feasibility and safety of MT for isolated occlusions of the posterior cerebral artery.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients from three stroke centers with acute ischemic stroke attributed to isolated posterior cerebral artery occlusion (IPCAOs) who underwent MT between January 2014 and December 2019. Procedural and safety assessment included successful recanalization rates (defined as Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction Scale (TICI) ≥2b), number of MT attempts and first-pass effect (TICI 3), intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), mortality, and intervention-related serious adverse events. Treatment effects were evaluated by the rate of early neurological improvement (ENI) and early functional outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify and summarize previous reports on MT for IPCAOs.

Results: Forty-three patients with IPCAOs located in the P1 (55.8%, 24/43), P2 (37.2%, 16/43), and P3 segment (7%, 3/43) were analyzed. The overall rate of successful recanalization (TICI ≥2b) was 86% (37/43), including a first pass-effect of 48.8% (21/43) leading to TICI 3. sICH occurred in 7% (3/43) and there were two cases with iatrogenic vessel dissection and one perforation. ENI was observed in 59% (23/39) and excellent functional outcome (mRS ≤1) in 46.2% (18/39) of patients who were discharged. The in-hospital mortality rate was 9.3% (4/43).

Conclusion: Our study suggests the technical feasibility and safety of thrombectomy for IPCAOs. Further studies are needed to investigate safety and long-term functional outcomes with posterior circulation stroke-adjusted outcome assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016059DOI Listing
March 2021

Periprocedural to 1-year safety and efficacy outcomes with the Pipeline Embolization Device with Shield technology for intracranial aneurysms: a prospective, post-market, multi-center study.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Nov 1;12(11):1107-1112. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Interventional Neuroradiology. Radiology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Background: The first and second generations of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) have been widely adopted for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) due to their high associated occlusion rates and low morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the third- generation Pipeline Shield device (PED-Shield) for the treatment of IAs.

Methods: The SHIELD study was a prospective, single-arm, multicenter, post-market, observational study evaluating the PED-Shield device for the treatment of IAs. The primary efficacy endpoint was complete aneurysm occlusion without significant parent artery stenosis or retreatment at 1-year post-procedure and the primary safety endpoint was major stroke in the territory supplied by the treated artery or neurological death.

Results: Of 205 subjects who consented across 21 sites, 204 subjects with 204 target aneurysms were ultimately treated (mean age 54.8±12.81 years, 81.4% [166/204] female). Technical success (ie, deployment of the PED-Shield) was achieved in 98.0% (200/204) of subjects with a mean number of 1.1±0.34 devices per subject and a single device used in 86.8% (177/204) of subjects. The primary effectiveness endpoint was met in 71.7% (143/200) of subjects while the primary safety endpoint occurred in six (2.9%) subjects, two (1.0%) of which led to neurological death.

Conclusions: The findings of the SHIELD study support the safety and effectiveness of the PED-Shield for IA treatment, evidenced by high occlusion rates and low rates of neurological complications in the study population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02719522.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-015943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569365PMC
November 2020

Workflow patterns and potential for optimization in endovascular stroke treatment across the world: results from a multinational survey.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Dec 6;12(12):1194-1198. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Diagnostic Imaging, University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Background: The benefit of endovascular treatment (EVT) is highly time-dependent, and treatment delays reduce patients' chances to achieve a good outcome. In this survey-based study, we aimed to evaluate current in-hospital EVT workflow characteristics across different countries and hospital settings, and to quantify the time-savings that could be achieved by optimizing particular workflow steps.

Methods: In a multinational survey, neurointerventionalists were asked to provide specific information about EVT workflows in their current working environment. Workflow characteristics were summarized using descriptive statistics and stratified by country and physician characteristics, such as age, career stage, personal and institutional caseload.

Results: Among 248 respondents from 48 countries, pre-notification of the neurointerventional team was used in 70% of cases. The emergency department (ED) and CT scanner, and the CT scanner and neuroangiography suite, were on different floors in 23% and 38%, respectively. Redundant procedures in the ED were often routinely performed, such as chest x-rays (in 6%). General anesthesia was the most frequently used anesthesia protocol for EVT (42%), and an anesthesiologist was available in 82% for this purpose. 52% of the participants used a pre-prepared EVT kit.

Conclusion: The current structure of EVT workflows offers possibilities for improvement. While some bottlenecks, such as the spatial department set-up, cannot easily be resolved, pre-notification tools and pre-prepared EVT kits are more straightforward to implement and could help to reduce treatment delays, and thereby improve patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-015902DOI Listing
December 2020

Stenting with Acclino (flex) for symptomatic intracranial stenosis as secondary stroke prevention.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Nov 2;12(11):1127-1131. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Stroke recurrence is high in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis despite best medical treatment. Based on evidence from past studies using previous stent generations, elective intracranial stenting (eICS) is considered in a minority of patients. This study aims to report on experience performing eICS with a novel device combination.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from three high volume stroke centers and analyzed patients that were treated with eICS for symptomatic intracranial stenosis using the Acclino (flex) stent and the NeuroSpeed balloon catheter (Acandis GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany). Study endpoints were periprocedural rates of stroke regardless of territory or death at discharge and at the time of follow-up after eICS. Safety evaluation included asymptomatic and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, serious adverse events related to the intervention, and evaluation of stent patency at the time of follow-up.

Results: The median age of patients that met the inclusion criteria (n=76) was 69 years. Target vessels were located in the anterior circulation in 55.3% (42/76) of patients. The periprocedural stroke rate was 6.5% (fatal stroke 2.6%; non-fatal stroke 3.9%) at discharge after eICS. Asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was observed in 5.2% (4/76) of patients. Follow-up DSA revealed in-stent restenosis of 25% (15/60), and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed again in 11.6% (7/60) of patients.

Conclusion: Stenting for symptomatic intracranial stenosis with the Acclino (flex)/NeuroSpeed balloon catheter seemed to be safe and reinforces eICS as an endovascular therapy option for secondary stroke prevention. Future studies are warranted to confirm these findings and investigate antithrombotic strategies and in-stent restenosis to minimize periprocedural complications and guarantee long term stent patency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2019-015744DOI Listing
November 2020

Emergency Intracranial Stenting in Acute Stroke: Predictors for Poor Outcome and for Complications.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 03 3;9(5):e012795. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf Hamburg Germany.

Background Stent-retriever thrombectomy is the first-line therapy in acute stroke with intracranial large vessel occlusion. In case of failure of stent-retriever thrombectomy, rescue stent angioplasty might be the only treatment option to achieve permanent recanalization. This study aims at identifying predictors for poor outcome and complications in a large, multicenter cohort receiving rescue stent angioplasty. Methods and Results We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with large vessel occlusion who were treated with rescue stent angioplasty after stent-retriever thrombectomy between 2012 and 2018 in 7 neurovascular centers. We defined 2 binary outcomes: (1) functional clinical outcome (good modified Rankin Scale, 0-2; and poor modified Rankin Scale, 4-6) and (2) early symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Impacts of clinical, radiological, and interventional parameters on outcomewere assessed in uni- and multivariable logistic regression models. Two hundred ten patients were included with target vessels located within the anterior circulation (136 of 210; 64.8%) and posterior circulation (74 of 210; 35.2%). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occured in 22 patients, 86.4% (19 of 22) after anterior and 13.6% (3 of 22) after posterior circulation large vessel occlusion. Good functional outcome was observed in 44.8% (73 of 163). A higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale on admission (adjusted odds ratio, 1.10; 0.002), a higher premorbid modified Rankin Scale (adjusted odds ratio, 2.02; =0.049), and a modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score of 0 to 2a after stenting (adjusted odds ratio, 23.24; <0.001) were independent predictors of poor functional outcome. Conclusions Use of rescue stent angioplasty can be considered for acute intracranial large vessel occlusion in cases after unsuccessful stent-retriever thrombectomy. Likelihood of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage is higher in anterior circulation stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.012795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335566PMC
March 2020

Intracranial Stenting After Failed Thrombectomy in Patients With Moderately Severe Stroke: A Multicenter Cohort Study.

Front Neurol 2020 14;11:97. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Recently, acute intracranial stenting (ICS) has gained more interest as a potential bailout strategy for large vessel occlusions (LVO) that are refractory to thrombectomy. However, there are currently no reports on ICS in patients with moderately severe stroke discussing the question if implementing a permanent stent is feasible and leads to improved recanalization after failed thrombectomy. We analyzed a large multicenter database of patients receiving ICS for anterior circulation LVO after failed thrombectomy. Inclusion criteria were defined as: Moderately severe stroke (National Institute Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≤9 on admission), anterior circulation LVO, acute ICS after failed stent retriever MT. Primary endpoint was the rate of improved successful recanalization after ICS defined as a modified Thrombolysis In cerebral Infarction (mTICI) score≥2b. Favorable neurological outcome was defined as an early neurological improvement (ENI) of 4 points or reaching 0 with respect to baseline NIHSS. Forty-one patients met the inclusion criteria. A median of 2 retrievals were performed (IQR 1-4) prior decision-making for ICS. ICS led in 90.2% (37/41) of cases to a final mTICI≥2b with significant improvement ( < 0.001) after the last retrieval attempt. The median NIHSS decreased ( = 0.178) from 7 (IQR 3.5-8) on admission to 2.5 (IQR 0-8.25) at discharge. ENI was observed in 47.4% (18/38). sICH occurred in 4.8% (2/41). ICS after failed thrombectomy appears to effectively improve recanalization rates in patients with moderately severe strokes. Thus, ICS should be considered also for patients with baseline NIHSS ≤9 if thrombectomy fails.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034674PMC
February 2020

Does Device Selection Impact Recanalization Rate and Neurological Outcome?: An Analysis of the Save ChildS Study.

Stroke 2020 04 2;51(4):1182-1189. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Germany (B.T.).

Background and Purpose- The recent Save ChildS study provides multicenter evidence for the use of mechanical thrombectomy in children with large vessel occlusion arterial ischemic stroke. However, device selection for thrombectomy may influence rates of recanalization, complications, and neurological outcomes, especially in pediatric patients of different ages. We, therefore, performed additional analyses of the Save ChildS data to investigate a possible association of different thrombectomy techniques and devices with angiographic and clinical outcome parameters. Methods- The Save ChildS cohort study (January 2000-December 2018) analyzed data from 27 European and United States stroke centers and included all pediatric patients (<18 years), diagnosed with arterial ischemic stroke who underwent endovascular recanalization. Patients were grouped into first-line contact aspiration (A Direct Aspiration First Pass Technique [ADAPT]) and non-ADAPT groups as well as different stent retriever size groups. Associations with baseline characteristics, recanalization rates (modified Treatment in Cerebral Infarction), complication rates, and neurological outcome parameters (Pediatric National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale after 24 hours and 7 days; modified Rankin Scale and Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure at discharge, after 6 and 24 months) were investigated. Results- Seventy-three patients with a median age of 11.3 years were included. Currently available stent retrievers were used in 59 patients (80.8%), of which 4×20 mm (width×length) was the most frequently chosen size (36 patients =61%). A first-line ADAPT approach was used in 7 patients (9.6%), and 7 patients (9.6%) were treated with first-generation thrombectomy devices. In this study, a first-line ADAPT approach was neither associated with the rate of successful recanalization (ADAPT 85.7% versus 87.5% No ADAPT) nor with the complication rate or the neurological outcome. Moreover, there were no associations of stent retriever sizes with rates of recanalization, complication rates, or outcome parameters. Conclusions- Our study suggests that neurological outcomes are generally good regardless of any specific device selection and suggests that it is important to offer thrombectomy in eligible children regardless of technique or device selection. Registration- URL: https://www.drks.de/; Unique identifier: DRKS00016528.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.028221DOI Listing
April 2020

Efficacy and safety of nerinetide for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke (ESCAPE-NA1): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet 2020 03 20;395(10227):878-887. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: Nerinetide, an eicosapeptide that interferes with post-synaptic density protein 95, is a neuroprotectant that is effective in preclinical stroke models of ischaemia-reperfusion. In this trial, we assessed the efficacy and safety of nerinetide in human ischaemia-reperfusion that occurs with rapid endovascular thrombectomy in patients who had an acute ischaemic stroke.

Methods: For this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study done in 48 acute care hospitals in eight countries, we enrolled patients with acute ischaemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion within a 12 h treatment window. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with a disabling ischaemic stroke at the time of randomisation, had been functioning independently in the community before the stroke, had an Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) greater than 4, and vascular imaging showing moderate-to-good collateral filling, as determined by multiphase CT angiography. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous nerinetide in a single dose of 2·6 mg/kg, up to a maximum dose of 270 mg, on the basis of estimated or actual weight (if known) or saline placebo by use of a real-time, dynamic, internet-based, stratified randomised minimisation procedure. Patients were stratified by intravenous alteplase treatment and declared endovascular device choice. All trial personnel and patients were masked to sequence and treatment allocation. All patients underwent endovascular thrombectomy and received alteplase in usual care when indicated. The primary outcome was a favourable functional outcome 90 days after randomisation, defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2. Secondary outcomes were measures of neurological disability, functional independence in activities of daily living, excellent functional outcome (mRS 0-1), and mortality. The analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population and adjusted for age, sex, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, ASPECTS, occlusion location, site, alteplase use, and declared first device. The safety population included all patients who received any amount of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02930018.

Findings: Between March 1, 2017, and Aug 12, 2019, 1105 patients were randomly assigned to receive nerinetide (n=549) or placebo (n=556). 337 (61·4%) of 549 patients with nerinetide and 329 (59·2%) of 556 with placebo achieved an mRS score of 0-2 at 90 days (adjusted risk ratio 1·04, 95% CI 0·96-1·14; p=0·35). Secondary outcomes were similar between groups. We observed evidence of treatment effect modification resulting in inhibition of treatment effect in patients receiving alteplase. Serious adverse events occurred equally between groups.

Interpretation: Nerinetide did not improve the proportion of patients achieving good clinical outcomes after endovascular thrombectomy compared with patients receiving placebo.

Funding: Canadian Institutes for Health Research, Alberta Innovates, and NoNO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30258-0DOI Listing
March 2020

Incidence of Acute Kidney Injury After Computed Tomography Angiography±Computed Tomography Perfusion Followed by Thrombectomy in Patients With Stroke Using a Postprocedural Hydration Protocol.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 02 13;9(4):e014418. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Neuroradiology Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus Essen Germany.

Background The risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with stroke receiving both computed tomography (CT) angiography and mechanical thrombectomy has been investigated only in small case series. No studies have investigated whether additional CT perfusion or chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with higher rates of AKI. Methods and Results Retrospective analysis of the AKI incidence in 1089 consecutive patients receiving CT angiography and mechanical thrombectomy from 2015 to 2017 and in subgroups with CKD (n=99) and CT perfusion (n=104) was performed. Patients received a standardized hydration protocol. Data on kidney function after mechanical thrombectomy were available in 1017 patients. A total of 59 (5.8%) patients developed AKI, and only 4 (6.8%) patients needed hemodialysis, all with known CKD. Patients with AKI significantly more often had known CKD (20.3% versus 8.4%, =0.002), diabetes mellitus (33.9% versus 20.9%, =0.018), and tandem occlusion (32.2% versus 16.2%, =0.003) and a significantly higher in-hospital mortality (20.3% versus 7.0%, <0.001) compared with patients without AKI. However, there were no significant independent predictors for AKI in multivariable logistic regression analysis. Sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.03; 95% CI, 1.17-3.52 [=0.012]), higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.05-1.14 [<0.001]), AKI (OR, 3.52; 95% CI, 1.63-7.64 [=0.001]), diuretic use (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.02-3.19), futile or incomplete recanalization (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.09-0.40 [<0.001]), and total volume of contrast agent volume (OR, 1.007; 95% CI, 1.002-1.011 [=0.004]) were independently associated with in-hospital death. Two thirds of the patients with AKI died of severe brain damage and not AKI itself. Conclusions Post-contrast AKI rarely occurs in patients with stroke receiving a contrast agent for CT angiography/CT perfusion and subsequent mechanical thrombectomy. Patients with known CKD had higher rates of AKI and only these patients needed hemodialysis, but CKD was not independently associated with AKI or in-hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.014418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070223PMC
February 2020

Removal of distal fragments of liquid embolic agents during arteriovenous malformation embolization using the TIGERTRIEVER 13: a technical report.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Aug 5;12(8):794-797. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Neuroradiology, Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus Ruttenscheid, Essen, Germany.

Background: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are vascular lesions that may be treated by an endovascular approach using liquid embolic agents but the control of the liquid embolic agent remains poor and a potential complication may be distal migration of embolic material. The TIGERTRIEVER 13 is a new stent retriever designed for stroke thrombectomy and has a version ideal for distal occlusions. We report our experience in the removal of embolic agent which had migrated into the distal vessels using the TIGERTRIEVER during PHIL/Onyx embolization of AVMs.

Clinical Presentations: Three patients with brain and spinal AVMs underwent endovascular embolization. During trans-arterial embolization of the AVM with PHIL/Onyx, retrograde filling of distal arterial feeders was followed by migration into the normal arterial branches (cortical middle cerebral artery, distal posterior cerebral artery, and anterior spinal artery). This resulted in occlusion or sluggish distal flow in these branches with potential significant neurological deficits. In all three cases, a Headway Duo microcatheter was navigated distally in the occluded vessel beyond the embolic material using a Traxcess microwire. The TIGERTRIEVER 13 was deployed with recanalization of the vessel after a single attempt. In all three patients there were no complications related to the retrieval of embolic agent.

Conclusion: Distal migrated embolic agents such as PHIL or Onyx can be removed from various arterial vascular territories using stent retrievers dedicated to small vessels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2019-015474DOI Listing
August 2020

Influence of Age on EVT Treatment Decision in Patients with Low ASPECTS : Results of a Multinational Survey and its Implications.

Clin Neuroradiol 2020 Mar 16;30(1):37-40. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Foothills Medical Centre, University of Calgary, 1403 29th St. NW, T2N2T9, Calgary, AB, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00062-019-00872-3DOI Listing
March 2020

Role of distal cerebral vasculature in vessel constriction after aneurysm treatment with flow diverter stents.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Aug 3;12(8):818-826. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Insigneo Institute for in silico medicine, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK

Background: Treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow diverter stent (FDS) procedures can lead to caliber changes of jailed vessels. The reason some branches remain unchanged and others are affected by narrowing remains unknown.

Objective: To investigate the influence of resistance to flow from distal vasculature on stent-induced hemodynamic modifications affecting bifurcating vessels.

Materials And Methods: Radiological images and demographic data were acquired for 142 aneurysms treated with a FDS. Vascular resistance was estimated from patient-specific anatomic data. Correlation analysis was used to identify correspondence between anatomic data and clinical outcome. Computational Fluid Dynamics was performed on a typical patient-specific model to evaluate the influence of FDS on flow. Relevant hemodynamic variables along the bifurcating vessels were quantitatively analyzed and validated with in vitro data obtained using power Doppler ultrasound.

Results: Statistical analysis showed a correlation between clinical outcome and FDS resistance to flow considering overall jailed vessel vascular resistance (r=0.5, P<0.001). Computational predictions of blood flow showed that hemodynamics is minimally affected by FDS treatment in the ophthalmic artery.

Conclusions: Jailed vessels are affected by narrowing when resistance to flow from the FDS constitutes a larger proportion of the overall vessel resistance to flow. This knowledge may contribute to better understanding of intracranial hemodynamics after a FDS procedure and reinforce indications for flow diversion in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2019-015447DOI Listing
August 2020

Long-term outcomes of wide-necked intracranial bifurcation aneurysms treated with T-stent-assisted coiling.

J Neurosurg 2019 Dec 6:1-10. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

3Department of Neuroradiology and Intracranial Endovascular Therapy, Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Essen, Germany; and.

Objective: The endovascular treatment of complex bifurcation aneurysms possessing a neck that incorporates multiple side branches remains a surgical challenge. Double-stent-assisted coiling techniques, such as those with stents in an X and Y configuration, enable the endovascular treatment of wide-necked complex intracranial bifurcation aneurysms. However, the intraluminal struts at the intersection point in X- and Y-stents are not amenable to endothelialization, which may lead to thromboembolic complications. Stenting in the T configuration is a relatively new double-stent coiling technique. T-stenting differs from X- or Y-stenting in that there are no overlapping or intersecting stent segments. Promising short-term results of T-stent-assisted coiling were recently reported. However, the long-term results have not yet been demonstrated. This retrospective study investigated the long-term angiographic and clinical results in patients with wide-necked complex intracranial bifurcation aneurysms treated with T-stent-assisted coiling.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed to identify patients with wide-necked complex intracranial bifurcation aneurysms treated with T-stent-assisted coiling at 4 institutions. The technical success and the initial and follow-up clinical and angiographic outcomes were assessed. Aneurysm filling status was assessed according to the Raymond classification. Periprocedural and delayed complications were reviewed. The neurological status of the patients was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).

Results: One hundred two aneurysms in 102 patients (54 females), whose mean age was 57.9 ± 13.0 years, were included in the study. T-stenting was performed successfully in all patients. Immediate postprocedural angiography revealed complete occlusion in 83.3% of patients. Periprocedural complications developed in 13.7%, resulting in permanent morbidity in 1.9% and death in 1%. Eighty patients (78.4%) had at least one follow-up DSA examination performed at 6 months or later following the endovascular procedure. The mean duration of angiographic follow-up was 30.0 ± 16.3 months. The last follow-up examinations showed complete occlusion in 90.0% of patients. During the follow-up period, only 1 patient (1.3%) required retreatment. Delayed thromboembolic complications were observed in 4 patients (3.9%) without permanent morbidity. The mRS scores of all patients at the last clinical follow-up were between 0 and 2.

Conclusions: The short-term angiographic findings showed that T-stent-assisted coiling is a feasible and effective endovascular method to treat wide-necked complex bifurcation aneurysms. The long-term angiographic follow-up results suggest that T-stent-assisted coiling provides a durable treatment for wide-necked complex bifurcation aneurysms with favorable clinical outcomes, demonstrating the long-term safety of T-stent-assisted coiling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.9.JNS191733DOI Listing
December 2019

Feasibility, Safety, and Outcome of Endovascular Recanalization in Childhood Stroke: The Save ChildS Study.

JAMA Neurol 2020 01;77(1):25-34

Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany.

Importance: Randomized clinical trials have shown the efficacy of thrombectomy of large intracranial vessel occlusions in adults; however, any association of therapy with clinical outcomes in children is unknown.

Objective: To evaluate the use of endovascular recanalization in pediatric patients with arterial ischemic stroke.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study, conducted from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2018, analyzed the databases from 27 stroke centers in Europe and the United States. Included were all pediatric patients (<18 years) with ischemic stroke who underwent endovascular recanalization. Median follow-up time was 16 months.

Exposures: Endovascular recanalization.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The decrease of the Pediatric National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (PedNIHSS) score from admission to day 7 was the primary outcome (score range: 0 [no deficit] to 34 [maximum deficit]). Secondary clinical outcomes included the modified Rankin scale (mRS) (score range: 0 [no deficit] to 6 [death]) at 6 and 24 months and rate of complications.

Results: Seventy-three children from 27 participating stroke centers were included. Median age was 11.3 years (interquartile range [IQR], 7.0-15.0); 37 patients (51%) were boys, and 36 patients (49%) were girls. Sixty-three children (86%) received treatment for anterior circulation occlusion and 10 patients (14%) received treatment for posterior circulation occlusion; 16 patients (22%) received concomitant intravenous thrombolysis. Neurologic outcome improved from a median PedNIHSS score of 14.0 (IQR, 9.2-20.0) at admission to 4.0 (IQR, 2.0-7.3) at day 7. Median mRS score was 1.0 (IQR, 0-1.6) at 6 months and 1.0 (IQR, 0-1.0) at 24 months. One patient (1%) developed a postinterventional bleeding complication and 4 patients (5%) developed transient peri-interventional vasospasm. The proportion of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage events in the HERMES meta-analysis of trials with adults was 2.79 (95% CI, 0.42-6.66) and in Save ChildS was 1.37 (95% CI, 0.03-7.40).

Conclusions And Relevance: The results of this study suggest that the safety profile of thrombectomy in childhood stroke does not differ from the safety profile in randomized clinical trials for adults; most of the treated children had favorable neurologic outcomes. This study may support clinicians' practice of off-label thrombectomy in childhood stroke in the absence of high-level evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.3403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6802048PMC
January 2020

Intracranial bailout stenting with the Acclino (Flex) Stent/NeuroSpeed Balloon Catheter after failed thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke: a multicenter experience.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Jan 25;12(1):43-47. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background And Purpose: To report on the feasibility, safety, and outcome of acute intracranial stenting (ICS) with the Acclino (Flex) Stent and NeuroSpeed Balloon Catheter in cases of failed mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients treated with acute bailout stenting after failed MT in three large neurointerventional centers using exclusively the Acclino (Flex) Stent and the NeuroSpeed Balloon Catheter. Functional outcome was assessed by the rate of major early neurological recovery (mENR) at 24 hours and at 90 days with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Safety evaluation included symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), mortality, and intervention-related serious adverse events (SAEs).

Results: 50 patients with a median age of 71 years met the inclusion criteria and 52% (26/50) of the occluded vessels were located within the anterior circulation. mENR was observed in 38.8% and 90-day favorable outcome (mRS ≤2) was 40.6% (13/32). Higher NIH Stroke Scale scores on admission were significantly associated with poor functional outcome (mRS ≥3) at 90 days (adjusted OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.53; p=0.007). sICH occurred in two cases of the study population. There were no intervention-related SAEs.

Conclusion: Intracranial bailout stenting with the Acclino (Flex) Stent and the NeuroSpeed Balloon Catheter after failed MT is a feasible and effective recanalization method for atherosclerotic stenosis-based stroke that is associated especially with low rates of sICH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2019-014957DOI Listing
January 2020

Variability in the decision-making process of acute ischemic stroke in difficult clinical and radiological constellations: analysis based on a cross-sectional interview-administered stroke questionnaire.

Eur Radiol 2019 Nov 10;29(11):6275-6284. Epub 2019 May 10.

Institute of Clinical Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149, Muenster, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Notwithstanding guidelines, indications for mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in acute ischemic stroke are multifactorial and can be complex. Our aim was to exploratively evaluate decision-making on the advisability of performing MT in cases presented as an interview-administered questionnaire.

Methods: Fifty international raters assessed 12 cases and decided to recommend or exclude MT. Each case contained a brief summary of clinical information and eight representative images of the initial multimodal CT. The demographic characteristics and stroke protocols were recorded for raters. For each case, the reasons for excluding MT were recorded. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed for the different demographic and case characteristics to identify factors that might influence decision-making.

Results: All raters performed MT (median MTs/hospital/year [IQR], 100 [50-141]) with a median of 7 years of experience as first operator (IQR, 4-12). Per case, diversity in decision-making ranged between 1 (case 6, 100% yes MT) and 0.50 (case 12, 54.2% yes MT and 45.8% no MT). The most common reasons for excluding MT were small CBV/CBF mismatch (17%, 102/600), size of infarct core on the CBV map (15.2%, 91/600), and low NIHSS score (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, 8.3%, 50/600). All clinical and radiological characteristics significantly affected the decision regarding MT, but the general characteristics of the raters were not a factor.

Conclusions: Clinical and imaging characteristics influenced the decision regarding MT in stroke. Nevertheless, a consensus was reached in only a minority of cases, revealing the current divergence of opinion regarding therapeutic decisions in difficult cases.

Key Points: • This is the first study to explore differences in decision-making in respect of mechanical thrombectomy in ischemic stroke with complex clinical and radiological constellations. • Fifty experienced international neurointerventionalists answered this interview-administered stroke questionnaire and made decisions as to whether to recommend or disadvise thrombectomy in 12 selected cases. • Diversity in decision-making for thrombectomy ranged from 1 (100% of raters offered the same answer) to 0.5 (50% indicated mechanical thrombectomy). There was a consensus in only a minority of cases, revealing the current disparity of opinion regarding therapeutic decisions in difficult cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-019-06199-4DOI Listing
November 2019